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The following is a list of all the Science and Technology Review, and Energy and Technology Review articles online (March 1994–present) with article/pdf links. To find an article quickly, use your “Find” tool and type in a key word or part of the title.

2024 | 2023 | 2022 | 2021 | 2020 | 2019 | 2018 | 2017 | 2016 | 2015 | 2014 | 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010
2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 | 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 | 2001 | 2000 | 1999 | 1998 | 1997 | 1996 | 1995 | 1994

January/February 20244 S&TR Cover

January/February 2024 | download January/February issue

Feature Article

Breaking Materials at Breakneck Speeds | Aric Rousso

Key Words: airflow, ALE3D, blowdown tunnel, computational fluid dynamics, computer-aided speckle interferometry (CASI), damage propagation, diagnostics, energy–matter interaction tunnel (EMIT), femtosecond laser, gas chemistry, hypersonics, insults, laser-based ultrasonics (LBU), material models, schlieren, sting.

Research Highlights

Expanding National Security Capabilities | Eric Schwegler

Key Words: deterrence theory, national security policy, National Security Affairs Program (NSAP), stockpile stewardship, Texas A&M University Bush School of Government.

Upgrading Facilities and Experiences | Harry Radousky

Key Words: 3D printing, custom powder feedstock, Laser Induced compression for Grain scale with High Throughput (LIGHT) laboratory, hydride–dehydride (HDH) project, materials research, Materials Science Division (MSD), research partners, ultra-high temperature Gleeble thermomechanical simulator system.

Collaborations and Curiosity | Alison Saunders

Key Words: Academic Collaboration Team (ACT), ALE3D, high-energy-density iron, Harold Brown Postdoctoral Fellow, hiring pipeline, inertial confinement fusion, Laser-Induced Particle Impact Test, laser shock, macroscopic forcing method (MFM), microparticles, recruitment, Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) calculations, turbulent mixing, university partners.

December 2023 S&TR Cover

December 2023 | download December issue

Feature Article

Ultrawide Bandgap Materials in the Spotlight | Lars Voss

Key Words: bandgap, dopant, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD), National Ignition Facility (NIF), optically addressable light valve (OALV), ultrawide bandgap (UWBG), wide bandgap (WBG).

Research Highlights

Beneath the Surface | Brian Wihl

Key Words: 3D imaging, drone, ground-penetrating radar (GPR), machine learning, micropower impulse radar (MIR), Multistatic Imaging Radar (MiRadar).

Big Potential with Small-Scale Carbon Capture | Nathan Ellebracht

Key Words: absorber, carbonate, carbon dioxide removal, nesquehonite, packing, point source carbon capture, Triply Periodic Minimal Surface (TPMS).

SHASTA Lays Foundations for Hydrogen Energy Storage | Joshua White

Key Words: corrosion; fiber optics; GEOS; hydrogen; material compatibility; renewable energy; reservoir; Subsurface Hydrogen Assessment, Storage, and Technology Acceleration project (SHASTA); technoeconomics; underground hydrogen storage (UHS); wellbore.

April/May 2023 S&TR Cover

April/May 2023 | download April/May issue

Feature Article

A Lasting Impact | Mike Owen

Key Words: asteroid, deflection, Didymos, Dimorphos, Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART), Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHUAPL), kinetic impact, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program, near-Earth object (NEO), planetary defense, predictive modeling, Spheral.

Research Highlights

Streamlined: Flight Simulation Modeling Soars at the Laboratory | Sejin Oh

Key Words: aerodynamics, Flight Performance Integration (FPI), flight testing, simulation modeling, Sora, stockpile stewardship, Weapon Technologies Engineering.

High-Performance Postdocs Fernbach Fellows Bring Fresh Insights to Computing | Bob Anderson

Key Words: Center for Applied Scientific Computing (CASC), Fernbach Fellowship, input-output (I/O), Modular Finite Element Methods software library (MFEM), postdoctoral researchers, quantum computing, Suite of Nonlinear and Differential/Algebraic Equation Solvers (SUNDIALS).

Sit, Stay, Print: Additive Manufacturing for Canine Training | John Reynolds

Key Words: Additive Manufacturing Laboratory, bomb detection, canine training, Energetic Materials Center EMC, High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF), improvised explosives, nonhazardous explosives for security training and testing (NESTT), Transportation Safety Administration, 3D printing.

March 2023 S&TR Cover

March 2023 | download March issue

Feature Article

Stopping Corrosion Before It Starts | Brandon Wood

Key Words: Additive manufacturing, aqueous corrosion, confocal microscopy, dissolution kinetics, galvanic corrosion, grain boundary, high-performance computing (HPC), high-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM), hydriding, Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program, Laser Powder Bed Fusion (L-PBF), machine learning (ML), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), nucleation, pitting, stoichiometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

Research Highlights

Behind the Scenes: Livermore Fellows Share Offsite Assignment Stories | Ric Schumacher

Key Words: Advanced Photon Source (APS); advisors; Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States; Countering Nuclear Smuggling Program; counterterrorism; Department of Defense (DOD); Department of Energy (DOE); Department of Homeland Security (DHS); Dynamic Material Properties (DMP); JASON; Joint Staff’s Strategy, Plans, and Policy Directorate (J5); National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA); North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO); nuclear forensics; Nuclear Posture Review; nuclear stockpile; Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation (DNN); Office of Defense Programs; Office of Intelligence and Counterintelligence; Office of Nuclear Forensics; offsite assignment; Offsite Fellows Program (OFP); U.S. Customs Service; Washington, D.C.; White House.

Expediting Research with Spack | Todd Gamblin

Key Words: Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Program, concretizer, El Capitan, Exascale Computing Project (ECP), Extreme-Scale Scientific Software Stack (E4S), GitHub, high-performance computing (HPC), open-source, software package manager, Spack, supercomputing.

LivIT Meets the Demand | Sue Marlais

Key Words: cloud migration, cyber security, demand management, LivCloud, Livermore Information Technology (LivIT), remote work, Service Desk, virtual private network (VPN).

March 2023 S&TR Cover

January/February 2023 | download January/February issue

Feature Article

Big Risks and Bold Science | Chris Spadaccini

Key Words: Compact High Efficiency Electrically Tunable Amplifier (CHEETAh), computer assisted design, disruptive research (DR) Program, gallium arsenide (GaAs), gallium nitride (GaN), iron redox flow battery, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program, laser gain medium, metal transpiration cooling, negative differential mobility (NDM), stereolithography, thulium:yttrium-lithium-fluoride (Tm:YLF), vanadium redox flow battery.

Research Highlights

3D Printing Optical-Quality Glass | Rebecca Dylla-Spears

Key Words: additive manufacturing, direct ink writing (DIW), optics, R&D 100 Award, refractive index, tailored glass.

Optics for Petawatt Pulses | Hoang Nguyen

Key Words: high-energy, low-dispersion (HELD) grating; laser; multilayer dielectric; National Ignition Facility (NIF); optics; petawatt; R&D 100 Award.

Powering Next-Generation Energy Storage Devices | Swetha Chandrasekaran

Key Words: additive manufacturing, battery, ceramic, direct ink writing (DIW), energy storage device, Energy Inks, functional device, MilliporeSigma, R&D 100 Award, supercapacitor.

Tracing a Decade of Growth | Elliot Jaffe

Key Words: aerosol, airflow, air quality, contact tracing, COVID-19, DNATrax, microparticle, R&D 100 Award, SafeTraces.

December 2022 S&TR Cover

December 2022 | download December issue

Feature Article

W87-1 The Modification that Invigorated an Enterprise | Juliana Hsu

Key Words: Additive manufacturing (AM), El Capitan supercomputer, electron beam cold hearth melter (EBCHM), earned value management system (EVMS), hot press, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD), National Ignition Facility (NIF), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Nuclear Security Enterprise (NSE), plutonium, ReSorT model, Sentinel, W80-4 Life-Extension Program (LEP), W87-1 Modification Program.

Research Highlights

Iron under Extremes | Rick Kraus

Key Words: Body-centered cubic (bcc), dynamo, hexagonal close-packed (hcp), magnetosphere, National Ignition Facility (NIF), super-Earth, TArget Diffraction In Situ (TARDIS), Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR).

Printed Microbes Enhance Biomaterials | Rick Hynes

Key Words: Additive manufacturing (AM), bacteria, biofilm, biological projection microstereolithography (BioPμSL), bioplastics, bioprinting, Micro Nano Bioengineering Laboratory (MNBL), Rhodopseudomonis palustris, stereolithographic apparatus for microbial bioprinting (SLAM).

Deterrence through Strategic Latency | Zachary S. Davis

Key Words: Additive manufacturing, Center for Global Security Research (CGSR), deterrence, disruptive technology, emerging technology, fusion, multidomain deterrence, National Ignition Facility, Polymer Production Enclave, strategic latency.

October/November 2022 S&TR Cover

October/November 2022 | download October/November issue

Feature Article

Joining the Fight to Cure Neurodegenerative Disease | Nick Fischer

Key Words: ALS CURE Project, ALS-on-a-chip, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), biomarker, disease mechanism, Livermore Lab Foundation (LLF), Lou Gehrig’s disease, machine learning (ML), microbiome, molecular dynamics, motor neuron, neurodegenerative disease, TDP-43 (transactive response DNA-binding protein 43).
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Research Highlights

Small Things Considered | Nick Scielzo

Key Words: Ab initio model, alpha particle, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), ATLAS, beryllium-8, beta decay, Beta-decay Paul Trap (BPT), beta particle, boron-8, lithium-8, neutrino, particle physics, Standard Model, W boson, weak nuclear force.

From Plasma to Digital Twins | Harry Martz

Key Words: Additive manufacturing, computed tomography (CT), digital twin, high-z material, laser–plasma accelerator (LPA), multimodal reconstruction, nondestructive evaluation (NDE), OpenViSUS, qualification, surveillance, virtual reality (VR), x rays.

Sheltering Science Saves Lives | Michael Dillon

Key Words: Airborne disease; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; Defense Threat Reduction Agency; Department of Health and Human Services; Department of Homeland Security; heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system; National Nuclear Security Administration; nuclear fallout; PFscreen model; sheltering.

September 2022 S&TR Cover

September 2022 | download September 2022 issue

Feature Article

Cognitive Simulation Supercharges Scientific Research | Brian Spears

Key Words: Accelerating Therapeutic Opportunities in Medicine (ATOM) consortium, artificial intelligence (AI), Artificial Intelligence Innovation Incubator (AI3), AstraZeneca, cognitive simulation (CogSim), COVID-19, deep neural network (DNN), El Capitan supercomputer, exascale computing, hohlraum, inertial confinement fusion (ICF), machine learning (ML), National Ignition Facility (NIF), NVIDIA, Omicron variant, SARS-CoV-1, SARS-CoV-2.

Research Highlights

Operational Resilience during the COVID-19 Pandemic | Melinda Lane

Key Words: Department of Energy (DOE), Global Material Security (GMS) Program, Information Circular/908 (INFCIRC/908), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), International Technical Working Group (ITWG), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), nuclear forensics.

High Performance Storage System — Taking the Long View | Todd Heer

Key Words: archive, data storage, data retrieval, disk cache, exascale, high-performance computing (HPC), High Performance Storage System (HPSS) collaboration, IBM, magnetic tape libraries, Los Alamos National Laboratory, National Storage Laboratory (NSL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Spectra Logic TFinity, tape drive.

Cinema in a Nanosecond | Nathaniel Pogue

Key Words: accelerator, active reset, Bipolar Reset Experiment (BiRX), electromagnet, Flash X-Ray Facility (FXR), hydrodynamic testing, linear induction accelerator, pulsed-power, semiconductor, Site 300, solid-state material, Stockpile Stewardship Program, target, x-ray diagnostic, x-ray movie.

July/August 2022 S&TR Cover

July/August 2022 | download July/August 2022 issue

Feature Article

A Tradition of Excellence in Technology Innovation | Caryn Meissner

Research Highlights

Real-Time Detection of Nuclear Threats | Sean Walston

Key Words: MC-15 portable neutron multiplicity detector, Multiplicity Counter for Thermal and Fast Neutrons (MC-TF), neutron, nuclear threat, On-line Statistical Analysis of Neutron Time Correlation (OSANTC) algorithm, R&D 100 Award, special nuclear materials (SNM).

Optimizing Workflow with Flux | Dan Milroy

Key Words: Flux, high-performance computing (HPC), National Virtual Biotechnology Laboratory (NVBL), open-source software, R&D 100 Award, workflow manager.

Improving the Electrical Grid with the Speed of Light | Lars Voss

Key Words: energy grid, grid modernization, insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT), metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET), R&D 100 Award, ultrawide bandgap material.

A Serious Game for Incident Response Training | Ryan Chen

Key Words: augmented reality (AR), detector, gamma radiation, neutron radiation, Nuclear Emergency Support Team (NEST), nuclear incident, optical tracking, pre-detonation, Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) Studio, simulator, TARANTULA (Tactical Augmented Reality Applications for NEST Training using Livermore Analytics), threats, training, virtual reality (VR).

Charging Up and Rolling Out | Anna Maria Bailey

Key Words: Advanced Technology System 6 (ATS6), Critical Decision, El Capitan supercomputer, exaflop, Exascale Computing Facility Modernization (ECFM) project, high-performance computing (HPC), Livermore Computing.

Taking Implantable Microsystems to the Next Level | Razi Haque

Key Words: artificial retina, cochlear implant (CI), Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program, microelectrode, microlithography, neural interface, POEMS (polymeric opto-electro-mechanical systems), polymer waveguide.

June 2022 S&TR Cover

June 2022 | download June 2022 issue

Feature Article

The ACES in Our Hand | Stefan Hau-Riege

Key Words: Adaptive Computing Environment and Simulations (ACES) project, container, data science, fissile material, gas-centrifuge enrichment, highly enriched uranium (HEU), high-performance computing (HPC), International Atomic Energy Agency, Jupyter Notebook, Kubernetes, low-enriched uranium (LEU), machine learning, Nonproliferation Stewardship Program (NSP), Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons.

Research Highlights

Short Wavelengths Yield Big Dividends | Regina Soufli

Key Words: Center for X-ray Optics (CXRO), Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), extreme ultraviolet (EUV), extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL), Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), metrology, microchip, Micro-Exposure Tool 5 (MET5), multilayer optics, Solar Ultraviolet Imager (SUVI), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), NASA, Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), solar physics telescope.

Additive Manufacturing Brings New Possibilities for Transparent Ceramics | Nerine Cherepy

Key Words: Additive manufacturing, composite pressing, direct ink write (DIW), gadolinium–lutetium–oxide (GLO) transparent ceramic scintillator, KSF:Mn, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD), laser-gain media, laser optic, light-emitting diode (LED), scintillator, transparent ceramics.

Expanded Capabilities and Opportunities for Virtual Beam Line Code | Jean-Michel Di Nicola

Key Words: Institutional Scientific Capability Portfolio (ISCP), Laser Performance and Operations Model (LPOM), laser physics, National Ignition Facility (NIF), simulation, Virtual Beam Line (VBL) code.

April/May 2022 S&TR Cover

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Feature Article

Beaming with Excellence | Patti Koning

Key Words: Argus, Beamlet, computer simulation, Cyclops, deuterium–tritium (DT), diagnostic, fusion, hohlraum, Hybrid-E target, inertial confinement fusion (ICF), Janus, laser, laser–plasma interaction (LPI), megajoule (MJ), National Ignition Facility (NIF), Nova, Novette, Shiva, terawatt (TW), White House Fusion Summit.

Research Highlights

TRUly Well-Managed Waste | Reggie Gaylord

Key Words: Acceptable Knowledge, Central Characterization Program (CCP), radioactive waste, special nuclear material (SNM), transuranic (TRU) waste, TRUPACT II, waste characterization, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP).

A Watery Detective Story | Erik Oerter

Key Words: Hetch Hetchy Aqueduct, hydrogen isotopic ratio, isotope hydrology, cavity ring-down spectroscopy, Light Stable Isotope Geochemistry and Hydrology Laboratory, oxygen isotopic ratio, Wente Vineyards.

March 2022 S&TR Cover

March 2022 | download March 2022 issue

Feature Article

Defending U.S. Critical Infrastructure from Nation-State Cyberattacks | Nate Gleason

Key Words: Center for Applied Scientific Computing (CASC); collaborative autonomy; climate change; cyber–physical system; cybersecurity; Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA); Department of Energy (DOE) Grid Modernization Laboratory Consortium; distributed energy resources (DER); Distributed Energy Resource Management System (DERMS); DOE Office of Cybersecurity, Energy Security, and Emergency Response (CESER); Department of Homeland Security; electricity grid; industrial control system (ICS); immune infrastructure; information technology (IT); Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program; Network Mapping System (NEMS); operational technology (OT); photovoltaic (PV); resilience; Skyfall; software bill of materials (SBOM).

Research Highlights

GEOSX Simulates Carbon Dioxide Storage | Joshua White

Key Words: Carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon sequestration, carbon storage, computational geosciences, cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA), exascale, Exascale Computing Project, GEOS, GEOSX, high-performance computing (HPC), Rapid Application Development via an Institutional Universal Software Stack (RADIUSS), reservoir, Stanford University, Subsurface Project, TotalEnergies, wellbore.

Mission Fulfillment with Exponential Impact | Patricia Falcone

Key Words: Bayesian model, biochemical cycling, biomolecular systems, Caulobacter crescentus, checkpointing, cosmic shear, dark energy, dark matter, data management, dense plasma focus (DPF), Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science Early Career Research Program (ECRP), high-performance computing (HPC), input-output (I/O), Legacy Survey of Space and Time (LSST), Megajoule Neutron Imaging Radiography, neutrons, uranium, z-pinch device.

Nuclear Batteries with Potential | Joshua Jarrell

Key Words: alpha particle, alphavoltaic battery, beta particle, betavoltaic battery, neutron detector, nuclear battery, radioisotope, scintillator, selenium–iodine, semiconductor, silicon, silicon carbide, xenon.

January/February 2022 S&TR Cover

January/February 2022 | download January/February 2022 issue

Feature Article

The Path to a Carbon Neutral California | Roger Aines

Key Words: biochar, biogas, biomass, carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon capture and storage, carbon neutral, ClimateWorks Foundation, combustion, direct air capture (DAC), gasification, geothermal energy, hydrogen (H2), Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program, Livermore Lab Foundation (LLF), negative emissions, pyrolysis, renewable natural gas (RNG), soil carbon, syngas.

Research Highlights

Assured and Robust…or Bust | Bhavya Kailkhura

Key Words: artificial intelligence (AI); artificial neural network (ANN); compact, accurate, and robust deep neural networks (CARDs); machine learning; multi-prize ticket; neural network.

A Shot Like No Other | Samantha Clarke

Key Words: Cheetah, energetic materials, Energetic Materials Center, high-explosive reaction, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program, National Ignition Facility (NIF), TARDIS (Target Diffraction In Situ), target, thermochemical code, triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB).

Accelerating Nuclear Forensics in the Field | Narek Gharibyan

Key Words: actinides, chemistry-on-a-chip platform, elements, extraction, feed, flat-sheet supported liquid membrane (FS-SLM), isotopic ratio, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program, microfluidics, multistage separation, nonproliferation, nuclear forensics, plutonium, porous membrane, postdetonation, radioactive, radiochemistry, single-stage separation, spectrometry, strip, uranium.

November/December 2021 S&TR Cover

November/December 2021 | download November/December 2021 issue

Feature Article

Extremely Bright, Incredibly Fast | Jon Eggert

Key Words: Advanced Light Source (ALS), Advanced Photon Source (APS), copper, cyclotron, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchroton (DESY), dynamic diamond anvil cell (dDAC), Dynamic Compression Sector (DCS), European XFEL (Eu-XFEL), gold, hard x rays, High-Pressure Collaborative Access Team (HPCAT), Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), nano diamond, nitroamine CL-20, Pohang Accelerator Laboratory X-ray Free-Electron Laser (PAL-XFEL), potassium, synchrotron, x-ray free electron laser (XFEL), zirconium.

Research Highlights

Polymer Production Enclave Puts Additive Manufacturing on the Fast Track | Bob Maxwell

Key Words: 3D printing, additive manufacturing (AM), direct ink writing, high-performance computing, inverse kinematics, Life-Extension Program (LEP), nondestructive evaluation (NDE), Nuclear Security Enterprise (NSE), polymer, silicone.
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Hydrodynamic Experiments Support Stockpile Stewardship | Jeff Florando

Key Words: Broadband laser ranging (BLR), Contained Firing Facility, flash x ray, hydrodynamic test, integrated weapons experiment (IWE), life-extension program (LEP), Nevada National Security Site, radiography, Site 300, subcritical test, W80-4 Life Extension Program, W87-1 Modification Program.

Delivering Exceptional Promise | Terry Land

Key Words: Aluminum, answer-set programming, beamtime, betatron x-ray radiation, boron carbide, ceramic–metal (cermet) armor, DNA sequencing, Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA), electrons, Early and Mid-Career Recognition (EMCR), fentanyl, free-electron laser, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS), genomics, gren body, high-energy-density (HED), high-performance computing (HPC), Jupiter Laser Facility, Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), National Ignition Facility (NIF), nucleus, package manager, pathogens, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, software, solver, Spack, synthetic opioids.

September 2021 S&TR Cover

September 2021 | download September 2021 issue

Feature Article

Climate Change Comes into Focus | David Bader

Key Words: Canadian Earth System Model version 2 (CanESM2), climate change, climate fingerprinting, Community Earth System Model version 1 (CESM1), Energy Exascale Earth System Model (E3SM), ensemble modeling, exascale computing, greenhouse gas (GHG), Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison (PCMDI), stratosphere, troposphere.

Research Highlights

Eyes High in the Skies | Alex Pertica

Key Words: astronomy, Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), GEOStare, Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, monolithic telescope (MonoTele), nanosatellite, optical payload, Vera C. Rubin Observatory, Space-Based Telescopes for Actionable Refinement of Ephemeris (STARE), space debris, space domain awareness, Tyvak Nano-Satellite Systems, Inc.

Accelerating the Path to Precision Medicine | Shankar Sundaram

Key Words: brain tractography, connectome, high-performance computing (HPC), Massively Parallel, Portable, and Reproducible Tractography (MaPPeRTrac), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge in Traumatic Brain Injury (TRACK-TBI), traumatic brain injury.

Shining a Light on Technical Excellence | Terry Land

Key Words: algorithm, Cheetah, Clementine, collisonless shock,computational fluid dynamics, computational physics, detonation, Distinguished Member of Technical Staff (DMTS) program, gamma-ray bursts, high-energy-density science (HEDS), High Energy Density Science Center, high explosive, high-foot pulse, high-pressure chemistry, high-pressure material properties, hypre, lunar map, molecular dynamics, molecular simulations, multigrid, National Ignition Facility, quantum hydrodynamics, parallel-in-time solvers, ParFlow, science and technology, Sierra supercomputer, thermochemical simulation code.

August 2021 S&TR Cover

August 2021 | download august 2021 issue

Feature Article

Planetary Research: Exploring Our Past and Future | Nir Goldman, Lars Borg, Morgan Burks and John Elmer

Key Words: amino acids, comet, glycine, meteorite, organophosphates, prebiotic molecules, rotational diamond anvil cell, schreibersite. Allende meteorite, Apollo mission, asteroid, cosmochemistry, extraterrestrial geochronology, Giant Impact, isotope analysis, isotopic signature, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program, Moon, Mars, meteorite, NASA, solar system. asteroid belt, detector, Dragonfly, gamma-ray spectrometry, GeMini-Plus, germanium (Ge)-based spectrometer, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL), Mars-Moon Exploration with Gamma rays and Neutrons (MEGANE), Martian Moons Explorer (MMX), MESSENGER, NASA, New Frontiers program, Phobos, Psyche-16, Saturn, Titan.additive manufacturing, asteroid, electron-beam welding, iron, Mars, materials science, meteorite, Moon, space, steel.

Research Highlights

Protecting Employees, Advancing The Mission | Sandra Brereton

Key Words: COVID-19, Health Services Department (HSD), Livermore’s Information and Technology (LivIT) Program, minimum safe operations, pandemic, Pandemic Response Team (PRT), severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2), telecommuting, virtual private network (VPN).

Three Decades of Explosive Innovation | Lara Leininger

Key Words: Department of Defense (DOD), Department of Energy, Department of Homeland Security, Energetic Materials (EM), Energetic Materials Center (EMC), Energetic Materials Development Enclave, High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF), LX-21, National Nuclear Security Administration, nuclear test ban, PBX 9502, stockpile stewardship.

Embracing Risk for Transformational Results | Doug Rotman or Chris Spadaccini

Key Words: chirped pulse amplification, deep learning, disruptive research (DR), Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program, laser, machine learning, National Ignition Facility (NIF), neural networks, nuclear dynamics, nucleon, plasma amplifier, quantum computer, qubit, recurrent neural network (RNN), Sierra, Univac.

July 2021 S&TR Cover

July 2021 | download july 2021 issue

Feature Article

Transferring Laboratory Technology to Fight the COVID-19 Pandemic | David Rakestraw

Key Words: ATOM (Accelerating Therapeutics for Opportunities in Medicine) Consortium, BioMedInnovations, LLC, Bio-Rad Laboratories Inc.,Cardioid, ConserV Bioscience Limited, cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA),COVID-19, COVID-19 Technical Assistance Program (CTAP), Department of Energy Office of Technology Transitions, emergency use authorization (EUA), Equilibar, federal business opportunity (FBO), Federal Laboratory Consortium (FLC), Food and Drug Administration, intellectual property (IP), Lab Partnering Service (LPS), Lawrence Livermore Microbial Detection Array (LLMDA), nanolipoprotein particles (NLPs), microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) chip, National Nuclear Security Administration, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), QuantaLife, Inc., SARS-CoV-2, technology transfer.

Research Highlights

2020 R&D 100 Award Winner: Versatile Cold Spray Harvests Waste Heat | Harry Radousky

Key Words: additive manufacturing, bismuth telluride, cold spray, magnets, R&D 100 Award, thermoelectric generator, thermoelectric material, waste heat recovery.

Second Skin Protects against Invisible Threats | Francesco Fornasiero

Key Words: biological agent, breathability, carbon nanotube (CNT), chemical agent, first responder, ion permeation, membrane, nerve agent, polymer matrix, second skin, soldier, uniform.

Lasers without Limits | Tammy Ma

Key Words: advanced manufacturing, Advanced Photon Technologies (APT), artificial intelligence, Extreme Light Infrastructure (ELI) Beamlines facility, high-energy-density (HED) science, High-repetition-rate laser, High-Repetition-Rate Advanced Petawatt Laser System (HAPLS), machine learning, National Ignition Facility (NIF), photon science, short-pulse lasers.

June 2021 S&TR Cover

June 2021 | download june 2021 issue

Feature Article

Tackling the COVID-19 Pandemic | David Rakestraw

Key Words: Accelerating Therapeutics for Opportunities in Medicine, antibodies, antivirals, Biological Applications of Advanced Strategic Computing, biosecurity, Computational Predictive Biology initiative, COVID-19, detection, diagnosis, high-performance computing (HPC), Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD), Lawrence Livermore Microbial Detection Array (LLMDA), medical countermeasures, medical equipment, nasal swabs, National Virtual Biotechnology Laboratory (NVBL), novel coronavirus pandemic, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), RNA, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), SARS-CoV-2, small molecules, supply chain, vaccine, ventilator, virology.
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Research Highlights

Predicting Combat Wound Recovery | Nicholas Be

Key Words: antimicrobial resistance, bioburden, clinical decision support, combat injury, Lawrence Livermore Microbial Detection Array, machine learning, metagenomics, microbiome, military medicine, precision medicine, Uniformed Services University (USU), wound infection.

Building Confidence in Materials Modeling Using Statistics | Jeff Florando

Key Words: Bayesian statistics, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program, Material Implementation, Database, and Analysis Source (MIDAS), material strength, stockpile stewardship, uncertainty quantification.

The Shape of 3D Printing to Come | Maxim Shusteff

Key Words: 3D printing, additive manufacturing, Advanced Manufacturing Laboratory, Computed Axial Lithography (CAL), Laboratory Directed Research and Development program, photopolymerization, resins, thiol-ene-based polymers, volumetric additive manufacturing (VAM).

May 2021 S&TR Cover

May 2021 | download may 2021 issue

Feature Article

60 Years of Cancer Research | Kris Kulp

Key Words: accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), bio-printing, cancer metastasis, cancer moonshot, cancer research, chromosomes, cytophotometric data conversion system (CYDAC), DNA adducts, flow cytometry, fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH), food mutagens, gene library, genomics, heterocyclic amines, high-performance computing, Human Genome Project, Joint Design of Advanced Computing Solutions for Cancer (JDACS4C), Joint Genome Institute (JGI), MoFlo, Multiscale Machine-Learned Modeling Infrastructure (MuMMI), National Cancer Institute (NCI), National Institutes of Health (NIH), predictive models, radioactive isotopes, Ras protein, Sierra supercomputer.

Research Highlights

Gold Monoliths Lighter Than Air | Michael Bagge-Hansen & Fang Qian

Key Words: aerogel, catalysis, cobalt, copper, excipient, freeze-casting, freeze-drying, gel, gold (Au), high-energy-density science, liquid nitrogen, monolithic aerogel, nanofoam, nanoparticle, nanoporous metal, nanowire, National Ignition Facility (NIF), nickel, silver, sonication, tert-Butanol (tBA), tin.

Bridging the Idea-to-Industry Gap | Rich Rankin

Key Words: commercialization, Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), Energy I-Corps, entrepreneurship, industry partnership, Innovation and Partnerships Office (IPO), Innovation Development Fund (IDF) grant, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD), lab-to-market, National Lab Entrepreneurship Academy, prototype, Technology Commercialization Fund (TCF), technology maturation funding, technology transfer.

Visualization Software Stands the Test of Time | Eric Brugger

Key Words: C++, data analysis, Department of Energy (DOE), high-performance computing (HPC), inertial confinement fusion, Intelligent Light, National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), open-source software, programming, Rayleigh–Taylor instability, scientific code, simulation, VisIt, visualization.

April 2021 S&TR Cover

April 2021 | download april 2021 issue

Feature Article

Neural Networks Search for the Nuclear Needle in a Haystack | Barry Chen

Key Words: Advanced Data Analytics for Proliferation Detection (ADAPD), artificial neural network (ANN), information retrieval, bidirectional quadruplet loss, deep neural network (DNN), semantic embeddings, joint loss weight optimization, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program, Livermore Big Artificial Neural Network (LBANN), machine learning, multimodal deep learning, natural language processing, nuclear fuel cycle (NFC), nuclear proliferation, nonproliferation, open-source information, Semantic Wheel.

Research Highlights

Exascale Software Lays Foundation for Discovery of New Materials | Tadashi Ogitsu

Key Words: Center for Non-Perturbative Studies of Functional Materials under Non-Equilibrium Conditions (NPNEQ), time-dependent-density functional theory (TDDFT), quantum materials.

Shining a Bright Light on Plutonium | Mike Zika

Key Words: Center for Non-Perturbative Studies of Functional Materials under Non-Equilibrium Conditions (NPNEQ), time-dependent-density functional theory (TDDFT), quantum materials.
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Johnny Foster: Pushing the Boundaries of Science | Tom Ramos

Key Words: Johnny Stuart Foster, Jr., Ernest O. Lawrence, Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, nuclear deterrence, thermonuclear weapons, University of California (UC) Radiation Laboratory.

March 2021 S&TR Cover

March 2021 | download march 2021 issue

Feature Article

Fusion Supports the Stockpile | Mark Herrmann

Key Words: Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Program, big-foot, deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel, fusion ignition, high-density carbon (HDC), high-energy density (HED), high-foot, hohlraum, Hybrid-B campaign, HYDRA, implosion asymmetry, inertial confinement fusion (ICF), life-extension program (LEP), National Ignition Facility (NIF), nuclear deterrent, nuclear weapons, plasma instability, Sierra supercomputer, Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP), target, underground nuclear test.

Research Highlights

Evaluating Patients in the Harshest Environments | Matt Coleman

Key Words: astronaut health, biomarker assay, blood cell, carbon nanotube, E-nose, International Space Station (ISS), Mars, medical diagnostic, microarray, microfluidics, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), platelet, radiation effects, stereolithography, three-dimensional (3D) printing.

Hydrogen Vehicles Get a Quantum Boost | Salvador Aceves

Key Words: Cryogenic Hydrogen Test Facility, cryogenic tank, Department of Energy’s Office of Fuel Cell Technology, Eugene Wigner, hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs), National Ignition Facility (NIF), para- to ortho-hydrogen (H2) conversion, paramagnetism, quantum mechanics, Raman spectroscopy, spin isomer, University of Guanajuato, vessel dormancy.

Tracking Plutonium through the Environment | Mavrik Zavarin

Key Words: actinides, adsorption, biogeochemistry, Chernobyl, colloid, desorption, extracellular polymeric substances, Fukushima, Glenn T. Seaborg Institute, groundwater, hydrothermal fluid, Manhattan Project, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), neutron, Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), nuclear melt glass, plutonium, radionuclide, Ravenglass, redox, Savannah River Site, Sellafield, sorption.

February 2021 S&TR Cover

February 2021 | download february 2021 issue

Feature Article

The Exascale Software Portfolio | Lori Diachin

Key Words: Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) program, application programming interface (API), Center for Efficient Exascale Discretizations (CEED), central processing unit (CPU), co-design, Department of Energy (DOE), El Capitan, exascale, Exascale Computing Project (ECP), Extreme-Scale Scientific Software Development Kit (xSDK), floating-point operations per second (flops), graphics processing unit (GPU), hardware, highperformance computing (HPC), Modular Finite Element Methods (MFEM), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), open-source software (OSS), Rapid Application Development via an Institutional Universal Software Stack (RADIUSS), software sustainability, RAJA PortabilitySuite, Umpire.

Research Highlights

Charting the Nation’s Energy Use | A. J. Simon

Key Words: electricity generation, energy flow charts, energy resources, energy use renewables, fossil fuel, Sankey diagrams.

Celebrating Science and Engineering Outreach | Joanna Albala

Key Words: 3D bioprinting, Department of Energy Academies Creating Teacher Scientists Program (DOE ACTS), education, engineering, Las Positas College (LPC), Lawrence Livermore Science Education program, materials engineering, outreach, team science.

Dense Plasma Focus Back in the Spotlight | Andréa Schmidt

Key Words: capacitor bank, dense plasma focus (DPF), flash neutron imaging, MJOLNIR, neutron source, particle-in-cell (PIC) code, plasma discharge, predictive modeling, pulsed power, radiography, z-pinch.

January 2021 S&TR Cover

January 2021 | download january 2021 issue

Feature Article

Team Science Takes on Infrastructure | Cliff Shang

Key Words: advanced computer modeling, applied materials engineering, area plan, BUILDER, campus capability plan, CostLab, Equipment Data Archive and Decision Support (EDADS), high explosives, infrastructure planning, Move Management System (MMS), radiochemistry, science-based infrastructure stewardship, Site Development Plan, stockpile stewardship.
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Research Highlights

Fighting Bacterial Infections with Machine Learning | Brian Souza

Key Words: bacteriophage therapy, Forensic Science Center, gene annotation, microbial viruses, multiPhATE, National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), pathogen, PHANOTATE.

Seismic Sleuths Set Off the Source Physics Experiment | Bill Walter

Key Words: The Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Dry Alluvium Geology (DAG), GeoDyn-L, granite, Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), pressure (P) waves, shear (S) waves, Source Physics Experiment (SPE), SW4.

Tailored Water Treatment Ready to Clean Up | Patrick Campbell

Key Words: aerogel, arsenic, capacitive deionization (CDI), Department of Energy, Energy I-Corps, entrepreneurial training, flow through electrode, groundwater, quantum computing simulation, nitrate, rare-earth elements, water treatment.

August 2020 S&TR Cover

August 2020 | download august 2020 issue

Feature Article

The Worldwide Effort to Ban Chemical Weapons | Armando Alcaraz

Key Words: Biosafety Level-2, butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), Biosecurity Engagement Program, Chemical Security Program, chemical warfare agent (CWA), Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Forensic Science Center (FSC), Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), subetadex, sulfur mustard, Swedish Research Defence Agency, U.S. Army Combat Capabilities Development Command Chemical Biological Center.

Research Highlights

The Sierra Era | Rob Neely

Key Words: Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Program, central processing unit (CPU), Copy-Hiding Application Interface (CHAI), Department of Energy (DOE), exascale, graphics processing unit (GPU), high-performance computing (HPC), memory, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), portability, RAJA, Sierra, simulation, supercomputer, Umpire.

Tapping the Earth’s Heat for Clean Energy | Joe Morris

Key Words: borehole, Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) Collab, Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE), GEOS code, Geysers Geothermal Field, high-performance computing (HPC), OpenEI, Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF).

Drop by Drop: A Promising Method for Printing Metal Parts | Jason Jeffries

Key Words: additive manufacturing, Laboratory Directed Research and Development Strategic Initiative (SI), liquid metal jetting (LMJ), three-dimensional (3D) printing, tin.

July 2020 S&TR Cover

July 2020 | download july 2020 issue

Feature Article

Portable Threat Assessment | Sean Walston

Key Words: MC-15 portable neutron multiplicity detector, multiplicity counter, nuclear threat assessment, R&D 100 Award, special nuclear material (SNM), terrorism.

Research Highlights

Expanding Embolization Success | Thomas Wilson

Key Words: aneurysm, blood vessel, embolization, IMPEDE® embolization plug, occlusion, shape-memory polymer (SMP), stroke, R&D 100 Award, Shape Memory Medical, Inc.

Resiliency in Computer Applications | Kathryn Mohror

Key Words: application programming interface, Argonne National Laboratory, checkpointing, high-performance computing (HPC), input/output (I/O) operation, open-source software, pF3D code, R&D 100 Award, Scalable Checkpoint/Restart (SCR) framework, scientific application, simulation.

Software Installation Simplified | Todd Gamblin

Key Words: compiler, concretization algorithm, Exascale Computing Project (ECP), high-performance computing (HPC), open-source software, package, package manager, R&D 100 Award, software installation, software stack, Spack.

The Shape of Things to Come | Peter Amendt

Key Words: frustraum, hohlraum, inertial confinement fusion (ICF), National Ignition Facility (NIF), OMEGA laser, rugby hohlraum, specular glint.

Tuning into Dark Matter | Gianpaolo Carosi

Key Words: axion, Axion Dark Matter Experiment (ADMX), dark matter, haloscope, microwave cavity, quantum amplifier, superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID).

A Revelation in Nuclear Science | Nicholas Scielzo

Key Words: exotic nuclei, Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), gamma-ray spectroscopy, isotope harvesting, ion beam, National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL), neutron-capture cross section, radioactive isotope, stockpile stewardship, zirconium.

September 2019 S&TR Cover

September 2019 | download september 2019 issue

Feature Article

Gently Compressing Materials to Record Levels | Jon Eggert

Key Words: diamond anvil cell (DAC), discovery science, equation of state (EOS), exoplanet, National Ignition Facility (NIF), plutonium-242 (242Pu) isotope, ramp compression, Stockpile Stewardship Program, super Earth, Z Pulsed Power Facility.
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Research Highlights

Laboratory Fellows Lend Their Expertise | Ric Schumacher

Key Words: Department of Defense (DOD), Department of Energy (DOE), inertial confinement fusion, National Academy of Science, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Nuclear Posture Review (NPR), Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), Offsite Fellows Program, stockpile stewardship, University of California Office of the President.

Livermore: A Key Element in Expanding the Periodic Table | Dawn Shaughnessy

Key Words: accelerator, chemistry, decay chain, fission, Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (FLNR), flerovium, homolog, isotope, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program, nucleus, periodic table, superheavy element.

The Little Neutrino Experiment That Could | Nathaniel Bowden

Key Words: High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), inverse beta decay (IBD), neutrino, neutrino detection, neutrino flavor, nuclear reactor, oscillation signature, particle physics, photomultiplier tube (PMT), Precision Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment (PROSPECT), Standard Model, sterile neutrino, uranium-235 (235U) isotope.

July/August 2019 S&TR Cover

July/August 2019 | download july/aug 2019 issue

Feature Article

A New Carbon Economy Takes Shape | Roger Aines

Key Words: Bioeconomy Institute, carbon dioxide (CO2), CO2 sequestration, Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), electrochemical reactor, Engineering the Carbon Economy Initiative, greenhouse gas, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Joint Bioenergy Institute, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program, methane, microencapsulated CO2 sorbent, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, negative emissions, pyrolysis, switchgrass, Total S.A.

Research Highlights

No Shots in the Dark | Nathan Masters

Key Words: ablation, ALE3D, ARES, Debris and Shrapnel Working Group (DSWG), DYNA3D, High Energy Imaging Diagnostic (HEIDI), laser, LS-DYNA, Material Strength Tantalum Rayleigh–Taylor (MatStrTaRT) target, National Ignition Facility (NIF), Rayleigh–Taylor (RT) instability, x-ray source application (XRSA).

Big Data Illuminates the Physical Sciences | Michael Schneider

Key Words: algorithm, astrophysics, big data, computer vision, dark energy, dark matter, data science, Data Science Institute (DSI), high explosive (HE), Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program, machine learning (ML), materials science, Physical and Life Sciences (PLS) Directorate, statistics.

The Pressure's On: Diamond Anvil Cells Reimagined | Zsolt Jenei

Key Words: culet, diamond anvil, diamond anvil cell (DAC), equation of state (EOS), high-pressure experiment, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program, molecular solid, planetary ice, rhenium, toroidal DAC.

June 2019 S&TR Cover

June 2019 | download june 2019 issue

Feature Article

National Ignition Facility Celebrates 10 Years of Operation | Patti Koning

Key Words: diagnostic, Discovery Science Program, high-energy-density (HED) science, hohlraum, ignition, inertial confinement fusion (ICF), laser, megajoule (MJ), National Ignition Facility (NIF), nuclear fusion, Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP), target, target diffraction in-situ (TARDIS) diagnostic, terawatt.
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Research Highlights

Nerve-Agent Antidote Shows Great Potential | Carlos Valdez

Key Words: acetylcholine (ACh), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), accelerated mass spectrometry (AMS), Biosecurity Center (BSC), blood–brain barrier (BBB), central nervous system (CNS), computer model, Federal Drug Administration (FDA), Forensic Science Center (FSC), LLNL-02 molecule, nerve-agent antidote, peripheral nervous system (PNS).

Ambassador Lecture Series Strengthens Academic Ties | Annie Kersting

Key Words: additive manufacturing, Advanced Manufacturing Laboratory (AML), Ambassador Lecture Series, climate science, high-energy-density science, National Ignition Facility (NIF), national security, outreach, Space Science and Security Program, University of California (UC).

Testing Missile Technology on the High Seas | Steven A. Jensen

Key Words: drone, hydrophone, Illeginni Island, intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM), Kwajalein Atoll, LLNL Independent Diagnostic Scoring System (LIDSS), Minuteman III, Republic of the Marshall Islands, stockpile stewardship, telemetry.

May 2019 S&TR Cover

May 2019 | download may 2019 issue

Feature Article

Small Brain-on-a-Chip Promises Big Payoffs | Nick Fischer

Key Words: blood–brain barrier (BBB), brain, brain-on-a-chip, Center for Micro and Nanotechonology, central nervous system (CNS), Forensic Science Center, heart, hippocampus, iCHIP (in vitro chip-based human investigational platform), Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program, microelectrodes, neurons, peripheral nervous system (PNS), Strategic Initiative (SI).
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Research Highlights

A Brilliant Mind Leaves an Indelible Legacy | Jeremy Thomas

"Mini" Device Set to Analyze Mysterious Psyche | Morgan Burks

Key Words: 16-Psyche, asteroid, gamma-ray spectrometer, germanium, GeMini, GeMini-Plus, NASA, planetary core, space.

Energetic Laser Helps Test Weapon Survivability | Brent Blue

Key Words: fusion, high-energy-density (HED) science, laser, material properties, National Ignition Facility (NIF), neutron source, nuclear weapon, Stockpile Stewardship Program, survivability, target, x-ray source.

April 2019 S&TR Cover

April 2019 | download april 2019 issue

Feature Article

Space Program Innovation, One Small Satellite at a Time | Vincent Riot

Key words: bus, cube satellite, CubeSat, CubeSat Next Generation Bus (CNGB), GEOstare, Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, laser heterodyne radiometer (LHR), Laun-cherOne, MiniCarb, monolithic telescope, nanosatellite, payload, Space-Based Telescopes for the Actionable Refinement of Ephemeris (STARE), space debris, Space Science and Security Program (SSSP), space situational awareness (SSA), telescope.

Research Highlights

On the Threshold of a Critical Milestone | Omar Hurricane

Key words: adiabat, alpha particle, burning plasma, deuterium–tritium (DT) fuel, fill tube, high-density carbon (HDC), hohlraum, hotspot, I-Raum, ignition, inertial confinement fusion (ICF), laser–plasma instabilities (LPI), National Ignition Facility (NIF).

An Optical Revolution for X-Ray Imaging | Julia Vogel

Key words: calibration system, grazing incidence mirror, multilayer coating, National Ignition Facility (NIF), pulsed-power x-ray source, Wolter microscope, Wolter optic, x-ray imaging, Z machine.

Military Education Programs: A Two-Way Street | Holly Franz

Key words: Air Force Fellows program, Armed Forces, BLU-129B, life-extension program (LEP), military, Military Academic Research Associates program, Newly Commissioned Officer program, Office of Defense Coordination (ODC), Reserve Officers Training Corp (ROTC), stockpile stewardship.

March 2019 S&TR Cover

March 2019 | download march 2019 issue

Feature Article

Machine Learning on a Mission | Peer-Timo Bremer

Key words: algorithm, computational steering, deep learning, high-dimensional (HD) space, high-performance computing (HPC), image reconstruction, image segmentation, inertial confinement fusion (ICF), Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program, latent space, machine learning (ML), model interpretability, neural network (NN), sample design, simulation, source separation, spectral sampling, topological visualization.

Research Highlights

The Advanced Manufacturing Laboratory Is Open for Business | Patrick Dempsey

Key words: additive manufacturing, advanced manufacturing, cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA), Edmund Optics, feedforward control, General Electric (GE), inertial navigation, Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program, Livermore Valley Open Campus (LVOC), micromirrors, quantum sensors, two-photon lithography, Vector Atomic.
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A Long Shot Pays Off in Vaccine Development | Amy Rasley

Key words: antibody, antigen, attenuated bacterium, bioterrorism, Francisella tularensis, immune response, nanolipoprotein (NLP), subunit vaccine, tularemia.

Looking Deep Inside a Superalloy | Jonathan Lind

Key words: Advanced Photon Source (APS), boundary with low-index plane (BLIP), grain boundary (GB), high-energy diffraction microscopy (HEDM), hydrogen embrittlement (HE), IceNine, Miller index, nickel-base alloy 725, x-ray absorption tomography (XRAT).

December 2018 S&TR Cover

December 2018 | download december 2018 issue

Feature Article

Livermore Leaps into Quantum Computing | Jonathan DuBois

Key words: additive manufacturing, algorithm, ASCR Quantum-Enabled Simulation (AQuES) Testbed Pathfinder Program, Axion Dark Matter Experiment (ADMX), coherence, high-performance computing (HPC), Josephson junction, quantum-coherent device, quantum computing, quantum processing unit (QPU), quantum sensing, qubit, qudit, superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID), superconductivity, superposition.
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Research Highlights

Newly Created Water Phase Helps Solve Planetary Mystery | Marius Millot

Key words: diamond anvil cell (DAC), dynamic compression, magnetic field, National Ignition Facility (NIF), Neptune, Omega Laser Facility, pyrometry, shock compression, static compression, superionic ice, Uranus, velocimetry, water.

Defending the Vulnerable Power Grid | Jovana Helms

Key words: cosimulation, energy, cyberattack, cyberterrorism, high-performance computing, electric grid, hardware-in-the-loop simulation, malware, Malicious Code Analysis Center (MCAC), phasor measurement unit (PMU).

Virtual and Augmented Reality Yield New Insights | Pam Spears

Key words: augmented reality (AR), computer-assisted design (CAD), laser, National Ignition Facility (NIF), outreach, simulation, target chamber, Technical Information Department (TID), training, virtual reality (VR), Virtual Immersion Engineering (VIE) group, Visualization group.

October/November 2018 S&TR Cover

October/November 2018 | download oct/nov 2018 issue

Feature Article

Extending the Life of a Workhorse Warhead | Tom Horrillo

Key words: air-launched cruise missile (ALCM), Capabilities-Based Investment (CBI) Program, Contained Firing Facility (CFF), Earned Value Management system, High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF), life-extension program (LEP), long-range standoff (LRSO) missile, National Ignition Facility (NIF), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Sierra, Site 300, Stockpile Stewardship Program, triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB), W80‑1, W80-4.
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Research Highlights

Stronger Structures through Scientific Collaboration | Rengin Gok

Key words: building code, Coda Calibration Tool (CCT), earthquake, earthquake catalog, ground motions, moment magnitudes, probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA), Seismic Cooperation Program (SCP), seismology.

A Science-Based Tool for Emergency Planning | Maureen Alai

Key words: Department of Homeland Security (DHS), emergency preparedness, fallout, Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), geographic information systems (GIS), improvised nuclear device (IND), IND City Planner Resource (iCPR), National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC).

A Bird’s-Eye View of Computing Performance | Alfredo Giménez

Key words: data analysis, data integration, data science, derivation engine, high-performance computing (HPC), ScrubJay, Sonar.

September 2018 S&TR Cover

September 2018 | download september 2018 issue

Feature Article

Emphasis on Learning Empowers the Laboratory’s Lasers | David Martinez

Key words: Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC), backlighting, Compton scattering, electron–positron pair, fusion, high-energy laser, high-energy-density (HED) science, high-Z material, inertial confinement fusion (ICF), Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program, matter–antimatter pair, National Ignition Facility (NIF), petawatt, plasma, proton generation, relativistic electron, short-pulse laser, Stockpile Stewardship Program, x ray.
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Research Highlights

Solving the Mysteries of Metal Hardening | Vasily Bulatov

Key words: Advanced Scientific Computing Program, bulat steel, Damascus steel, deformation twinning, dislocation dynamics, edge dislocation, high-performance computing, katana, LAMMPS (Large-Scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator) code, metal hardening, molecular dynamics, molybdenum, Parallel Dislocation Simulator (ParaDIS) code, screw dislocation, tantalum.

Machine Learning Points Toward New Laser Target Designs | Luc Peterson

Key words: inertial confinement fusion (ICF), Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program, machine learning, National Ignition Facility (NIF), supercomputing, target design, Trinity, zonal flow.

Computer Modeling Provides New Insights into Traumatic Brain Injury | William Moss

Key words: ALE3D, chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), concussion, deep brain stimulation (DBS), football, helmet, traumatic brain injury (TBI).

July/August 2018 S&TR Cover

July/August 2018 | download july/aug 2018 issue

Feature Article

The Case for Modern Forensic Science | Brian Mayer

Key words: chemical attribution; chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, explosives (CBRNE) forensic analyses; Chemical Security Program (CSP); chemical warfare agent (CWA); DNA; forensic science; Forensic Science Center (FSC); gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS); human identification; inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICP–MS); liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS); machine learning; nuclear forensics; Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW); phage; Phage Annotation Toolkit and Evaluator (PhATE); proteomics.
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Research Highlights

X-Ray Machine Does Double Duty | Scott McAllister

Key words: Contained Firing Facility (CFF), Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) facility, Flash X Ray (FXR), hydrodynamic test, linear induction accelerator, Site 300, Scorpius, stockpile stewardship, subcritical experiments, x-ray radiography.

A Slam Dunk Program for Aspiring Researchers | Kris Kulp

Key words: biosensor, carbon cycle, criticality safety, glutamate oxidase, intermediate-energy system, Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program, neutrino, neutrinoless Enriched Xenon Observatory (nEXO), nuclear benchmark, postdoctoral research, Research Slam.

Interweaving Timelines for Faster Solutions | Rob Falgout

Key words: algorithm, artificial neural network, GridDyn, machine learning, Moore’s law, multigrid, parallelism, parallel time integration, power grid, XBraid.

June 2018 S&TR Cover

June 2018 | download june 2018 issue

Feature Article

Delving Deeply into the Brain's Mysteries | Shivshankar Sundaram

Key words: additive manufacturing, artificial retina, Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative, deep brain stimulation (DBS), Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), depression, epilepsy, femtosecond laser, hippocampus, implantable electrodes, Intan Technologies, Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program, Livermore Biomedical Foundry, Livermore Center for Bioengineering, Livermore Flexible Probes, MountainSort, National Institutes of Health (NIH), Parkinson’s disease, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), Systems-Based Neurotechnology for Emerging Therapies (SUBNETS), traumatic brain injury.

Research Highlights

Building a Network of Collaborative Autonomous Machines | Reginald Beer

Key words: Bayesian network, belief network, byzan-tine data, collaborative autonomy, consensus algorithm, decentralized processing, field-programmable gate array, gossip algorithm, ground-penetrating radar (GPR), Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program, network simulation, node, ns-3, sensor network, YFCC100M.

Grassroots Innovation Grows Great Computational Ideas | Lori Diachin

Key words: application development, Computation Directorate, Developer Day, Hackathon, Idea Days, innovation, image processing, web development.

Piecing Together a Nuclear Fireball | Tim Rose

Key words: chemical fractionation, electron spectroscopy, fireball, fission, forensics, fusion, nuclear explosion, Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program, optical emission spectroscopy, oxide, plasma, plasma flow reactor, pulsed laser ablation, uranium.

April/May 2018 S&TR Cover

April/May 2018 | download april/may 2018 issue

Feature Article

Renowned Accelerator Facility Turns 30 | Graham Bench

Key words: accelerator, accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), biological accelerator mass spectrometry (bioAMS), carbon cycle, cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS), Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (CAMS), climate change, cosmogenic nuclide, Energy Exascale Earth System Model (E3SM), environmental science, geochronology, infrared (IR) light, ion implantation, ion source, isotope, nuclear forensics, Nuclear Science User Facilities, paleoclimatology, radiocarbon, Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Changing Environments (SPRUCE).
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Research Highlights

Enhanced Radiation Detection Training | Steven Kreek

Key words: emergency response, Ortec Detective, R&D 100 Award, radiation, Radiation Field Training Simulator (RaFTS), radiation source.

Interconnecting a World of Petabytes | Dean Williams

Key words: climate science, Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 3 (CMIP3), data sets, Earth System Grid (ESG), Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF), Energy Exascale Earth System Model (E3SM), federated distributed archive, grid computing, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), large-scale data management system, petabyte, Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison (PCMDI).

High-Throughput Pathogen Detection | Tom Slezak and Crystal Jaing

Key words: Applied Biosystems Axiom Microbiome Array (ABAMA), DNA, full-genome sequencing, Lawrence Livermore Microbial Detection Array (LLMDA), microbial detection, Microbial Detection Analysis Software (MIDAS), pathogen screening, R&D 100 Award.

Team Science Reaps International Recognition | Andrew MacPhee, Scott McCall, Amanda Wu, and Susan Carroll

Key words: aluminum–cerium (ACE) alloy, carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon sequestration, hydrogen fuel cell, hydrogen safety sensor, geometrically enhanced photocathode, National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP) Toolset, R&D 100 Award, tin-doped indium oxide (ITO), x-ray detector.

Instruments Peer Deeply into Laser Experiments | David Bradley

Key words: CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor), diagnostic, diagnostic instrument manipulator (DIM), Dilation X-Ray Imager (DIXI), ignition, inertial confinement fusion (ICF), Jupiter Laser Facility, National Ignition Facility (NIF), Omega Laser Facility, single-line-of-sight (SLOS) diagnostic, Target Diffraction In Situ (TARDIS), time-resolved x-ray diffraction.

March 2018 S&TR Cover

March 2018 | download march 2018 issue

Feature Article

Leading a Revolution in Design | Dan Tortorelli

Key words: additive manufacturing, Advanced Manufacturing Laboratory (AML), Advanced Materials and Manufacturing Initiative, Center for Design Optimization, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), direct ink writing (DIW), four-dimensional printing, high-performance computing (HPC), HYPRE, Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program, Livermore Design Optimization (LiDO) software, MFEM (Modular Finite Element Methods), stockpile stewardship, three-dimensional (3D) printing, Transformative Design (TRADES) program.
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Research Highlights

"Beaming" Objects with Volumetric Lithography | Maxim Shusteff

Key words: additive manufacturing, computed axial lithography (CAL), holographic lithography, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program, laser, photopolymer, spatial light modulator (SLM), superposition, three-dimensional (3D) printing, tomography.

Big Ideas for Tiny Targets | Michael Stadermann

Key words: capsule, carbon nanotube, deuterium–tritium fuel, fill tube, hohlraum, implosion, inertial confinement fusion (ICF), National Ignition Facility (NIF), target science and technology, tetra cage.

Going Beneath the Grid with Underground Energy Storage | Tom Buscheck

Key words: carbon dioxide (CO2), compressed-air energy storage (CAES), Earth Battery, geothermal energy, Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program, renewable energy, supercritical CO2, underground energy storage.

January/February 2018 S&TR Cover

January/February 2018 | download jan/feb 2018 issue

Feature Article

Ambassadors of Code | Ian Lee

Key words: Center for Efficient Exascale Discretizations (CEED), compiler, data storage, discretization, Exascale Computing Project (ECP), Federal Source Code Policy, file system, GitHub, high-performance computing (HPC), MFEM (Modular Finite Element Methods), National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC), open-source software (OSS), package manager, portal, repository, ROSE, source code, Spack, ZFS on Linux.
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Research Highlights

Microbiome Research Takes Flight | Crystal Jaing

Key words: bacteria, International Space Station (ISS), Lawrence Livermore Microbial Detection Array (LLMDA), Livermore Metagenomic Analysis Toolkit (LMAT), Microbial Tracking-2 (MT-2), microbiome, microgravity, NASA, pathogen.

Modeling Seismoacoustic Waves of an Explosive Nature | Keehoon Kim

Key words: AC2D code, acoustic wave, ElAc (Elastic and Acoustic) code, explosion detection, infrasound, nuclear forensics, nuclear monitoring, seismic modeling, seismoacoustic, seismology, SW4 code.

A Solid Hydrogen-Storage Solution | Brandon Wood

Key words: boron, density functional theory, fuel cell, H2@Scale program, hydrogen infrastructure, hydrogen storage, Hydrogen Storage Materials—Advanced Research Consortium (HyMARC), lithium hydride, lithium nitride, lithium–nitrogen–hydrogen system, magnesium borohydride, metal hydrides, molecular dynamics, nanoconfinement.

December 2017 S&TR Cover

December 2017 | download december 2017 issue

Feature Article

The Atmosphere around Climate Models | David Bader

Key words: atmospheric model, climate change, climate model, Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF), Energy Exascale Earth System Model (E3SM), Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Livermore Atmospheric Model (LAM), National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC), Nobel Peace Prize, nuclear weapon, Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison (PCMDI), stockpile stewardship, supercomputer.

Research Highlights

A Reversible Reaction Captures Carbon | Patrick Campbell and Maira Ceron Hernandez

Key words: additive manufacturing, carbon capture, Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program, molten hydroxide, porous membrane, reversible carbon dioxide reaction, yttria-stabilized zirconia.

Investigating Water under Earth's Mantle | Wyatt Du Frane

Key words: exoplanet, hydrogen, Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program, mantle, nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometer (nanoSIMS), Nernst–Einstein equations, olivine, ringwoodite, tectonic plates, TRAPPIST-1, wadsleyite, water.

The Dawn of an Optical Revolution | Rebecca Dylla-Spears

Key words: additive manufacturing (AM), direct ink writing (DIW), functionally graded optical material, gain medium, gradient refractive index (GRIN), Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program, large-area projection microstereolithography, National Ignition Facility, neodymium-doped yttrium–aluminum–garnet (Nd:YAG), optics, phase-shifting diffraction interferometry, refraction, silica (silicon dioxide), three-dimensional (3D) printing, titania (titanium dioxide).
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October/November 2017 S&TR Cover

October/November 2017 | download oct/nov 2017 issue

Feature Article

Preserving the Past to Protect the Future | Greg Spriggs

Key words: atmospheric nuclear test, computer simulation, energy yield, film preservation, Film Scanning and Reanalysis Project, Livermore Computing (LC), Nevada National Security Site, Nevada Test Site, nuclear weapons, OpenCV (Open Source Computer Vision), open-source software, optical density, Pacific Proving Grounds, Python, stockpile stewardship.
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Research Highlights

Plutonium Isotope Standard Enhances International Safeguards | Ross Williams

Key words: All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF), certified reference material (CRM), Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique (CEA), Institute of Reference Materials and Measurements, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), isotope dilution mass spectroscopy (IDMS), National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Network of Analytical Laboratories (NWAL), Office of International Nuclear Safeguards, Office of Nonproliferation and Arms Control, plutonium-244 (244Pu).

Additive Manufacturing Helps Reinvent Nanoporous Materials | Juergen Biener

Key words: additive manufacturing (AM), aerogel, energy storage, high-energy-density (HED) experiment, interdigitated stitching, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program, low-density bulk materials, low-density foam, National Ignition Facility (NIF), two-photon polymerization direct laser writing (2PP DLW).

Sudden Changes at Ultrahigh Pressure | Jon Belof

Key words: ARES, classical nucleation theory (CNT), equation of state (EOS), heterogeneous nucleation, high-performance computing (HPC), homogeneous nucleation, ice VII, Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program, Large-scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator (LAMMPS), Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), phase transition, SAMSA, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, super-Earths, ultrahigh pressure, water, zirconium.

September 2017 S&TR Cover

September 2017 | download september 2017 issue

Feature Article

The Widest, Deepest Images of a Dynamic Universe | Michael Schneider

Key words: active optics, adaptive optics (AO), dark energy, dark matter, data science, dual optical surface, étendue, field of view, gigapixel camera, Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), National Ignition Facility (NIF), near-Earth object (NEO), optical design, spin-cast mirror, telescope, ultrahigh-purity silicon sensor.
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Research Highlights

Unlocking the History of the Solar System | Lars Borg

Key words: calcium aluminum–rich inclusion (CAI), chondrite, cosmochemistry, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program, meteorite, nanometer-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (nanoSIMS), nuclear forensics, planetesimal, resonance ionization mass spectrometry, nucleosynthesis, solar system evolution, thermal ionization mass spectrometry.

Guiding Laser Light with Thousands of Tiny Mirrors | Robert Panas

Key words: additive manufacturing, Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program, lidar, light-field directing array, microelectromechanical system (MEMS), micromirror, micro-additive manufacturing.

Laboratory Outreach Programs Inspire the Next Generation | Joanna Albala

Key words: community outreach; Discovery Center; Edward Teller Education Center; Fun with Science; Science Education Program; Science on Saturday; science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education; Teacher Research Academy (TRA).

July/August 2017 S&TR Cover

July/August 2017 | download july/aug 2017 issue

Feature Article

Advanced Laser Promises Exciting Applications | Constantin Haefner

Key words: chirped-pulse amplification; diffraction grating; Extreme Light Infrastructure (ELI) Beamlines facility; flashlamp; Gigashot-HE; High-Power Intelligent Laser Diode System (HILADS); High-Repetition-Rate Advanced Petawatt Laser System (HAPLS); laser diode; Lasertel, Inc.; Lawrence Livermore National Security (LLNS), LLC; Mercury laser; National Ignition Facility (NIF); Nova Petawatt laser; petawatt; titanium-doped sapphire (Ti:sapphire).
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Research Highlights

Detonation Science Blasts into a New Frontier | Trevor Willey

Key words: Advanced Photon Source (APS), carbon condensate, detonation science, detonator, Dynamic Compression Sector (DCS), exploding foil initiator (EFI), high explosive (HE), High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF), Livermore Tomography Tools (LTT), small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS).

Computation Boosts Materials Discovery | Yong Han

Key words: algorithm, big data analytics, ChemicalTagger, informatics, machine learning, materials discovery, OSCAR (Open-source Chemistry Analysis Routines), silver nanowires, structured knowledge base, supervised learning.

Shocking Collisions of Cosmological Proportions | Will Dawson

Key words: active galactic nuclei (AGN), cosmic ray, electron re-acceleration, fossil relativistic electron, galaxy cluster, National Ignition Facility (NIF), radio relic, supermassive black hole.

June 2017 S&TR Cover

June 2017 | download june 2017 issue

Feature Article

Ready, Set, Innovate! Entrepreneurship Flourishes at the Laboratory | Rich Rankin

Key words: commercialization, cybersecurity, DYNA3D, Entrepreneurs’ Hall of Fame (EHF), entrepreneurship, geospatial analysis, Industrial Partnerships Office (IPO), laser peening, Lasershot Peening System, LS-DYNA, PARADYN, satellite imaging, software-defined networking (SDN), technology transfer.
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Research Highlights

From the Laboratory to the World | Roger Werne

Key words: carbon capture, carbon dioxide (CO2), clean-energy technology, commercialization, Energy I-Corps, Industrial Partnerships Office (IPO), MicroMiners, National Laboratory Accelerator Program, rare-earth elements, technology transfer.

A New Composite-Manufacturing Approach Takes Shape | James Lewicki

Key words: additive manufacturing (AM), carbon fiber composite, design optimization, direct ink writing (DIW), Industrial Partnerships Office, Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program, record of invention (ROI), resin, silica nanoparticle, three-dimensional (3D) printing, tool-path planning.

A National Security Code Is Reborn for Industry | Chad Noble

Key words: additive manufacturing, ALE3D, ALE3D-4I, high-performance computing (HPC), High Performance Computing Innovation Center (HPCIC), Industrial Partnerships Office, innovation development funds, laser-based additive manufacturing, technology transfer.

April/May 2017 S&TR Cover

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Feature Article

Investing in the Nation’s Future | Rokaya Al-Ayat

Key words: additive manufacturing (AM), Center for Engineered Materials and Manufacturing, Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), Department of Energy (DOE) Early Career Research Program, direct ink writing (DIW), droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR), Exascale Computing Project, GEOS, hohlraum, hydraulic fracturing, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program, Nanoscale Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory (NSCL), National Ignition Facility (NIF), polyelectrolyte enabled liftoff (PEEL), Presidential Early Career Awards for Scientists and Engineers, QuantaLife, Inc.
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Research Highlights

Program Supports Blazing New Trails | Eric Gard

Key words: bioengineering, bioreactor, Cardioid, cell culture, compact x-ray source, Department of Energy Early Career Research Program (ECRP), high-energy-density (HED) science, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program, Laboratory-Wide (LW) LDRD, laser wakefield, microfluidics, molecular dynamics, plasma, Qbox, therapeutic agent, tissue culture.

Looking for Trouble on Optical Surfaces | Manyalibo (Ibo) Matthews

Key words: debris, high-power laser, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program, National Ignition Facility (NIF), optic, optical damage, optical system, Optics and Materials Science and Technology (OMST) organization, particle, plasma formation, surface contamination.

Prolonged Power in Remote Places | Rebecca Nikolic

Key words: accelerated aging, alpha-voltaic battery, beta-voltaic battery, pillar, power, promethium-147, radiation, radioisotope battery, silicon carbide, selenium, semiconductor.

March 2017 S&TR Cover

March 2017 | download march 2017 issue

Feature Article

A Center of Excellence Prepares for Sierra | Rob Neely

Key words: Advanced Architecture and Portability Specialists (AAPS), Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Program, Cardioid, Center of Excellence (COE), central processing unit (CPU), copy-hiding application interface (CHAI), graphics processing unit (GPU), high-performance computing (HPC), IBM, institutional Center of Excellence (iCOE), Linux cluster, Multiprogrammatic and Institutional Computing (M&IC) Program, node, nonvolatile random-access memory, NVIDIA, OpenMP, ParaDyn, petaflop, ROSE, Sequoia, Sierra, T. J. Watson Research Center.
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Research Highlights

Agent Defeat Efforts Strike Gold | John Molitoris

Key words: Agent Defeat Penetrator, CrashPAD, Gold Award, High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF), Naval Postgraduate School (NPS), prompt agent defeat (PAD), pyrotechnic, Shredder, thermite.

Mighty ATLAS Supports Precise Alignment | Doug Larson

Key words: advanced tracking laser alignment system (ATLAS), diagnostic instrument manipulator (DIM), opposed port alignment system (OPAS), chamber interior viewing system (CIVS), National Ignition Facility (NIF), target bay, target chamber.

Forcing Failure in Granular Materials | Ryan Hurley

Key words: European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), force chain, GEODYN-L code, Gini coefficient, granular material, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program, three-dimensional x-ray diffraction (3DXRD), x-ray computed tomography (XRCT).

January/February 2017 S&TR Cover

January/February 2017 | download jan/feb 2017 issue

Feature Article

Computational Innovation Boosts Manufacturing | Lori Diachin and Peg Folta

Key words: ammonothermal growth, Blu-ray player, crystal growth, economic competitiveness, energy efficiency, gallium nitride (GaN), GaN-on-GaN technology, high-performance computing (HPC), HPC4energy, High Performance Computing for Manufacturing (HPC4Mfg) Program, light-emitting diode, paper manufacturing, semiconductor, steel industry.
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2016 R&D 100 Awards

Novel Scintillator Improves X-Ray Imaging | Nerine Cherepy

Key words: confined large optical scintillator screen imaging system (CoLOSSIS), computed tomography (CT), europium, gadolinium-lutetium-oxide (GLO), glass, polycrystalline, R&D 100 Award, scintillator, three-dimensional (3D) imaging, transparent ceramic, x ray.

Toolset Promotes Carbon-Capture Solution | Charles Tong

Key words: carbon capture, Carbon Capture Simulation Initiative (CCSI) toolset, carbon dioxide (CO2), climate change, framework for optimization and quantification of uncertainty and sensitivity (FOQUS), problem solving environment for uncertainty analysis and design exploration (PSUADE), uncertainty quantification (UQ).

Fabricating the World's Thinnest Plastic Wrap | Salmaan Baxamusa and Michael Stadermann

Key words: direct delamination, freestanding polymer films, polyelectrolyte, polyelectrolyte enabled liftoff (PEEL), polyvinyl-formal membranes, R&D 100 Award, sacrificial layer, strain energy.

Revealing the Presence of Hidden Nuclear Materials | Natalia Zaitseva

Key words: aromatic organic crystal, high-energy neutrons, R&D 100 Award finalist, scintillation, solution-growth, special nuclear materials, stilbene.

Research Highlight

LION Hunts for Nuclear Forensics Clues | Brett Isselhardt

Key words: americium, cosmochemistry, curium, isotope ratio, Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program, laser, laser ionization of neutrals (LION) laboratory, neptunium, nuclear forensics, nuclear fuel cycle, plutonium, resonance ionization mass spectroscopy (RIMS), trace fission products, uranium.

December 2016 S&TR Cover

December 2016 | download december 2016 issue

Feature Article

Laser Experiments Illuminate the Cosmos | Tom Arsenlis

Key words: Astrophysical Collisionless Shock Experiments with Lasers (ACSEL), astrophysics, collisionless shock, cosmic ray, Discovery Science Program, exoplanet, high-energy-density (HED) science, hydrogen, Jupiter, National Ignition Facility (NIF), Omega Laser Facility, Neptune, planetary science, super-Earth, Target Diffraction In Situ, Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR), Z Pulsed Power Facility.

Research Highlights

Getting to the End of the Matter | Mark Stoyer and Dawn Shaughnessy

Key words: berkelium-249, calcium-48, decay chain, flerovium, half-life, livermorium, moscovium, nihonium, oganesson, periodic table, superheavy element, tennessine, trans-actinides, transuranics.

Making an Impact on Asteroid Deflection | Megan Bruck Syal

Key words: asteroid, deflection, Didymos, Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART), Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL), kinetic impact method, Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program, moonlet, near-Earth asteroid (NEA), planetary defense, predictive modeling, Spheral.
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Tiny Building Blocks Offer Outsized Protection and Breathability | Francesco Fornasiero

Key words: biological agent, breathability, carbon nanotube (CNT), chemical agent, chlorine gas, first responder, membrane, moisture vapor transfer rate (MVTR), sarin, second skin, soldier, unconventional weapon, uniform.
October/November 2016 S&TR Cover

October/November 2016 | download oct/nov 2016 issue

Feature Article

High-Performance Computing Takes Aim at Cancer | Fred Streitz

Key words: bioinformatics; cancer; Cancer Moonshot Initiative; Cardioid; Collaboration of Oak Ridge, Argonne, and Livermore (CORAL); exascale; high-performance computing (HPC); High Performance Computing Innovation Center (HPCIC); Livermore Metagenomic Analysis Toolkit (LMAT); National Cancer Institute (NCI); Precision Medicine Initiative; RAS protein; Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER).
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Research Highlights

New Insight into an Intriguing Material | Heather Whitley

Key words: ab initio code, equation of state (EOS), Hugoniot curve, lithium hydride, National Ignition Facility, Omega Laser Facility, Z machine.

Peering into the Brain with Chemical Biosensors | Vanessa Tolosa

Key words: acetylcholine, biosensor, brain, depression, dopamine, electroceutical, glucose, glutamate, iCHIP (in vitro chip-based human investigational platform), neurochemistry, neuron, neurotransmitter, pharmaceutical, post-traumatic stress disorder, serotonin.

Rapid Recovery of Critical Infrastructure | Ellen Raber

Key words: anthrax; Bacillus anthracis; Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART); chemical, biological, or radiological (CBR); DNA-tagged reagents for aerosol experiments (DNATrax); methyl bromide; New York City Transit (NYCT); rapid viability polymerase chain reaction (RV-PCR); Underground Transport Restoration (UTR).
September 2016 S&TR Cover

September 2016 | download september 2016 issue

Feature Article

Laying the Groundwork for Extreme-Scale Computing | Lori Diachin

Key words: Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Program, algorithm, arbitrary Lagrangian–Eulerian (ALE), BLAST code, data rearrangement engine (DRE), domain decomposition molecular dynamics (ddcMD) code, exascale, extreme-scale computing, FastForward-2 Program, first-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD), floating-point operations per second (flops), Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program, Message-Passing Interface (MPI), MGmol code, neuromorphic computing, programming abstraction, QBox code, quantum computing, Reinit code, Sequoia, Sierra, three-dimensional (3D) memory, Vulcan, XBraid code.
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Research Highlights

Nuclear Data Moves into the 21st Century | Bret Beck

Key words: Atomic Weapons Establishment, Evaluated Nuclear Data Format (ENDF), Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (ENDL), Generalized Nuclear Data (GND), National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC), neutrons, nuclear data, punch card.

Peering Into the Future of Lick Observatory | Cliff Shang

Key words: astronomy, enterprise model, infrastructure, Lick Observatory, lifecycle, maintenance, University of California (UC), University of California Observatories (UCO), University of California Office of the President (UCOP).

Facility Drives Hydrogen Vehicle Innovations | Salvador Aceves

Key words: alternative fuel, Cryogenic Hydrogen Test Facility, fossil fuel, fuel efficiency, hydrogen, hydrogen fuel cell, hydrogen-powered vehicle, liquid hydrogen.
July/August 2016 S&TR Cover

July/August 2016 | download july/aug 2016 issue

Feature Article

Seeking Out Hidden Radioactive Materials | Steven Kreek

Key words: first responder, gamma-ray detector, Optimization Planning Tool for Urban Search (OPTUS), ORTEC Detective, Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), radioactive material, Spectroscopic Injection Pulser (SIP).
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Research Highlights

Optics Become Less Rough, More Tough | Tayyab Suratwala

Key words: atomic force microscopy, Beilby layer, CISR (convergent, initial-surface-independent, single-iteration, rogue-particle-free) polisher, Ensemble Hertzian Multigap (EHMG) model, Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program, nanoscratching, National Ignition Facility (NIF), optics polishing, polishing pad.

Taming the Wild Frontiers of Plasma Science | Frank Graziani

Key words: Cimarron project, ddcMD code, hydrodynamics, inertial confinement fusion (ICF), kinetic theory, Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program, molecular dynamics (MD), National Ignition Facility (NIF), plasma.

A Detector to Study the Neutrino's Nature | Mike Heffner

Key words: antimatter, antiparticle, Big Bang, Department of Energy (DOE), electron, isotope, Majorana particle, National Science Foundation (NSF), neutrino, neutrinoless double beta decay (NDBD), neutrinoless Enriched Xenon Observatory (nEXO), Nobel Prize, Nuclear Science Advisory Committee, particle physics, radioactive decay, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNOLAB).
June 2016 S&TR Cover

June 2016 | download june 2016 issue

Feature Article

A Salute to Promising Technical Staff | Ken Jackson

Key words: additive manufacturing (AM), Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative, algorithm, continuum model, denudation, distinguished member of the technical staff, Early- and Mid-Career Recognition (EMCR) Program, energetic material, fused-silica optic, groundwater, high foot, HMX, hydrodynamic growth radiography (HGR), hydrodynamic instability, laser chemical-vapor deposition, materials science, micromachining, multiphysics simulation, multiscale strength model, National Ignition Campaign (NIC), National Ignition Facility (NIF), optics damage, ParFlow, platform, pore collapse, selective laser melting (SLM), Suite of Nonlinear and Differential/Algebraic Equation Solvers (SUNDIALS), tantalum, time integrator, vanadium.
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Research Highlights

Mimicking Mother Nature to Mitigate Climate Change | Sarah Baker

Key words: additive manufacturing, biochemistry, bioreactor, climate change, Environmental Protection Agency, enzyme, greenhouse gas, landfill, materials science, methane, methane catalysis, methanogenesis, methanol, methanotroph, natural gas, particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO), polymer.

Deep Neural Networks Bring Patterns into Focus | Barry Chen

Key words: artificial intelligence, artificial neural network (ANN), Edge supercomputer, electrocorticography (ECoG), epilepsy, high-performance computing (HPC), Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program, Livermore Big Artificial Neural Network (LBANN), Livermore Brain, machine learning, neuron, pattern recognition, semantic wheel, Yahoo Flickr Creative Commons 100 Million (YFCC100M).

Severance for Safety: Preventing Subsea Oil-Related Disasters | Dennis Baum

Key words: blowout preventer, Deepwater Horizon, emergency severance tool, high explosive, High Explosives Applications Facility, linear-shaped charge, oil rig, oil well, Shell International Exploration and Production Inc., Site 300, stockpile stewardship.

April/May 2016 S&TR Cover

April/May 2016 | download april/may 2016 issue

Feature Article

Reducing Reliance on Critical Materials | Eric Schwegler

Key words: Ames Laboratory, Caulobacter crecentus, cerium, clean energy, cobalt, Critical Materials Institute (CMI), exchange spring magnet, fluorescent lighbulb, neodymium, phosphor, quantum mechanics, rare-earth element, samarium.
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Research Highlights

Lasers Shed Light on the Universe’s Most Luminous Events | Hui Chen

Key words: Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC), antimatter, Bethe–Heitler process, electron–positron pair jet, gamma-ray burst (GRB), Mira supercomputer, Omega Extended Performance (EP) laser, Orion laser, positron, relativistic shock, short-pulse laser, Titan laser, Vulcan supercomputer.

A Virtual Laboratory for Studying Biological Structures | Stefan Hau-Riege

Key words: biomolecule, diffraction, domain decomposition molecular dynamics (ddcMD) code, Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), molecular dynamics (MD) code, Single-Particle Initiative, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL).

Uncovering Dirty Secrets about Soil Carbon | Jennifer Pett-Ridge

Key words: carbon cycle, chitin, climate change, decomposition, forest-floor litter, H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, manganese, microbial organisms, nanometer-scale secondary ion mass spectrometer (NanoSIMS), nitrogen cycle, root exudates, scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM), soil carbon sequestration, soil organic matter.

March 2016 S&TR Cover

March 2016 | download march 2016 issue

Feature Article

Understanding Materials at the Nanoscale | Eric Schwegler

Key words: bacteriorhodopsin, carbon nanotube, discontinuous Galerkin (DG), dynamic transmission electron microscope (DTEM), fluctuation electron microscopy (FEM), high-energy x-ray diffraction microscopy, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program, lithium-ion battery, nanotube porin, Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES), pole expansion selected inversion (PEXSI), Qbox, QMCPACK, quantum Monte Carlo (QMC), scanning electron microscopy, scanning transmission x-ray microscopy, small-angle x-ray scattering, transmission electron microscopy (TEM).
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Research Highlights

Bioprinting Extends the Frontiers of Medical Treatment | Monica Moya

Key words: bioink, biomaterial, bioprinting, endothelial cell, biotubing, self-assembly bioink, three-dimensional (3D) printing, tissue patch, vascular networks, vessels.

Taking Topological Insulators for a Quantum Spin | Jason Jeffries and Dongxia Qu

Key words: Advanced Photon Source (APS), bismuth selenide, bismuth telluride, compression, conductor, diamond anvil cell (DAC), femtosecond laser, insulator, inverse spin Hall effect, Majorana particle, quantum computer, quantum mechanics, resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy, samarium hexaboride, spin injection, spintronics, terahertz emitter, topological insulator (TI).

Protecting Aquifers to Secure Clean Water for California | Brad Esser and Ate Visser

Key words: age tracer, aquifer, California Aquifer Susceptibility program, Environmental Monitoring Radioanalytical Laboratory, Geotracker, Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Special Studies program, groundwater isotopic composition, methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE), noble gas mass spectrometry, water age, water contamination.

January/February 2016 S&TR Cover

January/February 2016 | download jan/feb 2016 issue

Feature Article

A Growing Family of Targets for the National Ignition Facility | Abbas Nikroo

Key words: Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC), backlighter, diffraction, Eagle Nebula, foam, high-energy-density (HED) physics, hohlraum, inertial confinement fusion (ICF), materials science, National Ignition Facility (NIF), Omega Laser Facility, radiation transport, ramp compression, TARDIS (Target Diffraction In-Situ), Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector, Z machine.
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2015 R&D 100 Awards

Improving Engine Designs with an Ultrafast Code | Matthew McNenly

Key words: chemical reaction, chemical species, combustion engine, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), high-performance computing, sparse adaptive preconditioning (SAP), transportation fuel, Zero-Order Reaction Kinetics (Zero-RK).

Remarkable Advances in Three-Dimensional Printing | Bryan Moran

Key words: additive manufacturing, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, digital-light-processing (DLP) stereolithography, digital micromirror device (DMD), Federal Laboratory Consortium, Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program, Large-Area Projection Microstereolithography (LAPμSL), laser-based stereolithography, R&D 100 Award, three-dimensional printing.

Powerful Laser System Improves Experimental Capabilities | Robert Deri

Key words: electronic driver, Extreme Light Infrastructure (ELI) Beamlines facility, High-Power Intelligent Laser Diode System (HILADS), High-Repetition-Rate Advanced Petawatt Laser System (HAPLS), laser, pulsed-diode array, R&D 100 Award.

Research Highlights

R&D 100 Award Finalists Support Laboratory Missions | Diana Chen, Faranak Nekoogar, and Sabrina Nagel

Key words: adaptive optics (AO); Dilation X-ray Imager (DIXI); disease; emergency response; inventory; microelectromechanical systems (MEMS); MEMS-Based Adaptive Optics Confocal Microscope (MAOCM); National Ignition Facility (NIF); optics; pulse dilation; R&D 100 Award; radio frequency; Smart Real-Time Inventory System Based on Long-Range, Battery-Free, Radio Frequency Harsh Environment Tag (HET) system; x-ray framing camera.

Fine-Tuning a Laser Beam | Roger Qiu

Key words: absorption, absorption profile, aqueous solution, Cab supercomputer, complex, coordination compound, dopant, doped glass, infrared light, laser, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program, ligand, ligand field theory, National Ignition Facility (NIF), optics, ultraviolet light, visible light.

December 2015 S&TR Cover

December 2015 | download december 2015 issue

Feature Article

Smashing Science | Gilbert "Rip" Collins

Key words: advanced Photon Source (APS), dynamic compression sector (DCS), explosives, forsterite, gas gun, granular material, High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF), hydrogen peroxide, ignition, iron, Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research Facility, Jupiter, Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program, luminosity, magnetic field, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, National Ignition Facility (NIF), Omega Laser Facility, optical pyrometer, phase transition, Saturn, shock physics, shock wave, strain rate, ultrafast laser system, velocity interferometer, x-ray diffraction, x-ray imaging. Smashing Science.
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Research Highlights

Tiny Capsules Trap Big Climate Menace | Roger Aines

Key words: amine, carbon capture, carbon dioxide (CO2), CO2 emissions, carbon sequestration, climate change, greenhouse gas, microcapsule, microfluidics, sodium bicarbonate.

Clues to Climate Change in Ocean Salinity | Paul Durack

Key words: Argo, chlorinated fluorocarbons (CFCs), climate change, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP), Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison (PCMDI), water cycle.

Elusive Protein Structures Revealed by Advanced Lasers | Matthias Frank

Key words: biological macromolecule, diffraction pattern, Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), membrane protein, x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL), fixed-target serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX), Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program, photoactive yellow protein, photosystem II.

October/November 2015 S&TR Cover

October/November 2015 | download oct/nov 2015 issue

Feature Article

Advancing Next-Generation Rockets and the Engines that Power Them | Greg Burton and Bill Bruner

Key words: additive manufacturing, aerospike, Cab supercomputer, CharlesX, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), Department of Defense (DOD), Flamelet Progress Variable (FPV), high-performance computing (HPC), JOE, large-eddy simulation (LES), liquid-propellant rocket engine (LRE), Next-Generation Rocket (NGR) program, Predictive Science Academic Alliance Program, Reynolds-Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS), Sequoia supercomputer, Stanford University Center for Turbulence Research (CTR), Syrah supercomputer, Turbulence Analysis and Simulation Center (TASC), XS-1 launch vehicle.
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Research Highlights

Turning an X-Ray Eye on Universes, Large and Small | Mike Pivovaroff

Key words: astronomy, astrophysics, axions, CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST), dark matter, Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) program, gamma rays, high-energy-density research, International Axion Observatory (IAXO), Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) optic, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD), magnetic field, multilayers, NASA Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), nonproliferation, special nuclear materials, Wolter telescope, x-ray optics.

Two-Part Microbial Detection Enhances Bioidentification | Jonathan Allen

Key words: algorithm, bacteria, big data, biodefense, bioterrorism, caching, Catalyst supercomputer, disease, dynamic random access memory (DRAM), fungi, gene, genome, k-mer, Lawrence Livermore Microbial Detection Array (LLMDA), Livermore Metagenomics Analysis Toolkit (LMAT), medicine, metagenomic, microbe, microarray, nonvolatile random-access memory (NVRAM), pathogen, sequencing, surveillance, virus, wound.

Thermite Research Heats Up | Kyle Sullivan

Key words: additive manufacturing (AM), direct ink writing, dynamic transmission electron microscopy (DTEM), electrophoretic deposition (EPD), energetic material, nanoparticle, pyrotechnic, thermite.

September 2015 S&TR Cover

September 2015 | download september 2015 issue

Feature Article

Science on a Grand Scale | Brian Carnes

Key words: Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy, Atlas, climate model, Community Climate System Model (CCSM), Computing Grand Challenge Program, Dawn, density functional theory (DFT), Earth system model (ESM), exaflop, first-principles model, high-performance computing (HPC), hohlraum, laser–plasma interaction (LPI), molecular dynamics (MD), Multiprogrammatic and Institutional Computing Program, National Ignition Facility (NIF), petaflop, Qbox, quantum Monte Carlo (QMC), Sierra, teraflop, Thunder, uncertainty quantification, unclassified computing, Vulcan.

Research Highlights

Biofuel Breakthrough with Engineered Bacteria | Michael Thelen

Key words: biofuel, bisabolene, cellulosic biomass, efflux pump, energy independence, Enterobacter lignolyticus, Escherichia coli, ionic liquid, Joint BioEnergy Institute (JBEI), Joint Genome Institute (JGI).

Supercapacitors Yield Energetic Secrets | Jonathan Lee

Key words: Advanced Light Source (ALS), battery, electrode, graphene aerogel, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), supercapacitor, x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS).

Under Pressure: Granular Studies with Immeasurable Implications | Hye-Sook Park

Key words: grain size, Hall–Petch (H–P) relation, hohlraum, Livermore multiscale strength model, materials science, National Ignition Facility (NIF), Omega Laser Facility, Rayleigh–Taylor (R–T) instability, strain rate, tantalum, target.

July/August 2015 S&TR Cover

July/August 2015 | download july/aug 2015 issue

Feature Article

Stockpile Stewardship at 20 Years | Charlie Verdon

Key words: Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC), Confined Large Optical Scintillator Screen and Imaging System (CoLOSSIS), Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), Contained Firing Facility (CFF), Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility, Energetic Materials Center, energy balance, High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF), Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research (JASPER) Facility, life-extension program (LEP), LLM-105, LX-21, National Ignition Facility (NIF), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Nevada National Security Site, plutonium-239, Sequoia, Sierra, Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program, U1A complex, W78/88-1.

Research Highlights

A New Role for Hair in Human Identification | Brad Hart

Key words: amino acid, exomic sequence, forensic science, Forensic Science Center, genetic research, liquid chromatograph–mass spectrometry (LC-MS), nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (nsSNP), nuclear DNA, peptide, protein, single amino acid polymorphism (SAP).

The Rise of the SuperTruck | Kambiz Salari

Key words: aerodynamic truck, Department of Energy (DOE) SuperTruck initiative, drag-reducing device, fuel economy improvement (FEI), Generic Speedform One (GSF1), Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag Consortium, NASA Ames National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex, particle image velocimetry (PIV), semitruck, tractor–trailer.

Taking the Pulse of the Stockpile | Bill McLean

Key words: chemometrics, contact stress sensor (CSS), embedded logger, embedded sensor, Enhanced Surveillance Campaign, integrated hollow waveguide (iHWG), nondestructive surveillance, nuclear stockpile, optical force probe, outgassing, Raman spectroscopy, Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program.

June 2015 S&TR Cover

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Feature Article

Seismic Research Making Waves | Stephen Myers

Key words: Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), data-intensive computation, E. O. Lawrence Award, earthquakes, LLNL-Global 3D (G3D) model, nonproliferation, nuclear testing, P-wave, Regional Seismic Travel Time (RSTT) model, S-wave, seismic modeling, Source Physics Experiment (SPE).

Research Highlights

Supporting an Exercise of Global Importance | Steven Kreek and Charles Carrigan

Key words: Adaptable Radiation Area Monitor (ARAM), Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), gamma-ray spectroscopy, Integrated Field Exercise 2014 (IFE14), noble gas, on-site inspection (OSI), radiation detection, Smart Sampler.

Bridging the Communications Gap Between Cells and Circuits | Alex Noy

Key words: cell membrane, porin, pore, carbon nanotube (CNT), biosensor, biosensing, ion-channel disease, lipid-coated nanowire, plasma membrane, synthetic cell, ion flux, liposome.

Light yet Strong | Xiaoyu “Rayne” Zheng

Key words: additive manufacturing (AM), aerogel, atomic layer deposition (ALD), backlighter, density, hierarchical material, isotropic, nanoparticle, nanoporous gold, nanotubular, octet truss, projection microstereolithography, selective laser melting (SLM).

April/May 2015 S&TR Cover

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Feature Article

Helping Cities Prepare for Disaster | Amy Waters

Key words: Aeolus code, chlorine gas, Department of Homeland Security (DHS), Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), improvised nuclear device (IND), National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC), Office of Health Affairs (OHA), Spectroscopic Injection Pulser (SIP).

Research Highlights

Energy Applications Drive Carbon Aerogel Innovation | Marcus Worsley

Key words: aerogel, allotrope, battery, boron, carbon, catalyst, desalination, direct-ink writing, energetic material, graphene, laser target, micropore, nanotube, sensor, silica, sol-gel chemistry, Stardust project, supercapacitor, surface area, three-dimensional (3D) printing.

A Guiding Light for Designer Materials | Andy Pascall and Joshua Kuntz

Key words: additive manufacturing (AM), composite material, electrode, Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research (JASPER) Facility, light-directed electrophoretic deposition (EPD), Péclet number, stockpile stewardship.

Diving into the Dynamics of Evolving Hydrogen | Brandon Wood

Key words: ab initio simulation, corrosion, gallium-phosphide (GaP), hydrogen fuel, hydrogen mobility, hydrogen production, indium-phosphide (InP), molecular dynamics, semiconductor, solar-to-hydrogen fuel conversion, water splitting.

March 2015 S&TR Cover

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Feature Article

A Hub for Collaborative Innovation | Frederick Streitz

Key words: data-intensive computing, Cardioid code, Catalyst supercomputer, high-performance computing (HPC), High Performance Computing Innovation Center (HPCIC), Livermore Valley Open Campus (LVOC), Vulcan supercomputer.

Research Highlights

Gearing Up for the Next Challenge in High-Performance Computing | Bert Still

Key words: Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Program, BlueGene, Collaboration of Oak Ridge, Argonne, and Lawrence Livermore national laboratories (CORAL), central processing unit (CPU), graphics processing unit (GPU), high-performance computing (HPC), nonuniform memory access (NUMA) configuration, processing-in-memory supercomputer architecture, Sequoia, Sierra.

When Weapons Age and Materials React | Elizabeth Glascoe

Key words: chemical kinetics, diffusion, nuclear weapon, PSUADE (Problem Solving Environment for Uncertainty Analysis and Design Exploration), reactive transport, sorption, stockpile stewardship, weapons aging.

An Increased Shot Rate at the National Ignition Facility | Doug Larson

Key words: 120-day study, high-energy-density (HED) physics, National Ignition Facility (NIF), nuclear weapons, operational efficiency, stockpile stewardship.

January/February 2015 S&TR Cover

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Feature Articles

Next-Generation Manufacturing for the Stockpile | Melissa Marggraff

Key words: additive manufacturing (AM), direct ink writing (DIW), foam, high-density part, high explosives, High Explosives Applications Facility, high-performance computing (HPC), life-extension program (LEP), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), nuclear stockpile, nuclear weapon, pore, selective laser melting (SLM), uranium.

Building the Future: Modeling & Uncertainty Quantification for Accelerated Certification | Wayne King

Key words: Accelerated Certification of Additively Manufactured Metals (ACAMM) Initiative, additive manufacturing (AM), data mining, digital image correlation, effective-medium model, high-performance computing (HPC), Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program, neutron diffraction, powder model, predictive modeling, process monitoring, selective laser melting (SLM), uncertainty quantification (UQ).

Research Highlights

Sleuthing an Optical Mystery | Jeff Bude

Key words: advanced mitigation process (AMP), atomic force microscopy, damage precursor, deionized (DI) water, fused silica, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program, National Ignition Facility (NIF), optics mitigation.

Investing in Early Career Researchers | Rokaya Al-Ayat

Key words: Axion Dark Matter Experiment (ADMX), Department of Energy (DOE) Early Career Research Program Award, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program, Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers (PECASE), Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID).

December 2014 S&TR Cover

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Feature Article

Shaking Things Up for the Nation’s Defense

Key words: aeroshell, carbon epoxy, focused lethality munition, knifeblades, Nike rocket, NIKE3D code, supersonic sled test.

Research Highlights

Working Smarter for a Sustainable Future | Michael Cowen

Key words: drought, energy conservation, high-performance computing (HPC), reverse osmosis, Sequoia supercomputer, sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), sustainability, water conservation.

Crystals Go under the Microscope | Mukul Kumar

Key words: additive manufacturing, crystallography, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), high-energy diffraction microscopy (HEDM), precession electron diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

NuSTAR Peers into the Neutron Star Zoo | Julia Vogel

Key words: astronomy, astrophysics, magnetar, magnetic field, NASA Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), neutron star, optics, pulsar wind nebula, radio pulsar, Small Explorer Mission.

October/November 2014 S&TR Cover

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2014 R&D 100 Awards

A Super, Cool Device for Material Characterization | Stephan Friedrich

Key words: material characterization; R&D 100 Award; STAR Cryoelectronics, LLC; superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) x-ray spectrometer; superconductor; x-ray spectra.

Fast and Easy Identification of Explosives and Suspected Drugs | John G. Reynolds

Key words: explosives detection, thin-layer chromatography (TLC), microTLCTM, R&D 100 Award.

Novel Process Advances Optical Glass Polishing | Tayyab Suratwala

Key words: CISR (convergent, initial-surface-independent, single-iteration, rogue-particle-free) polisher, convergent polishing, fused silica, glass optics, R&D 100 Award.

The Power of Combined Laser Light | Jerry Britten

Key words: diffraction-limited; extreme-power, ultralow-loss, dispersive element (EXUDE); fiber laser; output power; R&D 100 Award, spectral beam combining (SBC).

Feature Article

Promoting International Security through Nuclear Forensics | Erick Ramon

Key words: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), nuclear attribution, Nuclear Energy Corporation South Africa (NECSA), nuclear forensics, nuclear material, partial least-squares discriminate analysis (PLS-DA), uranium ore concentrate, Uranium Sourcing Database, yellowcake.

September 2014 S&TR Cover

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Feature Article

Giant Steps for Adaptive Optics | Lisa Poyneer and David Palmer

Key words: adaptive optics, Advanced Light Source (ALS), extrasolar planet (exoplanet), Gemini Planet Imager (GPI), Gemini South telescope, Kepler Space Telescope, Laboratory for Adaptive Optics, Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), R&D 100 Award.

Research Highlights

Mapping Networks for Cyberdefense | Celeste Matarazzo

Key words: Continuous Network Cartography, cybersecurity, Department of Homeland Security Transition to Practice (TTP) Program, Network Mapping Systems (NeMS).

Foams Help Heal a Deadly Affliction | Tom Wilson and Jason Ortega

Key words: aneurysm, blood clot, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), high-performance computing, materials engineering, shape-memory-polymer (SMP) foam, thrombus.

Additive Manufacturing Reshapes Foam Design | Tom Wilson and Eric Duoss

Key words: additive manufacturing (AM), direct ink writing (DIW), life-extension program (LEP), NIKE3D, nuclear weapons cushion, silicone-based cellular foam, stockpile stewardship.

July/August 2014 S&TR Cover

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Feature Article

A New Model for Pharmaceutical Research | Felice Lightstone

Key words: adverse drug reaction (ADR), blood–brain barrier, computational chemistry, cytochrome P450 (CYP), drug development, high-performance computing (HPC), kinetic model, molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulation, N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI), Sequoia, Sierra, supercomputer, umbrella sampling, virtual screening.

Research Highlights

Evidence of a Turbulent Beginning | Lars Borg and Greg Brennecka

Key words: Allende meteorite, calcium aluminum–rich inclusion (CAI), cosmochemistry, geochemistry, ion chromatography, isotope, isotopic signature, nucleosynthesis, planetary science, rapid neutron capture (r-process), solar system, type II supernova.

Supercomputing Tools Speed Simulations | Dong Ahn

Key words: AutomaDeD, debugging, DysectAPI, exascale, Gordon Bell Prize, high-performance computing (HPC), PRUNER, Sequoia, SPINDLE, STAT (Stack Trace Analysis Tool).

A Closer Look at the Rocky Underground | Rick Ryerson

Key words: fracking, GEOS code, hydraulic fracturing, hydrofracturing, oil and gas extraction, proppants, shale gas, solver.

June 2014 S&TR Cover

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Feature Article

A Significant Achievement on the Path to Ignition | Omar Hurricane

Key words: alpha heating, alpha particle, carbon–deuterium mix, depleted uranium (DU), deuterium–tritium (DT) fuel, high-foot pulse shape, hohlraum, hydrodynamic growth rate, ignition, low-foot pulse shape, National Ignition Campaign (NIC), National Ignition Facility (NIF), pure tritium gas, Viewfactor experiment.

Research Highlights

Particle Detection Technology with a New National Security Mission | Mike Heffner

Key words: actinide, alpha particle, high-energy physics, fission time projection chamber (TPC), ionization track, Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE), nuclear cross section, Neutron Induced Fission Fragment Tracking Experiment, plutonium.

Tangled Nanotubes Ease Identification of Trace Chemicals | Tiziana Bond

Key words: carbon nanotube, detector, homeland security, nanoarray, nanotechnology, sensor, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), toxin.

Discerning Humanity’s Imprint on Rainfall Patterns | Kate Marvel or Céline Bonfils

Key words: atmospheric circulation, climate change, Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5), drought, El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP), La Niña, Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison, World Climate Research Programme.

April/May 2014 S&TR Cover

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Feature Article

Predicting Wind Power with Greater Accuracy | Wayne Miller

Key words: atmospheric boundary layer, CGWind, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), electric power grid, Gaussian Process Model, Generalized Actuator Disk (GAD), HELIOS, immersed boundary method (IBM), lidar, mesoscale, sodar, supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA), turbulence, Weather Research Forecasting (WRF), wind turbine farm, wind power forecast.

Research Highlights

Tiny But Mighty Potential Allies in the Toxic Metal Cleanup Effort | Yongqin Jiao

Key words: bioremediation, Caulobacter crescentus, bacteria, Department of Energy (DOE) Early Career Research Program, expression profiling, gene disruption, metabolite, mutagenesis, phosphatase, phytase, toxic metal contamination, uranium, uranyl phosphate mineral.

Nuclear Fusion through a Computational Microscope | Sofia Quaglioni

Key words: Computing Grand Challenge Program, Department of Energy (DOE) Early Career Research Award, fusion, no-core shell model (NCSM), nucleon, nucleosynthesis, quantum chromodynamics (QCD), resonating group method (RGM).

Chemistry in Motion: Solving Big Problems with and Ultrafast Code | Matthew McNenly

Key words: biofuel, chemical reaction network, diesel fuel, gasoline, internal combustion engine, low-temperature combustion, matrix solver, nitrogen oxide, preconditioner, soot.

March 2014 S&TR Cover

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Feature Article

Radiochemistry Renaissance | Dawn Shaughnessy

Key words: actinide, activation product, carrier-free isotope, Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (CAMS), crown ether, extraction chromatography, fission yield, flerovium, Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (FLNR), heavy elements, high-purity germanium radiation detector, isotope, livermorium, National Ignition Facility (NIF), nuclear chemistry, nuclear forensics, radioactive decay, radiochemistry, transactinide.

Research Highlights

Tiny Silicon Pillars Can Detect Giant Threats | Rebecca Nikolic

Key words: boron-10, Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, gamma-ray detector, helium-3, pillar detector, silicon, special nuclear material, thermal neutron.

Biosecurity Gets a Boost with a Human-on-a-Chip | Satinderpall Pannu

Key words: biological agent, biosecurity, drug discovery, in vitro chip-based human investigational platform (iCHIP), medical countermeasure, microelectrode array, microfluidic channel, pharmaceutical.

Fuel Research Provides Insights into Basic Actinide Science | Patrice Turchi

Key words: actinide–metallic alloy, CALPHAD (calculation of phase diagram) approach, Center for Accelerator Mass Spectroscopy (CAMS), rare-earth element, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ultrahigh burnup (UHBU) fission fuel.

January/February 2014 S&TR Cover

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Feature Article

Lighting a New Era of Scientific Discovery | Constantin Haefner

Key words: Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC), Callisto laser, chirped-pulse amplification, Extreme Light Infrastructure (ELI) Beamlines High-Repetition-Rate Advanced Petawatt Laser System (HAPLS), laser diodes, Mercury laser, National Ignition Facility (NIF), parasitic lasing, petawatt.

Research Highlights

In Metals, Not All Twins Are Identical | Yinmin (Morris) Wang

Key words: coherent twin boundary (CTB), detwinning, grain boundary, high-strength metal, inverse pole figure orientation mapping (IPFOM), material property, materials science, nanotwinned metal, strain mapping, synchrotron x-ray diffraction (SXRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM).

Betatron X Rays Bring Focus to a Very Small, Very Fast World | Félicie Albert

Key words: Callisto laser, chirped-pulse amplification, femtosecond laser, high-energy-density (HED) experiment, Jupiter Laser Facility, laser-wakefield betatron x ray, National Ignition Facility, x-ray pump and probe.

December 2013 S&TR Cover

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Feature Article

Understanding Homemade Explosives to Enhance Aviation Security | Amy Waters

Key words: ALE3D code, aviation security, CHEETAH code, computed tomography (CT), DYNA3D code, Easy Livermore Inspection Test for Explosives (ELITE), Energetic Materials Center, HADES code, High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF), homemade explosive (HME), LabRam, Livermore Explosives iRobot (LEXI), National Explosives Engineering Sciences Security (NEXESS) Center.

Research Highlights

Averting Impact: Modeling Solutions to Prevent Asteroid Collisions | Paul Miller

Key words: asteroid impact, comet, deflection, disruption, GEODYN code, GEODYN-L code, nuclear explosive, Phobos, SPHERAL code, Stickney crater.

Biological Mysteries Decoded with Radiocarbon Dating | Bruce Buchholz

Key words: bomb-pulse radiocarbon dating, carbon-14, cataracts, Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (CAMS), cold case, hippocampus, neurogenesis, scientific forensics.

2020 Vision for California’s Electric Grid | Thomas Edmunds

Key words: California Energy Commission, California ISO, CPLEX code, demand response initiative, energy storage, frequency regulation, integer optimization, KERMIT code, multiphysics modeling, PLEXOS code, renewable energy generation, Renewables Portfolio Standard (RPS), stochastic unit commitment, weather forecast ensemble, Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) modeling system.

October/November 2013 S&TR Cover

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2013 R&D 100 Awards

DNA-Tagged Sugar Particles Simulate Aerosol Airflow Patterns | George Farquar

Key words: air quality, DNA-tagged reagents for aerosol experiments (DNATrax), pathogen, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), R&D 100 Award.

Fiber Lasers Get a Power Boost | John Heebner

Key words: circular-core fiber, fiber laser, industrial laser, mode converter, R&D 100 Award, ribbon fiber.

High-Speed Movies at the Nanoscale | Thomas LaGrange

Key words: arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) cathode laser, electron pulse train, movie-mode dynamic transmission electron microscope (MM-DTEM), R&D 100 Award.

Shielding the World’s Largest Laser from Harmful Pulses | Jason Chou

Key words: high-energy laser pulse, Laser SHIELD (screening at high-throughput to identify energetic laser distortion), National Ignition Facility (NIF), R&D 100 Award.

Mini-Apps Accelerate Hardware and Software Development | James Belak and David Richards

Key words: application-driven co-design, Co-designed Molecular Dynamics (CoMD), Extreme-Scale Computing Effort, Exascale Co-design Center for Materials in Extreme Environments, high-performance computing (HPC), Mantevo Suite 1.0, mini-app, R&D 100 Award, Sequoia.

Research Highlights

An Earthquake Exhibit with Magnitude | Arthur Rodgers

Key words: California Academy of Sciences, earthquake, LLNL_G3D, mantle tomography, seismic wave propagation, SPECFEM3D_GLOBE, Wave Propagation Program (WPP).

Enterprise Modeling Leads to Smarter Decisions | Cliff Shang

Key words: decision analysis, economic analysis, enterprise optimization, Nuclear Weapons Enterprise Model, simulation, Stockpile Transformation Optimization Requirements Model (STORM).

September 2013 S&TR Cover

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Feature Article

A Bright Idea for Microscopy | Geoffrey Campbell

Key words: arbitrary waveform generator (AWG), crystallization, dynamic transmission electron microscope (DTEM), electron pulse train, electrostatic deflector, material science, movie-mode DTEM (MM-DTEM), phase-change material (PCM), reactive multilayer foil (RMLF), stochastic blur, transmission electron microscope (TEM), ultraviolet laser.

Research Highlights

NIF Experiments Track Weapons Effects to Improve Nuclear Forensics | Kevin Fournier

Key words: energy-partitioning, energy-coupling (EPEC) experiments; National Ignition Facility (NIF); nuclear forensics; scaled nuclear weapons effects testing.

Trapped Ions Reveal the Undetected: A New Approach for Nuclear Decay Science | Nicholas Scielzo

Key words: Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS), beta-delayed neutron emission, Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU), ion trap, neutrino, nuclear decay, radioactivity, spectroscopy, Standard Model.

Gravity Detector Applies Outside-the-Box Thinking to Show What’s Inside the Box | Stephen Libby

Key words: AOSense PINS (precision inertial navigation systems) gravity gradiometer, atomic interferometry, gravitational constant, gravity detection, nuclear material smuggling.

July/August 2013 S&TR Cover

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Feature Article

Reaching for New Computational Heights with Sequoia | Michel McCoy

Key words: Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC); BlueGene; Cardioid; exascale; hardware threading; high-performance computing (HPC); Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design; Linpack; message-passing interface (MPI); parallel computing; single-instruction, multiple-data (SIMD) unit; stockpile verification; uncertainty quantification (UQ).

Research Highlights

Celebrating the Life and Contributions of Johnny Foster | Mike Dunning

Key words: B Division, Ernest. O. Lawrence, Johnny Stuart Foster, Jr., Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Nuclear Posture Review, nuclear weapons, Sandia National Laboratories, University of California (UC) Radiation Laboratory.

A Diamond Mystery | Ray Smith

Key words: carbon, diamond, equation of state (EOS), laser ramp compression, National Ignition Facility (NIF), planetary interiors, Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR).

Coming Through in a Pinch: Z-Pinch Plasma Heralds Novel Accelerator Design | Vincent Tang

Key words: accelerator, dense plasma focus (DPF) device, LSP code, particle beam, Z-pinch.

June 2013 S&TR Cover

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Feature Article

Scaling Up Energy Innovation through Advanced Computing | John Grosh

Key words: clean energy technology, contingency analysis, fuel-injection engine, high-efficiency combustion, high-performance computing (HPC), hpc4energy incubator, HPC Innovation Center, hydrothermal spallation drilling, parallel computing, smart electric grid, turbulence, uncertainty quantification, unit commitment.

Research Highlights

Ready to Respond to Chemical Weapons | Brian Mayer

Key words: chemical warfare, Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), Forensic Science Center (FSC), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), organophosphorus compounds.

Software Developers Get Their Hack On | Katherine Lewis

Key words: Element Centric (EleCent), hacker, high-performance computing, Klout score, LabBook, Livermore Computing (LC), mobile app, MyLC, ShipIt day, social media, software application, VisIt.

April/May 2013 S&TR Cover

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Feature Article

A Faster and Cheaper Method to Detect Agents of Disease | Crystal Jaing

Key words: bacteria, bioattack, bioinformatics, Blood Systems Research Institute, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), composite likelihood maximization algorithm, Department of Defense, Department of Homeland Security (DHS), Lawrence Livermore Microbial Detection Array (LLMDA), microarray, pathogen, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), sequencing, Statens Serum Institut, U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), virus.

Research Highlights

Making a Better Photonic Crystal Fiber | Jay Dawson

Key words: draw tower, fiber laser, ribbonlike photonic crystal fiber (PCF), SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, waveguide.

A Transparent Success: “Megatons to Megawatts” Program | Dan Decman

Key words: astrophysics, collisionless shock, National Ignition Facility (NIF), OMEGA Extended Performance (EP) laser, plasma, proton radiography, self-organization.

The Shot Heard ’Round the Complex | Neil Holmes

Key words: 100th shot, actinide, diamond anvil cell (DAC), equation of state (EOS), gas gun, graded-density impactor (GDI), High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF), Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research (JASPER) Facility, phase diagram, plutonium, Stockpile Stewardship Program.

March 2013 S&TR Cover

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Feature Articles

Advanced Engineering Delivers More Exact Weapons Performance | Lara Leininger and Kip Hamilton

Key words: Air Armament Center (AAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), BLU-129/B, carbon fiber, composite material, Department of Defense (DoD), Department of Energy (DOE), Joint DoD/DOE Munitions Technology Development Program (JMP), multiphase blast explosive (MBX), munition, weapon.

On the Path to Ignition | John Lindl

Key words: Advanced Radiographic Capability, alpha heating, crossbeam transfer, high flux model (HFM), hohlraum, ignition, National Ignition Campaign (NIC), National Ignition Facility (NIF), stimulated Raman scattering, velocity interferometer system for any reflector (VISAR), wavelength tuning.

Research Highlights

New Mechanisms for Regulating Bone Formation | Gabriela Loots and Nicole Collette

Key words: evolutionarily conserved region (ECR), gene regulation, genome, knockout mice, microscale computed tomography, osteoblast, osteoclast, osteocyte, osteoporosis, sclerosteosis, sclerostin (Sost), Van Buchem’s disease, Wnt signaling.

Chaotic Plasmas Give Birth to Orderly Electromagnetic Fields | Hye-Sook Park

Key words: astrophysics, collisionless shock, National Ignition Facility (NIF), OMEGA Extended Performance (EP) laser, plasma, proton radiography, self-organization.

January/February 2013 S&TR Cover

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Feature Article

Dealing with Data Overload in the Scientific Realm | Dean Williams

Key words: algorithm, biosurveillance, climate research, Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP), cybersecurity, cyber-surveillance, data science, Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF), energy distribution, gene sequencing, GeneSV, genome, particle filtering, streaming data.

Research Highlights

Graphite, A Quick-Change Artist | Stefan Hau-Riege

Key words: graphite, Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), phase change, hard x-ray laser.

A Better Method for Desalinating Water | Michael Stadermann

Key words: capacitor, carbon aerogel, flow-through electrode capacitive desalination (FTE-CD), reverse osmosis (RO).

Developing Lightweight Optics for Space | Jerry Britten

Key words: Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), diffractive optics, Eyeglass, Fresnel lens, James Webb Space Telescope, membrane optics, Membrane Optic Imager Real-Time Exploitation (MOIRE) project, space telescope.

December 2012 S&TR Cover

December 2012

Feature Article

Positively Scintillating Neutral Particles Brighten Scientific Prospects | Adam Bernstein

Key words: antineutrino detection, coherent neutrino nucleus scattering, Double Chooz, Large Underground Xenon (LUX) detector, neutral particle, neutrino, nonproliferation, nuclear reactor monitoring, nuclear security, particle physics, scintillator, weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP).

Research Highlights

Plutonium at 150 Years: Going Strong and Aging Gracefully | Brandon Chung

Key words: accelerated aging, life-extension program, nuclear weapon, plutonium pit, Rocky Flats Plant, stockpile stewardship.

A New Detector for Analyzing NIF Experiments | Dawn Shaughnessy

Key words: alpha particle, areal density, ignition, iodine-127, National Ignition Facility (NIF), mix, neutron time-of-flight (nTOF) detector, radiochemical analysis of gaseous samples (RAGS) detector, stable noble gas, xenon-124.

Faster Analysis from Biological Accelerator Mass Spectrometry | Graham Bench

Key words: biological accelerator mass spectrometry (bioAMS), Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, drug discovery, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), moving-wire interface, pharmaceutical research.

October/November 2012 S&TR Cover

October/November 2012

R&D 100 Awards

A Major Step for Fusion Energy | Dmitri Ryutov

Key words: fusion energy, R&D 100 Award, snowflake power divertor, tokamak.

High-Performance Metal Coatings Produce Exceptional Bond Strength | Joe Farmer

Key words: corrosion-resistant coating, high-strength bonded interface, high-velocity laser-accelerated deposition (HVLAD), laser peening, R&D 100 Award.

Improving Laser Beam Performance and Operational Reliability | John Heebner

Key words: fusion energy, laser energy optimization by precision adjustments to the radiant distribution (LEOPARD), liquid crystal modulator, optically addressable light valve (OALV), R&D 100 Award, shadow blocker.

A Solid Solution for Neutron and Gamma-Ray Differentiation | Natalia Zaitseva

Key words: diphenylacetylene (DPAC), gamma ray, neutron, organic crystal, plastic scintillator, polyvinyltoluene, pulse-shape discrimination (PSD), R&D 100 Award, radiation, stilbene.

Making Boring Cutting Edge | Frank Wong

Key words: direct metal deposition, disc cutter, glassy metal, iron-based amorphous alloy, nanocrystalline, NanoSHIELD (super-hard inexpensive laser-deposited) coating, R&D 100 Award, tunnel-boring machine (TBM).

Ten Times More Data for Shock-Physics Experiments | Natalie Kostinski

Key words: fiber-optic interferometer, hydrodynamics test, multiplexed photonic Doppler velocimetry (MPDV), R&D 100 Award, shock physics.

Research Highlights

Simulation and Precision Engineering Lead to Extraordinary Results in Experiment | Don Roberts

Key words: all-optical probe dome, hydrodynamics experiment, hydrotest, integrated weapons experiment (IWE), multiplexer, photonic Doppler velocimetry (PDV), precision engineering, three-dimensional (3D) computer simulation.

Breaking Down Nerve Agent Behavior | Richard Gee

Key words: BlueGene/L, computational chemistry, CP2K, energy barrier, first-principles simulation, metadynamics, nerve agent, rare-event sampling, sarin, transition state, VX.

September 2012 S&TR Cover

September 2012

Feature Articles

Building New Vaccines for the 21st Century | Paul Hoeprich

Key words: adjuvant, anthrax, antigen, biodefense, biological threat agent, biosecurity, Burkholderia, Francisella tularensis, immune system, lipid, membrane protein, nanolipoprotein particle (NLP), nickel-chelated NLP (NiNLP), scaffold protein, vaccine, West Nile virus.

A Flexible Foundation for High-Energy-Density Science | Warren Hsing

Key words: backlighter, Dante spectrometer, equation of state, halfraum, hohlraum, National Ignition Facility (NIF), Pleiades campaign, ramp compression, Rayleigh–Taylor instability, Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) diagnostic.

Research Highlights

Venturing into the Heart of High-Performance Computing Solutions | Fred Streitz

Key words: arrhythmia, Cardioid code, congestive heart failure, Gordon Bell Prize, high-performance computing (HPC), High Performance Computing Innovation Center (HPCIC), Livermore Valley Open Campus (LVOC), Sequoia, Vulcan.

Engineered Solutions through Simulation Insights | Bob Ferencz

Key words: ALE3D code, arbitrary Lagrangian–Eulerian (ALE) technique, computational engineering, embedded grid, ParaDyn code.

July/August 2012 S&TR Cover

July/August 2012

Feature Article

A Home for Energetic Materials and Their Experts | Jon Maienschein

Key words: ALE3D, CHEETAH, Composition B, Contained Firing Facility (CFF), Energetic Materials Center (EMC), flash x ray, Forensic Receival Facility, high explosive (HE), High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF), improvised explosive device (IED), insensitive high explosive (IHE), National Explosives Engineering Sciences Security Center, photonic Doppler velocimeter (PDV), Site 300, Stockpile Stewardship Program, tetranitro tetraazacyclooctane (HMX), 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB), 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (RDX), trinitrotoluene (TNT).

Research Highlights

A Spectra-Tacular Sight | Bruce Macintosh

Key words: core accretion, exoplanet, giant gas planet, HR 8799, Keck telescope, OSIRIS integral field spectrograph.

Seismic Data Pinpoint Fractures for Geothermal Energy | Dennise Templeton

Key words: earthquake, enhanced geothermal system (EGS), matched field processing, microquake, renewable energy, seismicity.

Employees Keep Up with the Times | Kathy Zobel

Key words: Education Assistance Program, continuing education, distance learning.

June 2012 S&TR Cover

June 2012

Feature Article

Seeking Clues to Climate Change | Karl Taylor

Key words: boreal, climate change, CFMIP Observation Simulator Package (COSP), Cloud Feedback Model Intercomparison Project (CFMIP), cloud simulation, fingerprinting, global warming, permafrost, Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison (PCMDI), regional climate modeling.

Research Highlights

Finding and Fixing a Supercomputer’s Faults | Bronis de Supinski

Key words: algebraic multigrid (AMG) algorithm, checkpoint, Clustering Algorithm with Parallel Extended K-Medoids (CAPEK), compute node, exascale computing, hard fault, performance fault, petascale computing, Scalable Checkpoint/Restart (SCR), soft fault, supercomputing.

Targeting Ignition | Evan Mapoles and Jim Fair

Key words: cryogenic target, crystal growth, deuterium–tritium fuel, electron-beam deposition, hohlraum, ignition, laser entrance hole, LASNEX, National Ignition Facility (NIF), shock timing, warm window, x-ray characterization.

Neural Implants Come of Age | Satinderpall Pannu

Key words: artificial retina, Center for Micro- and Nanotechnologies, cochlear implant, microelectrode array, neural implant, Parkinson’s disease, retinitis pigmentosa.

Incubator Busy Growing Energy Technologies | Clara Smith

Key words: clean energy technologies, high-performance computing (HPC), hpc4energy incubator.

April/May 2012 S&TR Cover

April/May 2012

Feature Article

Launching Traffic Cameras into Space | Vincent Riot

Key words: nanosatellite, optical payload, satellite, Space-Based Telescopes for Actionable Refinement of Ephemeris (STARE), space debris, telescope, three-unit cube satellite (3U CubeSat), track-detection algorithm.

Research Highlights

An Improved Tool for Nuclear Forensics | Kim Knight

Key words: Chicago-Argonne Resonance Ionization Spectrometer for MicroAnalysis (CHARISMA), fallout debris, nuclear forensics, plutonium isotope, resonance ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS), uranium isotope.

A Simple Way to Better Project Soldiers against Head Trauma | Michael King and Willy Moss

Key words: Advanced Combat Helmet (ACH), head injury criterion, Joint Improvised Explosive Device Defeat Organization, PARADYN, traumatic brain injury (TBI), U.S. Army.

Shocking Aluminum for Greater Understanding | Jonathan Crowhurst

Key words: aluminum, diamond anvil cell, Joint Munitions Command, shock compression, strain rate.

March 2012 S&TR Cover

March 2012

Honoring a Legacy of Service to the Nation | Kinnon Ernst

Feature Articles

Extending the Life of an Aging Weapon | Hank O'Brien

Key words: B61, intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM), life-extension program (LEP), mechanical safe arming detonator (MSAD), quantification of margins and uncertainties (QMU), stockpile stewardship, triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB), W78, W87.

Materials by Design | Chris Spadaccini

Key words: additive manufacturing, designer material, direct ink writing, electrophoretic deposition, microstructure, projection microstereolithography.

Research Highlights

Friendly Microbes Power Energy-Producing Devices | Fang Qian

Key words: bioanode, electrogenic bacteria, microbial fuel cell (MFC), Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, solar-driven microbial photoelectrochemical cell, transmembrane protein.

Chemical Sensors Is All Wires, No Batteries | Yinmin (Morris) Wang

Key words: battery, batteryless, Center for Micro- and Nanotechnology, chemical detector, chemical sensor, homeland security, medicine, nanoscience, nanowire, power source, semiconductor.

March 2012 S&TR Cover

January/February 2012

Feature Articles

At the Frontiers of Fundamental Science Research | Chris Keane

Key words: antimatter, beta decay, high energy density, hohlraum, hydrodynamic instability, materials science, National Ignition Campaign (NIC), National Ignition Facility (NIF), neutron capture, nucleosynthesis, phase transition, positron, ramp-wave compression, Rayleigh–Taylor effect, s-process, stellar plasma, stockpile stewardship, supernova, x-ray diffraction.

Livermore Responds to Crisis in Post-Earthquake Japan | Gayle Sugiyama

Key words: actinide analysis, alpha spectroscopy, atmospheric dispersion model, Consequence Management Home Team (CMHT), gamma spectroscopy, National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC), nuclear accident, Nuclear Counting Facility, Radiological Measurements Laboratory.

Research Highlights

A Comprehensive Resource for Modeling, Simulation, and Experiments | Meijie Tang

Key words: Advanced Simulation and Computing, MIDAS (Material Implementation, Database, and Analysis Source), stockpile stewardship, stress–strain curve.

Finding Data Needles in Gigabit Haystacks | Maya Gokhale

Key words: bioinformatics, computer algorithm, computer architecture, database, data-intensive computing, flash memory, Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), persistent memory.

December 2011 S&TR Cover

December 2011

Feature Article

Simulating the Next Generation of Energy Technologies | Julio Friedmann

Key words: carbon capture and sequestration, clean energy, energy sector, high-performance computing (HPC) simulation, High-Performance Computing Innovation Center (HPCIC), smart electric grid, wind energy.

Research Highlights

ARC Comes into Focus | Constantin Haefner

Key words: Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC), frequency-resolved optical gating, laser beam centering and pointing system, multilayer dielectric grating, petawatt laser, x-ray radiography.

A New Method to Track Viral Evolution | Monica Borucki

Key words: bovine coronavirus, genetic variation, genome, host jumping, mutation, sequencing, rabies, ribonucleic acid (RNA) virus.

Data for Defense: New Software Finds It Fast | David H. Brown

Key words: Counterproliferation Analysis and Planning System (CAPS), Element Centric (EleCent) component, Google Earth, Grails application, Hadoop software, Trinidad component, weapons of mass destruction (WMD).

November 2011 S&TR Cover

October/November 2011

Feature Article

Weapons Diagnostics Technology Revolutionizes Cancer Treatment | George Caporaso

Key words: Accuray, Inc.; cancer treatment; Compact Particle Acceleration Corporation (CPAC); Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA); dielectric wall accelerator (DWA); high-gradient insulator (HGI); proton therapy; x-radiation therapy; technology transfer; TomoTherapy, Inc.

Research Highlights

Glimpsing Fusion with the World’s Fastest Light Deflector | John Heebner

Key words: fusion, laser, National Ignition Facility (NIF), optics, R&D 100 Award, radiation-to-optical encoder, serrated light illumination for deflection-encoded recording (SLIDER).

Lightweight, Scalable Tool Identifies Supercomputers’ Code Errors | Greg Lee

Key words: bug, computer core, debugging, extreme-scale computing system, high-performance computing, R&D 100 Award, stack trace analysis tool (STAT).

Plutonium Hitches a Ride on Subsurface Particles | Annie Kersting

Key words: actinide, Glenn T. Seaborg Institute, Hanford Site, Mayak nuclear complex, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada Test Site, nuclear forensics, plutonium, Rocky Flats Plant.

September 2011 S&TR Cover

September 2011

Feature Article

A Beamline to National Security | Graham Bench

Key words: accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (CAMS), heavy-element chemistry, Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE), National Ignition Facility (NIF), national security, nonproliferation, nuclear forensics.

Research Highlights

Breaking the Pattern of Antibiotic Resistance | Paul Jackson

Key words: antibiotic resistance, gene, lytic protein, pathogen.

Bringing the Big Bang into View | Ron Soltz

Key words: A Large Ion Collider Experiment (ALICE), big bang, European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Green Linux Compute Cluster, Large Hadron Collider (LHC), quark–gluon plasma, Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC).

Enhanced Damage Resistance for NIF Optics | Jeff Bude

Key words: advanced mitigation process (AMP), final optics assembly, focusing lens, fused silica optics, hydrofluoric acid, National Ignition Facility (NIF), 3-omega light.

July/August 2011 S&TR Cover

July/August 2011

Feature Articles

Igniting Our Energy Future | Mike Dunne

Key words: deuterium, Electric Power Research Institute, electricity, flashlamp, inertial fusion, laser diode, Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE), lithium, National Ignition Facility (NIF), National Research Council, nuclear energy, power plant, tritium.

A "Grand" Way to Visualize Science | Fred Streitz

Key words: Grand Challenge Program, high-energy-density (HED) physics, high-performance computing (HPC), Institute for Scientific Computing Research, Multiprogrammatic and Institutional Computing (M&IC), supercomputing.

Research Highlights

Going Smaller, Raising Sensitivity | Tiziana Bond

Key words: Center for Micro- and Nanotechnologies, enhanced surveillance program, nanoscale engineering, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), ultraviolet laser interference lithography.

New Insight into the Unseen World | Jennifer Pett-Ridge

Key words: biofuel, bioremediation, Chip-SIP, Livermore Microarray Center (LMAC), microarray, microorganism, nanometer-scale secondary-ion mass spectrometer (NanoSIMS), nucleic acids, stable isotope probing (SIP), taxa, taxonomy.

June 2011 S&TR Cover

June 2011

Feature Article

Training a New Generation of Research Scientists | Kris Kulp

Key words: Institutional Postdoc Program Board, Lawrence Postdoctoral Fellowship Program, Postdoc Program, postdoctoral research, University Relations Program.

Research Highlights

Life from Outer Space | Nir Goldman

Key words: amino acid chains, cometary compression, low-angle comet, molecular-dynamics simulation.

A New Shape for Optical Fiber Lasers | Jay Dawson

Key words: optical fiber, ribbon-fiber laser.

Preventing Terror in the Skies | Harry Martz

Key words: automated threat-detection algorithm, aviation security, explosives detection, linear attenuation coefficient, Transportation Security Administration, x-ray computed tomography (CT).

April/May 2011 S&TR Cover

April/May 2011

Feature Article

From Video to Knowledge | Sheila Vaidya

Key words: Angel Fire; Autonomous Real-Time Ground Ubiquitous Surveillance Imaging System (ARGUS-IS); Constant Hawk; graphics processing unit (GPU); intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR); Persistics; pixel; Predator; Reaper; Sonoma.

Research Highlights

Kinetic Models Predict Biofuel Efficiency | Charlie Westbrook

Key words: biodiesel, biofuel, chemical kinetic model, combustion, diesel fuel, gasoline, methyl ester.

Going Deep with MEGa-Rays | Chris Barty

Key words: Compton backscattering, Dual Isotope Notch Observer (DINO), mono-energetic gamma-ray (MEGa-ray) light source, nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF), VELOCIRAPTOR.

Energy on Demand | Dick Post

Key words: bulk energy storage, Cooperative Research and Development Agreement, electromechanical battery (EMB), electrostatic generator–motor, flywheel, Industrial Partnerships Office, magnetic bearings, renewable energy.

March 2011 S&TR Cover

March 2011

Feature Article

From Respiration to Carbon Capture | Roger Aines

Key words: carbon capture, carbon dioxide (CO2), carbonic anhydrase, density functional theory (DFT), greenhouse gas.

Lending a Hand to an Oily Problem | Rob Sharpe

Key words: acoustic imaging, blowout preventer, Deepwater Horizon, fluid dynamics, gamma-ray imaging, Interagency Modeling and Atmospheric Assessment Center (IMAAC), Macondo well, oil reservoir, remotely operated vehicle (ROV).

Research Highlights

A Complex Game of Cat and Mouse | Brenda Ng

Key words: adversarial modeling; artificial intelligence; counterterrorism; interactive, partially observable Markov decision process (I-POMDP); law enforcement; money laundering; reinforcement learning.

New Campus Set to Transform Two National Laboratories | James Koonce

Key words: Combustion Research Facility (CRF), high-energy-density science, Hyperion, Livermore Valley Open Campus (LVOC), National Ignition Facility (NIF).

January/February 2011 S&TR Cover

January/February 2011

Feature Article

Groundbreaking Science with the World’s Brightest X Rays | Stefan Hau-Riege

Key words: FLASH laser, Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), nanoparticles, proteins, self-amplified spontaneous emission, single-particle aerosol mass spectrometry, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL).

Research Highlights

From Data to Discovery | Trish Damkroger

Key words: campaign management tools; CORBA; computer automation; data archive; integrated computer control system (ICCS); National Ignition Facility (NIF); shot analysis, visualization, and infrastructure (SAVI).

The Sun in All Its Splendor | Regina Soufli

Key words: Advanced Light Source, Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light, magnetic field, magnetron sputtering deposition, multilayer mirror, solar corona, Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), solar physics, Sun.

Drilling Deep into Plant Veins | Michael Thelen

Key words: atomic force microscopy (AFM), biofuel, cellulose, fluorescence microscopy, Joint BioEnergy Institute, lignin, lignocellulose, mesophyll, synchrotron radiation Fourier-transform infrared (SR-FTIR) spectromicroscopy, xylem.

December 2010 S&TR Cover

December 2010

Feature Article

Strengthening Our Understanding of Climate Change | Graham Bench

Key words: black coral, carbon-12, carbon-14, carbon dioxide (CO2), Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (CAMS), climate change, Geradia sp., gold coral, Leiopathes sp., photosynthesis, Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison, radiocarbon dating.

Precision Diagnostics Tell All | Robert L. Kauffman

Key words: advanced radiographic capability, Dante spectrometer, diagnostic instrument manipulator, full aperture backscatter station, high-energy-density science, hohlraum, ignition, inertial confinement fusion, laser, magnetic recoil spectrometer, National Ignition Campaign (NIC), National Ignition Facility (NIF), near backscatter imager, neutron, OMEGA laser, target, Velocity Interferometer for Any Reflector (VISAR).

Research Highlights

Quick Detection of Pathogens by the Thousands | Crystal Jaing

Key words: bacteria, bacterial sequences, Lawrence Livermore Microbial Detection Array (LLMDA), microarray, pathogen detection technology, viral sequence, virus.

Carbon Dioxide into the Briny Deep | Roger Aines

Key words: active carbon dioxide (CO2) reservoir management, carbon capture and sequestration, NUFT-C code.

October/November 2010 S&TR Cover

October/November 2010

R&D 100 Awards

A Scintillating Radiation Detection Material | Nerine Cherepy

Key words: gamma-ray spectroscopy, R&D 100 Award, radiation detection, radiological attack, strontium iodide scintillator.

Software Solution for Radioactive Contraband Detection | James Candy

Key words: Bayesian processing techniques, cargo container, gamma detector, R&D 100 Award, radionuclide detection, statistical radiation detection system (SRaDS).

Measuring Extremely Bright Pulses of Light | Stefan Hau-Riege

Key words: Linac Coherent Light Source, R&D 100 Award, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) energy monitor.

High-Speed Imager for Fast, Transient Events at NIF | Warren Hsing

Key words: electromagnetic pulse, fusion, grating-actuated transient optical recorder (GATOR), National Ignition Campaign, National Ignition Facility (NIF), R&D 100 Award.

Taking the Salt Out of the Sea | Francesco Fornasiero

Key words: carbon nanotube (CNT) membrane, desalination, filtration, R&D 100 Award, reclamation, reverse osmosis.

A Look inside the Living Eye | Diana Chen

Key words: adaptive optics (AO), deformable mirror, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), ocular disease, optical coherence tomography (OCT), R&D 100 Award, retinal imaging.

Research Highlights

Collaboration Expands the Periodic Table, One Element at a Time | Dawn Shaughnessy

Key words: Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), periodic table, superheavy elements.

Students and Researchers Partner for Summer Projects | Barry Goldman

Key words: Academic Cooperation Program, Institutional Education Committee, Military Academic Research Associate (MARA) Program, Outstanding Mentor Award, Scholar Employment Program, Student Internship Program.

September 2010 S&TR Cover

September 2010

Feature Article

Science in Support of International Weapon Treaties | Jay Zucca

Key words: Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), Forensic Science Center (FSC), GeMini, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), International Monitoring System, Limited Test Ban Treaty, New Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (New START), Next Generation Safeguards Initiative, Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), Threshold Test Ban Treaty.

Research Highlights

Crossing Computational Frontiers | Fred Streitz

Key words: Dawn, Gordon Bell Prize, Institute for Scientific Computing Research (ISCR), National Ignition Facility, plasma simulation, Sequoia, Summer Visitor Program.

Quickly Identifying Viable Pathogens from the Environment | Staci Kane and Sonia Létant

Key words: anthrax, Bacillus anthracis, biological threat agent, bioterrorism, pathogen, rapid viability polymerase chain reaction (RV-PCR), spore.

A Discriminating Device to Detect Antineutrinos | Adam Bernstein

Key words: aboveground antineutrino detector, Cerenkov light, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), nonproliferation, nuclear reactor, San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, scintillator.

July/August 2010 S&TR Cover

July/August 2010

Feature Article

Enhancing Confidence in the Nation’s Nuclear Stockpile | Pat Allen and Bob Maxwell

Key words: Enhanced Surveillance Campaign, high explosive (HE), life-extension program (LEP), Nuclear Posture Review (NPR), Pantex Plant, photonic Doppler velocimetry (PDV), plutonium, solid-phase microextraction (SPME), Stockpile Stewardship Program, uranium hydride.

Research Highlights

Narrowing Uncertainties | Richard Klein

Key words: climate modeling, predictive pipeline, uncertainty quantification (UQ).

Insight into a Deadly Disease | Amy Rasley

Key words: Acanthamoeba castellanii, amoeba, bioterrorism, encystment, Francisella tularensis, host cell, pathogen, tularemia, vaccine.

Return to Rongelap | Terry Hamilton

Key words: Castle Bravo nuclear test, Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (CAMS), cesium-137, Marshall Islands, plutonium urinalysis, potassium fertilizer, radiation dose, radioactive fallout, Rongelap Atoll Local Government, whole-body counting.

June 2010 S&TR Cover

June 2010

Feature Article

Diamonds Put the Pressure on Materials | William Evans

Key words: compression rate, crystal growth, dynamic diamond anvil cell (dDAC), high-pressure experiment, material dynamics, moissanite anvil cell (MAC), phase transformation kinetics, static experiment, superhard material.

Research Highlights

Exploring the Unusual Behavior of Granular Materials | Tarabay Antoun

Key words: compression rate, crystal growth, dynamic diamond anvil cell (dDAC), high-pressure experiment, material dynamics, moissanite anvil cell (MAC), phase transformation kinetics, static experiment, superhard material.

A 1-Ton Device in a Briefcase | Julie Herberg

Key words: chemical warfare agent, electrophoresis, LaserLathe, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry.

Targets Designed for Ignition | Trish Damkroger

Key words: Brillouin scattering, cryogenics, energetics, fuel capsule, hohlraum, inertial confinement fusion, laser–plasma interaction, National Ignition Campaign (NIC), National Ignition Facility (NIF), Raman scattering, target design.

April/May 2010 S&TR Cover

April/May 2010

Feature Article

A Stellar Performance | Trish Damkroger

Key words: energy gain, hohlraum, ignition, inertial confinement fusion (ICF), laser performance, pulse shape, National Ignition Campaign, National Ignition Facility (NIF), wavelength tuning.

Research Highlights

Extracting More Power from the Wind | Jeff Mirocha

Key words: cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA), energy efficiency, renewable energy, weather forecasting, wind power, wind turbine.

Date for a Heart Cell | Bruce Buchholz

Key words: carbon-14 dating, cardiomyocyte, Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (CAMS), heart-cell regeneration.

Unique Marriage of Biology and Semiconductors | Ann Stark

Key words: bionanoelectronics, lipid, nanotechnology, silicon nanowire.

March 2010 S&TR Cover

March 2010

Feature Article

Responding to a Terrorist Attack Involving Chemical Warfare Agents | Carolyn Koester or Ellen Raber

Key words: chemical warfare, Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), decontamination, Forensic Science Center (FSC), Los Angeles International Airport (LAX), mustard, Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), San Francisco International Airport (SFO), sarin, VX.

Research Highlights

Revealing the Secrets of a Deadly Disease | Brett Chromy

Key words: optoelectronic tweezers (OET), pathogen cells, plague disease, trapping system, Yersinia pestis.

A New Application for a Weapons Code | Willy Moss

Key words: Afghanistan, blast wave, combat helmet, improvised explosive device (IED), Iraq, traumatic brain injury (TBI).

Testing Valuable National Assets for X-Ray Damage | Kevin Fournier

Key words: gas-filled target, National Ignition Facility (NIF), OMEGA laser, plasma physics, radiation effects testing, x rays, x-ray source.

An Efficient Way to Harness the Sun’s Power | Charles Bennett

Key words: electric power, GyroSolé™, heat energy, renewable energy source, solar energy, solar thermal technology, steam-powered engine, technology transfer, thermal-energy storage.

January/February 2010 S&TR Cover

January/February 2010

Feature Article

The Hunt for Better Radiation Detection | Steve Payne

Key words: crystal growth, gamma radiation, garnet, helium-3, lanthanum bromide (cerium), neutron, radiation detection, scintillation detector, stilbene, strontium iodide, transparent ceramics.

Research Highlights

Time-Critical Technology Identifies Deadly Bloodborne Pathogens | John Dzenitis

Key words: bloodborne-pathogen detection, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), point-of-care testing (POCT), sepsis.

Defending Computer Networks against Attack | Celeste Matarazzo

Key words: Comprehensive National Cyber Security Initiative, cyber security, hacker, Internet, malware, Supercomputing Enabled Transformational Analytics Capability (SETAC).

Imaging Cargo’s Inner Secrets | Marie-Anne Descalle

Key words: Cargo Automated Radiography System, cargo screening, fissile material, fission, Monte Carlo modeling, photon, radition detection, scintillator.

December 2009 S&TR Cover

December 2009

Feature Article

A Defensive “Coat” for Materials under Attack | Joe Farmer

Key words: amorphous metal alloy, corrosion resistance, criticality control, metallic glass, neutron absorption, thermal spray coating.

Research Highlights

Too Close for Comfort | David S. Dearborn

Key words: asteroid, deflection, fragmentation, gravity tractor, impactor technology, Spaceguard Near-Earth Object Survey, nuclear explosive, space.

Hyperion: A Titan of High-Performance Computing Systems | Mark Seager

Key words: high-performance computing (HPC), Hyperion, Linux cluster, petascale system.

Isolating Pathogens for Speedy Identification | Klint Rose

Key words: acoustic focusing, bacteria, Center for Micro- and Nanotechnology, dielectrophoresis, DNA, isotachophoresis, microfluidics, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), RNA, virus.

October/November 2009 S&TR Cover

October/November 2009

2009 R&D 100 Awards

Light-Speed Spectral Analysis of a Laser Pulse | J. Paul Armstrong

Key words: bandwidth, interlock, Mercury laser, optics damage, R&D 100 Award, spectral analysis, spectral sentry.

Capturing Waveforms in a Quadrillionth of a Second | Corey V. Bennett

Key words: dynamic range, FemtoScope, R&D 100 Award, temporal imaging, temporal resolution, time microscope.

Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy in the Palm of Your Hand | Morgan Burks

Key words: gamma-ray spectrometer, GeMini, germanium, International Atomic Energy Agency, nuclear safeguards, radiation detector, R&D 100 Award.

Building Fusion Targets with Precision Robotics | Richard Montesanti

Key words: force and torque feedback, fusion ignition targets, National Ignition Facility (NIF), precision robotic assembly machine, R&D 100 Award.

ROSE: Making Compiler Technology More Accessible | Dan Quinlan

Key words: binary analysis compiler, compiler infrastructure, program analysis, R&D 100 Award, ROSE, source code optimization, source code transformation, source code translation, source-to-source.

Restoring Sight to the Blind with an Artificial Retina | Satinderpall Pannu

Key words: age-related macular degeneration, artificial retina, blindness, ocular disease, R&D 100 Award, retinal implant, retinal degeneration, retinitis pigmentosa.

Eradicating the Aftermath of War | Peter Haugen

Key words: demining, Hystar, iRadar, LANDMARC, land mine locator, R&D 100 Award, ultrawideband radar.

Compact Alignment for Diagnostic Laser Beams | Mike Rushford

Key words: Advanced Radiography Capability (ARC), bifocal lens, imaging camera, laser beam alignment, laser beam centering and pointing system (LBCAPS), National Ignition Facility (NIF), R&D 100 Award.

Feature Article

Securing Radiological Sources in Africa | Carolyn Mac Kenzie

Key words: Africa, Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI), orphan source, radiological source, search and secure.

September 2009 S&TR Cover

September 2009

Feature Articles

Herbert F. York (1921–2009), A Life of Firsts, an Ambassador for Peace | Maxine Trost

Key words: Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), arms control, Herbert Frank York, Institute for Global Conflict and Cooperation (IGCC), University of California (UC) at San Diego.

Searching for Life in Extreme Environments | John Dzenitis

Key words: archaea, Astrobiology Science and Technology for Exploring Planets Program, autonomous pathogen detection system (APDS), Environmental Sample Processor (ESP), Europa, Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) module.

Research Highlights

Energy Goes with the Flow | A. J. Simon

Key words: carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption, energy flow charts, energy flow diagrams, energy resources.

The Radiant Side of Sound | Evan Reed

Key words: acoustic wave, piezoelectric material, ramp compression, shock wave, semiconductor, sound wave, strain, terahertz frequency, ultrafast laser.

July/August 2009 S&TR Cover

July/August 2009

Feature Articles

Preventing Close Encounters of the Orbiting Kind | Scot Olivier

Key words: high-performance computing, Joint Space Operations Center, ParaDyn (parallel DYNA3D), parallel discrete event simulation (PDES), space situational awareness, Space Surveillance Network (SSN), Testbed Environment for Space Situational Awareness (TESSA), ViSUS.

A CAT Scanner for Nuclear Weapon Components | Pat Allen

Key words: Combined Large Optical Scintillator Screen and Imaging System (CoLOSSIS), computed tomography (CT), nondestructive evaluation, Pantex Plant, radiography, stockpile stewardship, x ray.

Research Highlights

Mass-Producing Positrons | Hui Chen

Key words: antimatter, astrophysics, gamma ray, high-Z material, hot electron, plasma, positron, positronium, Titan, ultraintense laser.

The Next Generation of Medical Diagnostic Devices | John Chang

Key words: intracranial hematoma detector, medical diagnostic device, micropower impulse radar, noninvasive pneumothorax detector, R&D 100, ultrawideband (UWB), vital signs monitor.

June 2009 S&TR Cover

June 2009

Feature Articles

Dissolving Molecules to Improve Their Performance | Robert Maxwell

Key words: high explosive, High Explosives Applications Facility, hydrogen bond, ionic liquid, molecular crystal, 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB), quantum molecular dynamics (QMD), Site 300, Transformational Materials Initiative (TMI).

Exceptional People Producing Great Science | Kris Kulp

Key words: accelerator mass spectrometer, atomic force microscopy (AFM), climate change, Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE), high-mass star, Institutional Postdoc Program Board, mathematical modeling, nanoparticle, National Ignition Facility (NIF), neutrinoless double-beta decay, particle physics, quantum computing, stockpile stewardship.

Research Highlights

Revealing the Identities and Functions of Microbes | Jennifer Pett-Ridge

Key words: biofuels, elemental fluorescent in situ hybridization (El-FISH), microbe, nanometer-scale secondary-ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS), stable isotope.

A Laser Look inside Planets | Ray Smith

Key words: equation of state, exoplanet, laser-driven ramp compression, OMEGA laser, National Ignition Facility (NIF), phase transformation, super-Earth planet.

April/May 2009 S&TR Cover

April/May 2009

Feature Articles

The Journey into a New Era of Scientific Discoveries

Safe and Sustainable Energy with LIFE | Edward I. Moses or Tomás Díaz de la Rubia

Key words: diode-pumped solid-state lasers (DPSSLs), fast ignition, fission, fusion, hohlraum, hot-spot ignition, inertial confinement fusion, Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE), National Ignition Facility (NIF), nuclear power, stockpile stewardship.

Simulated Rehearsal for Battle | Lauri Dobbs

Key words: conflict simulation, Joint Combat and Tactical Simulation (JCATS), JCATS Low Overhead Driver (JLOD), Joint Warfighting Center, North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

Research Highlights

Improving Catalysis with a “Noble” Material | Juergen Biener or Ted Baumann

Key words: atomic layer deposition (ALD), carbon aerogels, catalysis, catalyst, fuel cell, hydrogen storage, nanoporous materials, oxidation, platinum.

A Time Machine for Fast Neutrons | Mike Heffner

Key words: detector, fissile material, high-energy physics, ionization track, kinematics, neutron time-projection chamber (nTPC), radioactive source.

March 2009 S&TR Cover

March 2009

Feature Articles

Sleuthing Seismic Signals | Bill Walter

Key words: Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), Crandall Canyon Mine, explosion monitoring, International Monitoring System, nuclear testing, nuclear treaty verification, seismology.

Wind and the Grid | Dora Yen-Nakafuji

Key words: climate change, electrical grid, electrical infrastructure, intermittent renewables, National Transmission and Energy Resilience Response Analysis (N-TERRA), renewable energy, wind forecasting, Wind SENSE.

Research Highlights

Searching for Tiny Signals from Dark Matter | Darin Kinion

Key words: Axion Dark Matter Experiment (ADMX), Josephson junction, quantum computing, qubit, superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID).

A Better Method for Decontamination | William J. Smith

Key words: activated carbon, chemical agents, low-cost personal decontamination system (LPDS), Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL), toxic industrial compounds.

January/February 2009 S&TR Cover

January/February 2009

Feature Articles

Sniffing the Air with an Electronic Nose | Brad Hart

Key words: chemical weapon, detector, Forensic Science Center, microcantilever, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), National Consortium for Measurement and Signatures Intelligence Research, polyolefin, sensor, sulfur mustard, VX.

Simulations Explain High-Energy-Density Experiments | Scott Wilks

Key words: Atlas computer, Computing Grand Challenge Program, high-energy-density (HED) physics, Jupiter Facility, laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA), National Ignition Facility (NIF), reduced-mass target (RMT).

Research Highlights

Seeing Condensed Matter in a New Ligh | Anton Barty

Key words: condensed matter, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), FLASH, Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), ultrafast dynamics, x-ray diffraction, x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL).

Environment, Safety, and Health in the Extreme | Allen Macenski

Key words: environment, safety, and health (ES&H); environmental stewardship; industrial hygiene; integrated safety management (ISM); waste management.

November/December 2008 S&TR Cover

November/December 2008

Feature Articles

Taking Ultrafast Snapshots of Material Changes | Nigel Browning

Key words: dynamic transmission electron microscope (DTEM), materials science, Nano 50 Award, R&D 100 Award.

Automated Technology fo Laser Fusion Systems | Richard Leach and Karl Wilhelmsen

Key words: autonomous alignment process for laser fusion systems (AAPLF), fusion, image-processing algorithm, laser beam path, National Ignition Facility (NIF), photon science, R&D 100 Award.

Protecting the Nation through Secure Cargo | Kique Romero

Key words: cargo container, GUARDIAN, R&D 100 Award, SecureBox, security, sensor, transmitted reference modulation, transportation, ultrawideband (UWB) communications.

Atom by Atom, Layer by Layer | Troy Barbee

Key words: energetic materials, extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL), magnetron sputter deposition, multilayers, nanolaminates, reactive materials.

Research Highlight

Predicting the Bizarre Properties of Plutonium | Mike Fluss

Key words: Atlas supercomputer, Computing Grand Challenge Program, delta phase, density functional theory (DFT), dynamical mean field theory (DMFT), plutonium.

September/October 2008 S&TR Cover

September/October 2008

Feature Articles

Testing the Accuracy of the Supernova Yardstick | Rob Hoffman

Key words: CASTRO code, Computational Astrophysical Consortium (CAC), cosmology, dark energy, Grand Challenge computing, hydrodynamics, MAESTRO code, SEDONA code, SNe code, Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia).

Developing New Drugs and Personalized Medical Treatment | Ken Turteltaub

Key words: accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion), biosecurity, cancer, Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (CAMS), chemotherapy, microdosing, pharmacokinetics, University of California (UC) Davis Cancer Center.

Research Highlights

Triage in a Patch | Erik Mukerjee and Elizabeth Wheeler

Key words: BioBriefcase, DNA sampling, exposure monitoring, lateral flow assay, microneedle.

Smoothing Out Defects for Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography | Paul Mirkarimi

Key words: deposition, etching, extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL), integrated circuit, ion-beam thin-film planarization process, mask defect, microchip, reflective multilayer, semiconductor industry, transistor.

July/August 2008 S&TR Cover

July/August 2008

Feature Articles

The New Face of Industrial Partnerships | Erik Stenehjem

Key words: commercialization, Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), industrial partnership, laser peening, proton accelerator, SecureBox, technology transfer.

Monitoring a Nuclear Weapon from the Inside | Jim Trebes and Tony Lavietes

Key words: embedded sensors, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, hydrogen getter, joint test assemblies, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), Moscow Treaty on Strategic Offensive Reductions, nuclear stockpile, Raman spectroscopy, stockpile stewardship.

Research Highlights

Simulating the Biomolecular Structure of Nanometer-Size Particles | Richard Law

Key words: apolipoprotein E4-22K, Computing Grand Challenge Program, membrane protein, nanolipoprotein particle (NLP), protein structure, simulation, Thunder computer, Zeus computer.

Antineutrino Detectors Improve Reactor Safeguards | Adam Bernstein

Key words: antineutrino detector, Cerenkov light, coherent neutrino nucleus scattering, fissile material, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), inverse beta decay, nuclear reactor safeguards, San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station (SONGS), scintillator.

May/June 2008 S&TR Cover

May/June 2008

Feature Article

Shaping the Future of Aneurysm Treatments | Duncan Maitland and Thomas Wilson

Key words: aneurysm, embolic coiling, foam, hemorrhagic stroke, laser, shape-memory polymer (SMP).

Research Highlights

Ring around a Stellar Shell: A Tale of Scientific Serendipity | Peter Eggleton

Key words: Djehuty code, helium-3, helium flash, stellar evolution.

On Assignment in Washington, DC | T. R. Koncher

Key words: change-of-station; Intergovernmental Personnel Agreement; off-site assignment; Washington, DC.

March/April 2008 S&TR Cover

March/April 2008

Feature Article

Extending the Search for Extrasolar Planets | Bruce Macintosh

Key words: adaptive optics, angular differential imaging (ADI), astrophysics, coronagraph, debris disk, diffraction imaging, extrasolar planet (exoplanet), Gemini Deep Planet Survey, Gemini Observatory, Gemini Planet Imager (GPI).

Research Highlights

Standardizing the Art of Electron-Beam Welding | John Elmer

Key words: computed tomography, electron-beam (EBeam) reproducibility, EBeam Profiler, electron-beam welding, modified Faraday cup, power distribution, quality control diagnostics, sharp focus.

Molecular Building Blocks Made of Diamonds | Trevor Willey

Key words: adamantane, band gap, conduction band, diamond, diamondoid, monolayer, semiconductor.

Animation Brings Science to Life | Michael Loomis

Key words: animation, computer simulation, Engineering Visualization Theater.

January/February 2008 S&TR Cover

January/February 2008

Feature Articles

Edward Teller’s Century: Celebrating the Man and His Vision | Stephen B. Libby

Key words: applied science, Ashkin–Teller model, basic science, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller equation of state, Department of Applied Science University of California at Davis, Edward Teller, Gamow–Teller transition, hydrogen bomb, Jahn–Teller effect, Lyddane–Sachs–Teller relation, Metropolis Method, national defense, national security, nuclear power, physics, Presidential Medal of Freedom, Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), thermonuclear weapon, x-ray laser.

Quark Theory and Today’s Supercomputers: It’s a Match | Ron Soltz

Key words: big bang, BlueGene/L, Gordon Bell Prize, Large Hadron Collider, lattice quantum chromodynamics (QCD), quark–gluon plasma, Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC), strong force.

Research Highlight

The Role of Dentin in Tooth Fracture | John Kinney

Key words: atomic force microscopy (AFM), collagen, dentin, dentinal tubules, fracture toughness, resonant ultrasound spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy.

December 2007 S&TR Cover

December 2007

Feature Article

Out of Harm’s Way | Mo Bissani

Key words: China; Federal Information System (FIS); International Material Protection and Cooperation (IMPC) Program; Material Protection, Control, and Accountability Program; nonproliferation; nuclear materials; Russian Federation.

Research Highlights

A Calculated Journey to the Center of the Earth | Jeff Roberts

Key words: Advanced Light Source, core formation, iron sulfide, magma ocean, mantle, olivine, partial melt, percolation, permeability, volcanic glass, x-ray computed tomography.

Wireless That Works | Faranak Nekoogar

Key words: radio-frequency identification tag, ultrawideband (UWB) radar, Utag, VisiBuilding project, wireless communication technology.

Power to the People | Stephen B. Libby

Key words: fission; fusion; nuclear power; nuclear reactor; Project Plowshare; small, sealed, transportable, autonomous reactor (SSTAR); TRIGA(R) reactor.

November 2007 S&TR Cover

November 2007

Feature Articles

A Code to Model Electromagnetic Phenomena | Dan White

Key words: ALE3D code, electromagnetic pulse (EMP), electromagnetism, electro-thermal-mechanical (ETM) simulations, EMSolve code, finite-element analysis, Maxwell’s equations, National Ignition Facility (NIF), photonic band-gap (PBG) crystals, radar, railgun, Titan.

Characterizing Virulent Pathogens | Tom Slezak

Key words: biological agents, BioWatch, foot-and-mouth disease, foreign animal disease, influenza, KPATH, multiplexed assays, pathogen, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), virulence.

Research Highlights

Imaging at the Atomic Level | John Bradley

Key words: electron microscope, electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS), monochromator, nanomaterials, Stardust spacecraft, super scanning transmission electron microscope (SuperSTEM).

Scientists without Borders | Mo Bissani

Key words: Algeria, Argentina, Egypt, international nonproliferation cooperation, International Nuclear Safeguards and Engagement Program (INSEP), Libya, Morocco, Peru, Romania, Thailand, Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, Vietnam.

Probing Deep into the Nucleus | Stephen B. Libby

Key words: Edward Teller, nuclear physics, particle physics, standard model.

October 2007 S&TR Cover

October 2007

Feature Articles

Fast Detection of a Punctured Lung | John Chang

Key words: chest trauma, chest x ray, collapsed lung, noninvasive pneumothorax detector, R&D 100 Award, ultrawideband (UWB) technology.

Retinal Camera Captures Early Stages of Eye Disease | Scot Olivier

Key words: deformable mirror, microelectromechanical systems– (MEMS-) based adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (MAOSLO), optical aberrations, R&D 100 Award, retinal imaging, wavefront corrector.

Mobile Mapping of Radioactive Materials | Lorenzo Fabris

Key words: coded aperture, gamma rays, large-area imager (LAI), radiation detection, R&D 100 Award.

Linear Solutions at Hypre Speed | Rob Falgout

Key words: hypre linear solver, open-source software, parallel computing, R&D 100 Award, supercomputing.

Bringing Fusion Research into Focus | Joe Menapace

Key words: continuous-phase-plate (CPP) optics system, inertial confinement fusion (ICF), laser optics, magnetorheological finishing (MRF), National Ignition Facility (NIF), R&D 100 Award.

Back to Basics | Stephen B. Libby

Key words: atomic physics, Edward Teller, hydrogen molecular ion, Jahn–Teller theorem, molecular physics, polymolecules, Thomas–Fermi approximation, quantum mechanics.

September 2007 S&TR Cover

September 2007

Feature Articles

Ramrods Shepherd Hydrodynamic Tests | Steve Bosson

Key words: Contained Firing Facility (CFF), core-punch test, Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility, Flash X Ray (FXR), high explosive, hydrodynamic experiments, integrated weapon experiment (IWE), nuclear weapon, pin test, primary, ramrod, Site 300.

Three Dimensional on the Nanoscale | Vince Malba and Chris Spadaccini

Key words: grayscale lithography, LaserLathe(TM), laser pantography (LP), magnetic resonance imaging, National Ignition Facility (NIF), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), projection microstereolithography.

Research Highlights

Assessing the Threat of Biological Terrorism | Tom Bates

Key words: Biodefense Knowledge Center (BKC), bioterrorism, foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), Multiscale Epidemiological/Economic Simulation and Analysis (MESA), systems studies, threat assessment, Threat Awareness Program.

Shedding Light on Dark Matter | Bill Craig

Key words: antideuteron, antimatter, antiparticle, antiproton, cosmology, dark matter, general antiparticle spectrometer (GAPS), Milky Way Galaxy, neutralino, particle physics, weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP), x-ray detector.

From Fission to Fusion and Beyond | Stephen B. Libby

Key words: Edward Teller, hydrogen bomb, multiple independently targeted reentry vehicles, Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI).

July/August 2007 S&TR Cover

July/August 2007

Feature Articles

Preparing for the X Games of Science | Bruce Remington

Key words: backlighter, black hole, Cepheid variable, equation of state, high-energy-density (HED) physics, hohlraum, hydrodynamic instability, ignition, Institute for Laser Science and Applications (ILSA), Jupiter Laser Facility, National Ignition Facility (NIF) Early Light campaign, OMEGA laser, photoionized plasma, Rayleigh|Taylor instability, supernova, Z-machine.

Meeting the Target Challenge | Jeff Atherton and Alex Hamza

Key words: beryllium capsule, Center for Nondestructive Characterization, cryogenics, high-density carbon, ignition target, inertial confinement fusion (ICF), metallic foam, nanoporous material, Nanoscale Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory (NSCL), National Ignition Facility (NIF).

Research Highlights

A Laboratory to Probe a Planet’s Deep Interior | Peter Celliers

Key words: astrophysics, diamond anvil cell (DAC), equation of state, National Ignition Facility (NIF), phase transition, plasma piston, ramp-wave-compression (RWC) experiment.

A Closer Look at Nucleosynthesis | Lee Bernstein

Key words: Coulomb repulsion, elements, fusion, hydrogen burning, National Ignition Facility (NIF), nucleosynthesis, periodic table, rapid (r) process, slow (s) process, stellar evolution, waiting-point nuclei.

Taking on the Stars | Stephen B. Libby

Key words: astrophysics, controlled fusion, Edward Teller, thermonuclear weapons.

June 2007 S&TR Cover

June 2007

Feature Articles

Doing a Stretch of Time | Corey V. Bennett

Key words: Bragg grating, diagnostic system, dynamic range, fiber optic, free-electron laser, Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), National Ignition Facility (NIF), nonlinear crystal, oscilloscope, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Stockpile Stewardship Program, streak camera, time microscope, underground nuclear testing, x-ray pulse.

Setting a World Driving Record with Hydrogen | Sal Aceves

Key words: carbon sequestration, compressed hydrogen gas, greenhouse gases, hydrogen-powered vehicle, liquid hydrogen, National Hydrogen Storage Project.

Research Highlights

Virtual Dams Subjected to Strong Earthquakes | Chad Noble

Key words: dam, DYNA3D, earthquake, finite-element analysis, Multiprogrammatic Capability Resource, NIKE3D, PARADYN, TOPAZ3D, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR).

A Second Chance at Sight | Satinderpall (Sat) Pannu

Key words: artificial retina, electrode array, microfabrication, retinal prosthesis.

A Gifted Teacher of Applied and Fundamental Physics | Stephen B. Libby

Key words: Department of Applied Science (DAS), Edward Teller Education Center (ETEC), George Gamow, Niels Bohr, Science and Technology Education Program (STEP).

May 2007 S&TR Cover

May 2007

Feature Articles

A Quantum Contribution to Technology | Andrew Williamson

Key words: density functional theory, hydrogen storage, optical scatterometry, quantum molecular simulations, quantum Monte Carlo, silicon chip manufacture, silicon nanowires, thermoelectric materials.

U.S. Weapons Plutonium Aging Gracefully | Adam Schwartz

Key words: actinides, Advanced Photon Source (APS), alpha decay, diamond anvil cell (DAC), Global Nuclear Energy Partnership, helium, Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research (JASPER) Facility, nuclear power, plutonium, Plutonium Futures Conference, stockpile stewardship, uranium.

Research Highlights

Imaging Complex Biomolecules in a Flash | Henry Chapman

Key words: biological macromolecule, diffraction pattern, FLASH, Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), protein, Shrinkwrap algorithm, virus, x-ray free-electron laser (FEL).

Lipid Rafts Observed in Cell Membranes | Tim Ratto

Key words: atomic force microscopy (AFM), bilayer, cell membrane, cholesterol, fluorescent recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), lipid raft, phase separation.

Exchanging Insights on Quantum Behavior | Stephen B. Libby

Key words: condensed-matter physics, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller equation of state, Edward Teller, Lyddane–Sachs–Teller relationship, Metropolis algorithm.

April 2007 S&TR Cover

April 2007

Feature Articles

Stardust Results Challenge Astronomical Convention | John Bradley

Key words: Advanced Light Source, aerogel, Bay Area Particle Analysis Consortium (BayPAC), Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Comet Wild 2, Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics (IGPP), nanometer-scale secondary-ion mass spectrometer (NanoSIMS), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, Stardust spacecraft, super scanning transmission electron microscope (SuperSTEM), X-wind.

Fire in the Hole | Julio Friedmann

Key words: carbon dioxide capture and storage, carbon sequestration, hydrogen production, underground coal gasification (UCG).

Research Highlights

Big Physics in Small Spaces | David Trebotich

Key words: algorithm, biosensor, continuum model, DNA, fluid flow, microchannel, microfluidic device, multiscale computational fluid dynamics, particle model, post array, viscoelastic fluid.

A New Block on the Periodic Table | Dawn Shaughnessy

Key words: element 118, heavy elements, island of stability, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR).

A Search for Patterns and Connections | Stephen B. Libby

Key words: anharmonic oscillator, Ashkin–Teller model, computational physics, Edward Teller, mathematical physics, Metropolis algorithm, Schrödinger equation, Thomas–Fermi model.

March 2007 S&TR Cover

March 2007

Feature Articles

Advancing the Frontiers in Cancer Research | Jim Felton

Key words: accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), cancer, carboplatin, cisplatin, dielectric wall accelerator, principal component analysis (PCA), proton accelerator, proton beam therapy, time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), University of California (UC) Davis Cancer Center.

On the Leading Edge of Atmospheric Predictions | Gayle Sugiyama

Key words: airborne toxic release, atmospheric chemistry, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), event reconstruction, fallout model, FEM3MP, Interagency Modeling and Atmospheric Assessment Center (IMAAC), National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC), precipitation scavenging, urban-scale dispersion model, Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model.

Research Highlights

Climate and Agriculture: Change Begets Change | David Lobell

Key words: agriculture, California, climate change, food supply, global warming, land use, perennial crops, Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison (PCMDI).

New Routes to High Temperatures and Pressures | Jeff Nguyen

Key words: diamond anvil cell, equation of state (EOS), functionally graded material (FGM) impactor, graded density, Hugoniot curve, Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research (JASPER) Facility, quasi-isentropic compression, two-stage light-gas gun.

From Sound Waves to Stars: Teller’s Contributions to Shock Physics | Stephen B. Libby

Key words: Edward Teller, magnetohydrodynamics, Manhattan Project, shock physics.

January/February 2007 S&TR Cover

January/February 2007

Feature Articles

Titan Leads the Way in Laser–Matter Science | Andrew Ng

Key words: backlighter, electron transport, equation of state (EOS), fast ignition, high-energy-density (HED) science, impedance matching, inertial confinement fusion (ICF), Janus laser, Jupiter Laser Facility, multilayer dielectric grating, Petawatt laser, proton transport, Titan laser.

Identifying the Source of Stolen Nuclear Materials | David Smith

Key words: cosmochemistry, Forensic Science Center, Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), nuclear attribution, nuclear forensics, Nuclear Forensics Analysis Center, nuclear material, nuclear terrorism..

Research Highlights

Tiny Tubes Make the Flow Go | Olgica Bakajin and Aleksandr Noy

Key words: carbon nanotube membrane, Center for Micro- and Nanotechnology, filtration, microfluidics.

Acidic Microbe Community Fosters the Unique | Michael Thelen

Key words: acid mine drainage, archaea, bacteria, genomics, iron oxidation, Leptospirillum, proteomics.

December 2006 S&TR Cover

December 2006

Feature Article

Diagnosing Flu Fast | Mary McBride

Key words: Autonomous Pathogen Detection System, FluIDx, influenza, KPATH, multiplex assays, point-of-care diagnosis, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respiratory disease.

Research Highlights

An Action Plan to Reopen a Contaminated Airport | Ellen Raber

Key words: airport, bioterrorism, decontamination, emergency response and recovery, rapid viability polymerase chain reaction (RV-PCR), subway, transportation facilities.

Early Detection of Bone Disease | Darren Hillegonds

Key words: accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), bone disease, calcium-41, cancer, Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (CAMS).

Taking a Gander with Gamma Rays | Christopher Barty

Key words: cargo inspection, gamma-ray spectrum, isotope photography, nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) imaging, Thomson-radiated extreme x-ray (T-REX) system, Thomson scattering.

November 2006 S&TR Cover

November 2006

Feature Articles

Thunder’s Power Delivers Breakthrough Science | Brian Carnes

Key words: 1BBL protein, Atlas supercomputer, climate change, confined water, dislocation dynamics, Green Data Oasis, Multiprogrammatic and Institutional Computing (M&IC) Program, Parallel Dislocation Simulator (ParaDiS) code, plasticity, protein folding, Qbox code, Replica Exchange Molecular Dynamics, Thunder supercomputer.

Extracting Key Content from Images | David Paglieroni

Key words: gradient direction matching (GDM) algorithm, Image Content Engine (ICE), Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), National Ignition Facility (NIF), Predictive Knowledge Systems (PKS).

Research Highlights

Got Oxygen? | Jason Raymond

Key words: anaerobic organisms, bioinformatics, evolution, metabolic network expansion, oxygen, oxygenation.

A Shocking New Form of Laserlike Light | Evan Reed

Key words: coherent light, crystal lattice arrays, ionic crystals, laser, molecular dynamics simulations, shock wave, terahertz frequency, Thunder supercomputer.

October 2006 S&TR Cover

October 2006

R&D 100 Award Highlights

Surveillance on the Fly | Deanna Pennington

Key words: electro-optical sensors, graphics processing unit, nonproliferation, R&D 100 Award, Sonoma Persistent Surveillance System, video imagery, visualization.

A Detector Radioactive Particles Can’t Evade | Stephan Friedrich

Key words: lithium fluoride, mechanical pulse-tube refrigerator, radiation detection, R&D 100 Award, Ultrahigh-Resolution Gamma and Neutron Spectrometer (UltraSpec).

Babel Speeds Communication among Programming Languages | Thomas Epperly

Key words: Babel, Common Component Architecture Forum, Fortran, language interoperability, R&D 100 Award, Scientific Interface Definition Language (SIDL).

A Gem of a Software Tool | Chandrika Kamath

Key words: data-mining software, R&D 100 Award, Sapphire.

Interferometer Improves the Search for Planets | David Erskine

Key words: externally dispersed interferometry (EDI), moireL pattern, R&D 100 Award, spectroscopy.

Efficiently Changing the Color of Laser Light | Christopher Ebbers

Key words: high-average-power laser, Mercury laser, potassium di-deuterium phosphate (DKDP) crystal, R&D 100 Award, wavelength conversion, yttrium|calcium|oxyborate (YCOB) crystal.

Pocket-Sized Test Detects Trace Explosives | John Reynolds

Key words: Easy Livermore Inspection Test for Explosives (E.L.I.T.E.TM) card, explosives testing, R&D 100 Award.

Feature Article

Tailor-Made Microdevices Serve Big Needs | Anantha Krishnan

Key words: Center for Micro- and Nanotechnology (CMNT), deformable mirror, grayscale lithography, microelectrode array, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), microfluidic device, microresonator, Nanobarcodes(R), nanolaminate, photonics, pillar detector, retinal prosthesis, thermal neutron detector.

September 2006 S&TR Cover

September 2006

Feature Articles

Re-creating the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake | Arthur J. Rodgers, Jr.

Key words: ALE3D, CODE3, DYNA3D, E3D, earthquake, Hayward|Rodgers Creek Fault, Lawson report, Loma Prieta earthquake, morphochronology, Sacramento|San Joaquin Delta levees, San Andreas Fault, seismology, ShakeMap, spectral element method (SEM), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Wave Propagation Program (WPP), 1906 San Francisco earthquake.

Decoding the Origin of a Bioagent | Steve Velsko

Key words: atomic force microscopy (AFM), Bacillus anthracis, biological agent, Clostridium novyi-NT, genetic typing, insertion sequence (IS) elements, microbial forensics, nanometer-scale secondary-ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS), National Bioforensics Analysis Center (NBFAC), polymerase chain reaction (PCR), polymorphism, Scientific Working Group for Forensic Analysis of Microbial Evidence (SWGFAME), Yersinia pestis.

Research Highlights

A New Look at How Aging Bones Fracture | John Kinney

Key words: bone density, bone fracture, bone structure, buckling, NIKE3D, osteoporosis, trabecular bone.

Fusion Targets on the Double | Matthew Bono

Key words: ablator, aerogel, concentric tolerance, diamond turning, double-shell target, fusion experiment, submicrometer machining.

July/August 2006 S&TR Cover

July/August 2006

Feature Articles

A New Realm of Materials Science | Hector Lorenzana

Key words: crystalline lattice, dynamic x-ray diffraction (DXRD), materials science, phase transformations, shocked solids, ultrafast lattice response, x-ray scattering.

Planets and Stars under the Magnifying Glass | Kem Cook

Key words: extrasolar planets, gravitational microlensing, Massively Compact Halo Object (MACHO) Project, Microlensing Observations in Astrophysics (MOA), OGLE-2005-BLG-290-Lb, Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE), Probing Lensing Anomalies Network (PLANET), Robotic Telescope Network (RoboNet).

Research Highlights

Keeping an Eye on the Prize | Fred Streitz

Key words: Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI), Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Program, BlueGene/L, domain decomposition molecular-dynamics (ddcMD) code, Gordon Bell Prize, model-generalized pseudo-potential theory (MGPT), solidification.

June 2006 S&TR Cover

June 2006

Feature Articles

Next-Generation Scientists and Engineers Tap Lab’s Resources | Paul Dickinson

Key words: bioaerosol mass spectrometry (BAMS) system, Department of Applied Science (DAS), diamond anvil cell (DAC), homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI), matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI), neutron spectrometer, potassium dihydrogen phosphate, Qbox, Student Employee Graduate Research Fellowship (SEGRF) Program, ultrawideband (UWB) communications.

Adaptive Optics Provide a Clearer View | Scot Olivier

Key words: adaptive optics (AO), Center for Adaptive Optics (CfAO), fiber laser, Gemini Observatory, Keck Observatory, Laboratory for Adaptive Optics, laser guide star, Lick Observatory, MEMS-based adaptive optics phoropter (MAOP), microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), National Science Foundation, optical coherence tomography (OCT), scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO), Science Technology Center, Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT), vision science.

Research Highlights

Wired on the Nanoscale | Yu Huang

Key words: bacteriophage, biological scaffolds, DNA, genetic engineering, Lawrence Fellowship Program, nanosystems, nanotechnology, nanowires, quantum dots, virus.

Too Hot to Handle | Bala Govindasamy

Key words: carbon cycle, carbon dioxide emissions, carbon sink, climate modeling, deforestation, fossil-fuel depletion, global climate change, global warming, greenhouse gases, land use, oceanic acidity, vegetation change.

May 2006 S&TR Cover

May 2006

Feature Articles

Imagers Provide Eyes to See Gamma Rays | Lorenzo Fabris

Key words: coded aperture, Compton imager, gamma-ray imager, large-area gamma-ray imager, radiation detector.

Protecting the Nation’s Livestock | Ray Lenhoff

Key words: agroterrorism, bioassay, foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), foreign animal disease (FAD), homeland security, National Animal Health Laboratory Network (NAHLN), National Veterinary Services Laboratory (NVSL), U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA).

Research Highlights

Measures for Measures | Peter Poulsen

Key words: emissivity, high-precision thermometry, infrared spectrometry, relative reflectivity method, spectrum method.

Looping through the Lamb Shift | Peter Beiersdorfer

Key words: electron-beam ion trap, ions, polarized vacuum, quantum electrodynamics (QED), quantum fluctuations, quantum mechanics, self-energy, spectroscopy, SuperEBIT, two-loop Lamb shift, uranium, virtual particles, virtual photons.

April 2006 S&TR Cover

April 2006

Feature Articles

Measuring Contact Stress inside Weapon Systems | Jack Kotovsky

Key words: Joint Test Assemblies (JTAs), microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), optical sensor, polyimide, stress sensor.

Transparent Ceramics Spark Laser Advances | Thomas Soules

Key words: hot isostatic press (HIP), laser diodes, neodymium-doped gadolinium-gallium-garnet (Nd:GGG), neodymium-doped yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG), passive Q-switch, samarium-doped yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Sm:YAG), sintering, Solid-State Heat Capacity Laser (SSHCL), transparent ceramics.

Research Highlights

Studying the Behavior of Crystal Deformation | David Lassila and Jeff Florando

Key words: crystal deformation, dislocation dynamics, metallic single crystals, six degrees of freedom (6DOF), slip systems, strain, stress, three-dimensional (3D) image correlation.

An Accelerated Collaboration Meets with Beaming Success | George Caporaso

Key words: Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamics Test (DARHT) Facility, DARHT-II, Experimental Test Accelerator-II (ETA-II), stockpile stewardship, validation, x rays, x-ray imaging.

March 2006 S&TR Cover

March 2006

Feature Articles

These People Make Things Happen | Maurice B. Aufderheide III

Key words: Advanced Simulation and Computing Program, biodefense, BlueGene/L, complementary medicine, High Explosives Application Facility (HEAF), Multiprogrammatic Capability Resource supercomputer, National Ignition Facility, proteomics, University of California Breast Cancer Research Program, Yersinia pestis.

Research Highlights

The Shocking Truth about Detonations and Metals | John Molitoris

Key words: aluminum, fragmentation, high explosives, High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF), Hydra multichannel x-ray system, metal behavior, shock wave, spall, x-radiography.

Floating into Thin Air | Bill Craig

Key words: active galactic nuclei (AGN), balloon launch, black holes, hard x rays, High Energy Focusing Telescope (HEFT), Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), soft x rays.

Carbon Goes Full Circle in the Amazon | Tom Brown

Key words: Amazon River basin, carbon-14, carbon cycle, carbon dioxide, Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (CAMS), radiocarbon dating, sequestration.

January/February 2006 S&TR Cover

January/February 2006

Feature Articles

Mimicking Nature’s Crystalline Structures | Jim De Yoreo

Key words: abalone nacre, Alloy 22, atomic force microscopy (AFM), biomineralization, calcite, calcium carbonate, calcium oxalate dyhydrate (COD), calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM), corrosion, deuterium|tritium (D|T) gas, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals.

Simulating Materials for Nanostructural Designs | Eric Schwegler

Key words: confined water, hydrophilic, hydrophobic, nanofluidic devices, nanostructures, Qbox code, silicon carbide.

Research Highlights

Zeroing In on New Targets | Matthew Bono

Key words: copper targets, equations of state (EOS), laser targets, machine tools, National Ignition Facility (NIF), precision machining, shock velocity, target fabrication.

Monitoring Nuclear Reactors with Antineutrinos | Adam Bernstein

Key words: antineutrino detector, coherent elastic scatter, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), inverse beta decay, nuclear power reactor, plutonium, uranium.

December 2005 S&TR Cover

December 2005

Feature Articles

Modeling the Future | Cliff Shang

Key words: Life Extension Program (LEP), Limited Life Component Exchange (LLCE), nuclear enterprise model, Reliable Replacement Warhead (RRW) Program, stockpile stewardship.

A Peculiar Burst of Stars | Wil van Breugel

Key words: accretion disks, black holes, COSMOS code, early universe, electromagnetic spectrum, gas clouds, Minkowsk fs Object, molecular hydrogen, nearby galaxies, NGC 541, neutral hydrogen, radio astronomy, radio emission, radio interferometry, radio jets, radio telescope, star formation, Very Large Array (VLA).

Research Highlights

Exploring the Link between Diet and Cancer | Kristen Kulp

Key words: 2-amino-1,6-dimethylfuro[3,2-e]imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (IFP), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazol[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), estradiol, estrogen-receptor protein, food mutagen, heterocyclic amine.

When Lightning Strikes at Site 300 | Charles G. Brown

Key words: explosives, Faraday cage, hazard management, lightning, signal processing, Site 300, workplace safety.

November 2005 S&TR Cover

November 2005

Feature Articles

Materials Scientists Discover the Power of ParaDiS | Vasily Bulatov

Key words: Advanced Light Source (ALS), Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Program, BlueGene/L, body-centered-cubic (bcc) metals, dislocation dynamics, multijunction, multinode, Parallel Dislocation Simulator (ParaDiS), six degrees of freedom (6DOF), stockpile stewardship, Thunder, transmission electron microscope (TEM).

A Wide New Window on the Universe | James Brase

Key words: adaptive optics, asteroid, comet, dark energy, dark matter, gravitational lensing, Kuiper Belt, Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), National Ignition Facility (NIF), near-Earth objects, supernovae, wavefront sensing.

Research Highlights

Built for Speed: Graphics Processors for General-Purpose Computing | John Johnson and Shiela Vaidya

Key words: central processing unit (CPU), general-purpose programming, Graphics Architectures for Intelligence Applications (GAIA) project, graphics processing unit (GPU), knowledge discovery, streaming architectures.

Negative Plasma Densities Raise Questions | Joe Nilsen

Key words: bound electrons, free electrons, fringe shifts, index of refraction, plasma density, x-ray interferometry.

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October 2005

R&D 100 Awards Highlights

NanoFoil® Solders with Less | Troy Barbee

Key words: computer industry, NanoBond process, NanoFoil, nanotechnology, R&D 100 Award.

Detecting Radiation on the Move | Daniel Archer

Key words: adaptable radiation area monitor (ARAM), homeland security, radiation detection, R&D 100 Award.

Identifying Airborne Pathogens in Time to Respond | Vincent Riot

Key words: airborne pathogen, anthrax, bioaerosol mass spectrometry (BAMS) system, R&D 100 Award.

Picture Perfect with VisIT | Eric Brugger

Key words: open-source visualization software, R&D 100 Award, VisIT.

Feature Article

Revealing the Mysteries of Water | Christopher Mundy

Key words: Car-Parinello molecular dynamics (CPMD) code, classical molecular dynamics, extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), first-principles molecular dynamics, hydrogen bonds, near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS), superionic phase, Thunder, water research.

Research Highlight

Lightweight Target Generates Bright, Energetic X Rays | Kevin Fournier

Key words: aerogels, doped aerogels, HELEN laser, inertial confinement fusion (ICF), National Ignition Facility (NIF), OMEGA laser, radiation-effects tests, x rays, Z-pinch accelerator.

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September 2005

Feature Articles

A Dynamo of a Plasma | Dave Hill

Key words: fusion energy, magnetic reconnection, NIMROD code, Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX).

How One Equation Changed the World | Maurice Aufderheide

Key words: Albert Einstein, E = mc2, fission, fusion, Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Purchase Agreement, inertial confinement fusion, International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), magnetic fusion energy, Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS), Main Injector Particle Production (MIPP), National Ignition Facility (NIF), neutrinos, SSTAR (small, sealed, transportable, autonomous reactor), Stockpile Stewardship Program.

Research Highlights

Recycled Equations Help Verify Livermore Codes | Bill Moran

Key words: Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Program, analytic solutions, code verification and validation, hydrodynamics, stockpile stewardship, three-dimensional (3D) modeling.

Dust That’s Worth Keeping | Hope Ishii

Key words: 2,175-angstrom feature, focused ion beam, glass with embedded metals and sulfides (GEMS), interplanetary dust particle (IDP), nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometer (NanoSIMS), presolar grains, transmission electron microscope (TEM).

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July/August 2005

Feature Articles

Orchestrating the World's Most Powerful Laser | Paul VanArsdall and Larry Lagin

Key words: front-end processor (FEP), integrated computer control system (ICCS), laser performance operations model (LPOM), National Ignition Facility (NIF), NIF Early Light, stockpile stewardship.

A Random Walk through Time and Space | Maurice Aufderheide

Key words: Albert Einstein, blackbody radiation, hohlraum, inertial confinement fusion, light quanta, photoelectric effect, photons, quantum mechanics, single-photon detection, x-ray lasers, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

Research Highlights

The Search for Methane in Earth's Mantle | Larry Fried

Key words: CHEETAH code, diamond anvil cell (DAC), hydrocarbon, methane, Raman spectroscopy, thermodynamics, x-ray diffraction.

Testing the Physics of Nuclear Isomers | John Becker

Key words: Advanced Photon Source (APS), gamma rays, gamma-ray lasers, hafnium, Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, nuclear battery, nuclear isomers, radioactive decay, stimulated emission.

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June 2005

Feature Articles

Mining Genomes | Ivan Ovcharenko

Key words: Comparative Genomics Center, DNA, ECR Browser, eShadow, evolutionary conserved region (ECR), gene desert, Human Genome Project, Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Mulan, multiTF, regulatory element (RE), rVista, SynoR, transcription factor binding site (TFBS), zPicture.

Shedding Light on Quantum Physics | Maurice Aufderheide

Key words: Albert Einstein, blackbody radiation, hohlraum, inertial confinement fusion, light quanta, photoelectric effect, photons, quantum mechanics, single-photon detection, x-ray lasers, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

Research Highlights

The Sharper Image for Surveillance | Carmen Carrano

Key words: atmospheric turbulence, enhanced surveillance, speckle imaging, image processing.

Keeping It Cool Close to the Sun | Norman Madden

Key words: gamma-ray spectrometer (GRS), germanium detector, KEVLAR fiber, Mercury, MESSENGER, thermal shielding, vibration testing.

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May 2005

Feature Articles

Applying Einstein’s Theories of Relativity | Maurice Aufderheide

Key words: AfterglowView, Albert Einstein, COMPASS (computer models of the physics of accretion disk structure and spectra) code, COSMOS code, HULLAC (Hebrew University and Lawrence Livermore atomic code), Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC), speed of light, theory of general relativity, theory of special relativity.

Locked in Rock: Sequestering Carbon Dioxide Underground | Larry Friedmann

Key words: carbon sequestration, Carbon Storage Initiative, climate change, crosswell electromagnetic (EM) imaging, electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), FutureGen Initiative, GEMBOCHS, global warming, hyperspectral cameras, LDEC, NUFT, reactive transport modeling, SLIP (solventless vapor deposition combined with in situ polymerization) process, Teapot Dome.

Research Highlights

Modeling the Subsurface Movement of Radionuclides | Gayle Pawloski

Key words: Cheshire test, environmental restoration, groundwater flow, hydrologic source term, Nevada Test Site, NUFT code, Pahute Mesa, radionuclides, underground nuclear testing, Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project.

Novel Materials from Solgel Chemistry | Joe Satcher

Key words: aerogel, gelation, polymerization, solgel chemistry, supercritical drying, xerogel.

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April 2005

Feature Articles

Monitoring Earth’s Subsurface from Space | Paul Vincent

Key words: Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), digital elevation model (DEM), E3D, finite-element model, interferogram, interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR), International Monitoring System (IMS), nuclear explosion monitoring, remote sensing, synthetic aperture radar (SAR).

Faculty on Sabbatical Find a Good Home at Livermore | Harry Radousky

Key words: Advanced Light Source (ALS), European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), laser-heated diamond anvil cell (LHDAC), Naval Postgraduate School (NPS), Sabbatical Scholars Program, University Relations Program (URP).

Research Highlights

Finding Genes by Leaps and Bounds | Gabriela Loots

Key words: Biosciences Directorate, comparative sequence analysis, evolutionary gene conservation, frogs, functional genomics, gene sequence, Joint Genome Institute, Xenopus tropicalis.

Into the Wild Blue Yonder with BlueGene/L | Mark Seager

Key words: Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Program, barrier interconnect, binary-tree interconnect, BlueGene/L, node, scalability, stockpile stewardship, supercomputer, three-dimensional torus interconnect, Top500 list.

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March 2005

Feature Articles

Building Networks of Trust through Collaborative Science | Richard Knapp

Key words: Central Asia, Central Asia Seismic Risk Initiative (CASRI), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), earthquakes, Middle East, seismology, South Asia, United Arab Emirates (UAE), uranium processing, U.S. Central Command (CENTCOM), water issues, weapons of mass destruction (WMD).

Tracing the Steps in Nuclear Material Trafficking | Ian Hutcheon

Key words: Forensic Science Center (FSC), gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), nano-secondary ion mass spectrometer (NanoSIMS), nuclear forensic analysis, Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group (ITWG), scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope.

Research Highlights

Looking at Earth in Action | Brian Bonner

Key words: gas hydrates, geophysics, ice physics, methane hydrate, San Andreas Fault.

Gamma-Ray Bursts Shower the Universe with Metals | Jason Pruet

Key words: accretion disk, black hole, collapsar model, copper, disk wind, gamma-ray burst (GRB), neutron star, nickel, nuclear reaction network, nucleosynthesis, scandium, supernova, zinc.

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January/February 2005

Feature Articles

Experiment and Theory Have a New Partner: Simulation | Mark Seager

Key words: Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Program, atmospheric chemistry modeling, BlueGene/L, climate change, crack propagation, ductile failure, GP code, hydrogen melt curve, IMPACT code, laser–plasma interactions, Linux clusters, liquid–vapor interfaces, molecular dynamics, Multiprogrammatic and Institutional Computer (M&IC) Initiative, Multiprogrammatic Capability Resource (MCR), National Ignition Facility (NIF), Purple, seismic wave analysis, supercomputers, Thunder, White.

Russian Weapons Workers Begin New Commercial Venture | Jay Zucca

Key words: Federal Atomic Energy Agency, former Soviet Union (FSU), Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (IPP), nonproliferation, Nuclear Cities Initiative (NCI), Proliferation and Terrorism Prevention Program, Russian Ministry of Atomic Energy, Russian Transition Initiatives.

Research Highlights

Terascale Simulation Facility: Built for Flexibility | Barbara Atkinson

Key words: Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Program, BlueGene/L, data visualization, Purple, supercomputer, Terascale Simulation Facility (TSF).

Mining Geothermal Resources | Bill Bourcier

Key words: cascaded use, geothermal energy, geothermal mining, Mammoth Lakes, silica extraction.

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December 2004

Feature Articles

Putting the Squeeze on Materials | Sam Weir

Key words: actinides, designer diamond anvil, diamond anvil cell (DAC), electrical conductivity, ultradense hydrogen, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program, lanthanides, laser pantography, magnetic susceptibility, microcircuits, plutonium, uranium.

The Art of Protein Structure Prediction | Krzysztof Fidelis

Key words: Critical Assessment of Techniques for Protein Structure Prediction (CASP), global distance test (GDT), Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program, Local–Global Alignment (LGA), Protein Data Bank (PDB), protein folding, Protein Structure Prediction Center.

Research Highlights

It’s All in Motion When Simulating Fluids | Jim Rathkopf

Key words: complex particle kinetics (CPK) code, high-energy-density physics, HYDRA code, hohlraum, hydrodynamics, MIRANDA code, plasma, Rayleigh–Taylor instability, Reynolds number.

X Rays, Detonations, and Dead Zones | John Molitoris

Key words: aerogel, deflagration, detonation, High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF), high-flux radiography system (HFRS), hydrodynamics, x rays.

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November 2004

Feature Articles

Probing the Universe with Mirrors That Trick Light | Bill Craig

Key words: Gamma Ray Arcminute Telescope Imaging System (GRATIS), hard x ray, High Energy Focusing Telescope (HEFT), multilayer-coated mirrors, Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), Small Animal Radionuclide Imaging System, x-ray optics.

From Seeing to Understanding | Steve Louis

Key words: Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Program, BlueGene/L, Center for Applied Scientific Computing (CASC), Chromium, Distributed Multihead X (DMX), gViz, Linux, Purple, stockpile stewardship, supercomputing, Terascale Browser, Visual Interactive Environment for Weapons Simulation (VIEWS), VisIt, White.

Research Highlights

The Right Bang for the Job | Bill Bateson

Key words: ammunition, collateral damage, deflagration, detonation, hand grenade, high explosives (HE), yield select.

Cell by Cell: Moving toward a More Predictive Future | Allen Christian

Key words: Biology and Biotechnology Research Program (BBRP), cellular processes, computational biology, Genomes to Life, genomics, GTL:Genomics, Human Genome Project, instrumented cell, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD), microfluidics, quantitative biology, systems biology.

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October 2004

2004 R&D Awards

Detecting Bioaerosols When Time Is of the Essence | Richard Langlois

Key words: anthrax, Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS), biological agents, bioterrorism, multiplex immunoassay, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), R&D 100 Award, ricin.

Getting the Big Picture | Sean Ahern

Key words: Chromium software, clustered rendering, commodity clusters, OpenGL library, parallel graphics library, parallel visualization, powerwall display, R&D 100 Award.

Laser Burrows into the Earth to Destroy Land Mines | Mark Rotter

Key words: demining, Diode-Pumped Pulsed Laser for Mine Clearing (DP-PLMC), land mine, R&D 100 Award, solid-state heat capacity laser (SSHCL).

Shutting Down Genes in Cancer, Bacteria, and Viruses | Allen Christian

Key words: cancer, functional genomics, gene expression, gene silencing, gene therapy, R&D 100 Award, ribonucleic acid (RNA) interference, siHybrids, short interfering RNA (siRNA).

Magnetically Levitated Train Takes Flight | Richard Post

Key words: Halbach array, Inductrack, magnetically levitated (maglev) train, permanent magnets, R&D 100 Award, urban transportation.

Feature Article

The Power of Partnership | Laura Gilliom

Key words: accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), adaptive optics, biophotonics, Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (CAMS), Center for Adaptive Optics, Center for Biophotonics Science and Technology (CBST), Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics (IGPP), University of California (UC), UC Office of the President (UCOP), University Relations Program (URP).

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September 2004

Feature Articles

Radiation Detection on the Front Lines | Simon Labov

Key words: Compton camera, gamma-ray imaging spectrometer (GRIS), large-area imager, Radiation Detection Center (RDC), RadNet, Seaborg Institute for Transactinium Science, sensor fusion, ultrahigh-resolution neutron spectrometer.

Exploring the Ultrawideband | Steve Azevedo

Key words: High-Performance Electromagnetic Roadway Mapping and Evaluation System (HERMES) Bridge Inspector, micropower impulse radar (MIR), narrowband, ultrawideband (UWB).

Research Highlights

Virtual Problem Solving for Homeland Security | Rob Hills

Key words: Advanced Combat and Tactical Simulation (ACATS), Department of Homeland Security, entity-based simulations, Joint Conflict and Tactical Simulation (JCATS).

Solid-State Technology Meets Collider Challenge | Jeff Gronberg

Key words: electron–positron linear collider, Next Linear Collider (NLC), klystron, particle accelerator, solid-state modulator, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), thyratron, vacuum-tube technology.

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July/August 2004

Feature Articles

Helping Water Managers Ensure Clean and Reliable Supplies | Robin Newmark

Key words: denitrification, electrodialysis, global climate change, hydrologic cycle, Laboratory Directed Research and Development, nitrate contamination, water purification.

Going to Extremes | Larry Fried

Key words: CHEETAH code, chemical kinetics, diamond anvil cell, equation of state, extreme chemistry, gas gun, high explosives (HE), planetary physics, shock physics, thermochemical code.

Research Highlights

Nuclear Energy to Go: A Self-Contained, Portable Reactor | Craig Smith

Key words: Central Research Institute for Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI); lead-cooled fast reactor (LFR); Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT); nuclear reactor; small, sealed, transportable, autonomous reactor (SSTAR).

This Instrument Keeps the Beat | Ted Strand

Key words: CHEETAH code, chemical kinetics, diamond anvil cell, equation of state, extreme chemistry, gas gun, high explosives (HE), planetary physics, shock physics, thermochemical code.

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June 2004

Feature Articles

Shocking Plutonium to Reveal Its Secrets | Mark Martinez

Key words: Device Assembly Facility, equation of state, gas gun, Hugoniot curve, Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research (JASPER) Facility, Nevada Test Site (NTS), plutonium, stockpile stewardship, Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR).

Strategic Supercomputing Comes of Age | Randy Christensen

Key words: Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI), Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Program, ASC Purple, ASC White, BlueGene/L, descriptive models, Life Extension Program, materials modeling, predictive models, quantification of margins and uncertainties (QMU), Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP), Verification and Validation (V & V) Program, weapons certification.

Research Highlights

A Bang-Up Job: Keeping Things Clean at the Contained Firing Facility | Gordon Krauter

Key words: beryllium, Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP), Contained Firing Facility (CFF), Site 300.

Seeing the Universe in a Grain of Dust | John Bradley

Key words: Comet Wild 2, focused-ion-beam microscopy, interplanetary dust particles, nano secondary-ion mass spectrometry (nanoSIMS), Stardust, SuperSTEM (scanning transmission electron microscope).

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May 2004

Feature Articles

Life at the Nanoscale | Jim De Yoreo

Key words: atomic force microscopy (AFM), biodefense, BioSecurity and Nanosciences Laboratory (BSNL), bioterrorism, DNA, Genomics:GTL Program, nanoparticles, nanoscale, nanotube, pathogens, pathomics, prions, proteomics, signatures, smallpox.

Scrubbing Cargo Containers to Remove a Terrorist Threat | Dennis Slaughter

Key words: cargo containers, gamma rays, highly enriched uranium (HEU), homeland security, liquid scintillator, nuclear materials, neutron generator, plutonium, terrorism, weapons of mass destruction.

Research Highlights

Algorithm Improvements Speed It Up for Codes | Eugene Brooks and Jeff Grossman

Key words: algorithm, difference formulation, implicit Monte Carlo (IMC) method, Monte Carlo, nanoscience, quantum dots, Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) method, thermal radiation transport, Wannier basis.

The Siren Call of the Seas: Sequestering Carbon Dioxide | Ken Calderia

Key words: carbonate dissolution, carbon dioxide sequestration, Center for Research on Ocean Carbon Sequestration, fossil fuels, iron fertilization, ocean general-circulation model, ocean sequestration.

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April 2004

Feature Articles

On the Front Lines of Biodefense | Thomas Slezak

Key words: BASIS, bioinformatics, bioterrorism, BioWatch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), DNA, foot-and-mouth disease, Human Genome Project, KPATH, microbe, pathogen, protein signature, RNA, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), smallpox.

Defending against Corrosion | Dan McCright

Key words: Alloy 22, engineered barrier system, laser peening, Long-Term Corrosion Test Facility (LTCTF), Nevada Test Site, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, nuclear waste repository, Yucca Mountain.

Research Highlight

Engine Shows Diesel Efficiency without the Emissions | Salvador Aceves

Key words: combustion; homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine; hydrodynamics, chemistry, and transport (HCT) code; KIVA code.

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March 2004

Feature Articles

Rich Legacy from Atoms for Peace | Eileen Vergino

Key words: Adaptable Radiation Area Monitor (ARAM), Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASCI) Program, Atoms for Peace, biodosimetry, Center for Global Security Research (CGSR), Joint Verification Experiment (JVE), National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC), Project Plowshare, proton therapy, Radiation Detection Center, Radiation Measurement Facility (RMF).

Tropopause Height Becomes Another Climate-Change “Fingerprint” | Benjamin Santer

Key words: Department of Energy’s Parallel Climate Model (PCM), global warming, National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison (PCMDI), stratosphere, tropopause, troposphere.

Research Highlights

A Better Method for Certifying the Nuclear Stockpile | Charles Verdon

Key words: quantification of margins and uncertainties (QMU), Stockpile Stewardship Program.

Observing How Proteins Loop the Loop | Olgica Bakajin

Key words: amino acids, fluorescence detection, microfluidics, protein folding kinetics.

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January/February 2004

Feature Article

Small Particle May Answer Large Physics Questions | Leslie Rosenberg

Key words: axion, charge-parity (CP) violation, dark matter, heterostructure field-effect transistor (HFET), microwave photons, particle physics, superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID).

Research Highlights

A First Look at Plutonium’s Phonons | Joe Wong

Key words: actinides, dynamical mean field theory, gallium, phonon dispersion curve (PDC), plutonium.

A Walk on the Wild Side | Thom Kato

Key words: birds, Blepharizonia plumosa (big tarplant), endangered species, plants, threatened species, wildlife.

Smart Buoys Help Protect Submarine Base | John Valentine

Key words: Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA); homeland security; radiation detector; U.S. Navy submarine base at Kings Bay, Georgia.

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December 2003

Feature Articles

An Extraordinarily Bright Idea | Richard Bionta and Henry Chapman

Key words: free-electron laser; Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS); linear accelerator (linac); protein structure; Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC); x-ray laser; warm, condensed matter.

Using Proton Beams to Create and Probe Plasmas | Pravesh Patel

Key words: Janus ultrashort-pulse (JanUSP) laser, National Ignition Facility (NIF), Petawatt laser, plasma, protons.

Research Highlights

Multigrid Solvers Do the Math Faster, More Efficiently | Rob Falgout

Key words: Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Program; algebraic multigrid; ASCI supercomputers; geometric multigrid; hypre; Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program; linear equations; Mathematical, Information, and Computational Sciences Program; scalable linear solvers; simulation codes; Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDac) Program.

Predicting Stability for the High-Energy Buckyball | Riad Manaa

Key words: Advanced Simulation and Computing Program, ASCI Blue, buckyball, carbon, fullerenes, nitrogen.

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November 2003

Feature Article

When Semiconductors Go Nano | Tony van Buuren and Giulia Galli

Key words: biodetector, buckyball, germanium, nanocluster, nanocrystal, nanodiamond, nanoparticle, nanoscale, nanoscience, nanotechnology, quantum dot, quantum molecular simulations, semiconductor, silicon.

Research Highlights

Retinal Prosthesis Provides Hope for Restoring Sight | Courtney Davidson

Key words: epiretinal, microarray, microfabrication, photoreceptor, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), retinal prosthesis.

Maglev on the Development Track for Urban Transportation | Dick Post

Key words: Halbach array, high-speed train, Inductrack, magnetic levitation (maglev), permanent magnets, urban transportation.

Power Plant on a Chip Moves Closer to Reality | Ravi Upadhye

Key words: Center for Microtechnology Engineering, fuel reactor, fuel reforming, hydrogen, methanol, micro fuel cell, micro fuel processor, microscale power source, proton-exchange membrane (PEM).

November 2003 S&TR Cover

October 2003

2003 R&D 100 Awards

BASIS Counters Airborne Bioterrorism | Dennis Imbro

Key words: BASIS (Biological Aerosol Sentry and Information System), BioWatch, bioterrorism, homeland security, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), R&D 100 Award.

In the Chips for the Coming Decade | Regina Soufli

Key words: Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) full-field step-and-scan system, EUV LLC, R&D 100 Award, semiconductor computer chips.

Smoothing the Way to Print the Next Generation of Computer Chips | Paul Mirkarimi

Key words: extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL), ion-beam thin-film planarization, R&D 100 Award, reticle.

Eyes Can See Clearly Now | Scot Olivier

Key words: eyesight correction, microelectromechanical systems– (MEMS-) based adaptive optics phoropter (MAOP), R&D 100 Award, retinal disease.

This Switch Takes the Heat | Chris Ebbers

Key words: high-average-power lasers, laser peening, Mercury laser, R&D 100 Award, thermally compensated Q-switch.

Laser Process Forms Thick, Curved Metal Parts | Lloyd Hackel

Key words: aircraft industry, LasershotSM Precision Metal Forming, nuclear waste canisters, R&D 100 Award, shot peening.

Feature Article

Characterizing Tiny Objects without Damaging Them | Harry Martz, Jr.

Key words: acoustics, aerogel, amplitude contrast, as-built modeling, finite-element model, high-energy-density physics (HEDP) laser targets, inertial confinement fusion, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), mesoscale, National Ignition Facility (NIF), nondestructive characterization (NDC), phase contrast, proton radiography, Wolter optics, x-ray imaging, x-ray microscopy.

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September 2003

Feature Articles

The National Ignition Facility Comes to Life | Ed Moses

Key words: control system, inertial confinement fusion, KDP (potassium dihydrogen phosphate) crystals, line replaceable units (LRUs), National Ignition Facility (NIF), neodymium-doped phosphate laser glass, plasma electrode Pockels cell (PEPC), Stockpile Stewardship Program, systems engineering.

Tracking the Activity of Bacteria Underground | Harry Beller and Staci Kane

Key words: benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene (BTEX); biodegradation; groundwater; hydrocarbons; intrinsic bioremediation; leaking underground fuel tank (LUFT); liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS); natural attenuation; polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

Research Highlights

When Every Second Counts—Pathogen Identification in Less Than a Minute | Eric Gard

Key words: anthrax, bioaerosol mass spectrometry (BAMS), bioterrorism, airborne pathogens.

Portable Radiation Detector Provides Laboratory-Scale Precision in the Field | John Becker and Norm Madden

Key words: counterterrorism, CryoFree/25, portable germanium radiation detector.

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July/August 2003

Feature Articles

An Inside Attack on Cancer | Christine Hartmann-Siantar

Key words: gamma-ray detection, Modality-Inclusive Environment for Radiotherapeutic Variable Analysis (MINERVA), non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, PEREGRINE, radiation treatment, radiopharmaceuticals, secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), synthetic high-affinity ligand (SHAL).

Cells Respond Uniquely to Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation | Andrew Wyrobek

Key words: DNA, human lymphoblastoid cells, ionizing radiation, Low-Dose Radiation Research Program, messenger RNA (mRNA), nanoscale dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometer (NanoSIMS), radiation-induced early-onset and sensitive genes (REOS).

Research Highlights

A New Generation of Munitions | Michael Murphy

Key words: ALE3D, CALE, carbon composite, CHEETAH, collateral damage, DYNA2D, HMX, munitions, TATB.

Whatever the Waste, New Facility Takes It On | Stephanie Goodwin

Key words: Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF); depleted uranium; hazardous, radioactive, and mixed waste; In Situ Stabilization and Filter Encapsulation (IS*SAFE).

June 2003 S&TR Cover

June 2003

Feature Articles

Riding the Waves of Supercomputing Technology | Michael McCoy

Key words: Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Program, ASCI Purple, ASCI supercomputers, BlueGene/L, computation strategy, E3D, laser-plasma interactions, Linux clusters, Multiprogrammatic Capability Resource (MCR), National Ignition Facility Early Light (NEL), PF3D code, seismic wave analysis.

Chromosome 19 and Lawrence Livermore Form a Long-Lasting Bond | Lisa Stubbs

Key words: chromosome 19, comparative genomics, DNA, gene mapping, gene sequencing, Human Genome Project, Joint Genome Institute (JGI), pufferfish, regulatory genomics, sea squirt.

Research Highlights

A New Way to Measure the Mass of Stars | Kem Cook

Key words: gravitational microlensing, massively compact halo objects (MACHOs).

Flexibly Fueled Storage Tank Brings Hydrogen-Powered Cars Closer to Reality | Salavador Aceves

Key words: compressed hydrogen, cryogenic compressed hydrogen, hydrogen fuel, liquid hydrogen.

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May 2003

Feature Articles

Chemical Weapons Can’t Evade This Lab | Armando Alcaraz

Key words: chemical weapons, Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), Forensic Science Center (FSC), Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW).

Bird’s-Eye View Clarifies Research on the Ground | Bill Pickles

Key words: carbon sequestration, Elkhorn Slough, energy infrastructure, geobotanical remote sensing, geothermal energy, homeland security, Mammoth Mountain, Nonproliferation Experiment.

Research Highlights

Age Does Make a Difference | Jean Moran

Key words: age-dating, groundwater contamination, stable oxygen isotopes, tritium–helium-3 analysis.

Reducing Aerodynamic Drag | Rose McCallen

Key words: aerodynamics, computational fluid dynamics, heavy trucks, large-eddy simulations (LES), Reynolds-Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) models.

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April 2003

Feature Articles

Finding the Missing Piece in the Climate Change Puzzle | Catherine Chuang

Key words: aerosols, biomass, black carbon, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), Community Climate Model (CCM), dimethylsulfide, global warming, GRANTOUR, IMPACT, National Center for Atmospheric Research, soot, sulfate.

An Elusive Transformation—The Mystery of Oscillating Neutrinos | Peter Barnes

Key words: Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), high-energy physics, Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS), Main Injector Particle Production (MIPP), neutrino oscillation, particle physics, proton radiography.

Research Highlights

Toward a Common Data Model for Supercomputing | Linnea Cook

Key words: Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASCI), Hierarchical Data Format 5 (HDF5), input/output (I/O) libraries, R&D 100 Award, supercomputing.

Into the Vortex—New Insights into the Behavior of Dynamic Fluids | Paul Miller

Key words: centrifugal baroclinic torque, fluid dynamics, Richtmyer–Meshkov instability, secondary instability.

March 2003 S&TR Cover

March 2003

Feature Articles

A New Code Simulates the Cosmos | Peter Anninos

Key words: astrophysics, black hole accretion, COSMOS code, dwarf galaxies, early cosmology, radio jetcloud interactions, star formation.

A Giant Leap for Space Telescopes | Rod Hyde

Key words: diffractive telescope, Eyeglass, Eyepiece, Fresnel lens, Hubble Space Telescope, Magnifying Glass, National Ignition Facility, photolithography.

Research Highlight

Checking Out the Hot Spots | Jack Reaugh

Key words: ALE3D, Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASCI) Program, chemical kinetics, high explosives, high-pressure activities, hot spots, HMX, hydrodynamics codes, TeraCluster2000 (TC2K), voids.

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January/February 2003

Feature Articles

A Question of Quarks | Ron Soltz

Key words: Brookhaven National Laboratory, particle physics, PHENIX detector, quark–gluon plasma, Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC).

Island Paradise Regained | Terry Hamilton

Key words: accelerator mass spectrometry, Bravo test, cesium-137, Center for Mass Spectrometry (CAMS), dose assessment, Enewetak, Marshall Islands resettlement, Nuclear Test Program, plutonium, Rongelap, whole body counting.

Research Highlight

Understanding Cells in a New Way with Three-Dimensional Models | Andrew Quong

Key words: Advanced Scientific Computing Initiative, ALE3D, biosecurity, calcium ion waves, confocal microscope, cystic fibrosis, Genomes to Life Program, homeland security, Human Genome Project, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), systems biology.

December 2002 S&TR Cover

December 2002

50th Anniversary Highlight

Emerging from the Cold War: Stockpile Stewardship and Beyond | Kim Budil

Key words: Center for Global Security Research (CGSR) Futures Project, nuclear test moratorium, post–Cold War science and technology, stockpile stewardship, underground nuclear testing, Vannevar Bush.

Research Highlights

Machines from Interlocking Molecules | Andrew Vance

Key words: catananes, molecular machines, rotaxanes, surface-attached mechanically interlocking molecules, Stanford Linear Accelerator (SLAC), x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS).

Laser Zaps Communication Bottleneck | Tony Ruggiero

Key words: Department of Defense, laser communications, Secure Air–Optic Transport and Routing Network (SATRN).

November 2002 S&TR Cover

November 2002

Feature Articles

This Model Can Take the Heat | Mike Bradley

Key words: COAMPS (Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction system), FIRETEC, geographical information sciences (GIS), High-Resolution Model for Strong Gradient Applications (HIGRAD), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), TeraCluster2000 supercomputer, wildfires.

The Best and the Brightest Come to Livermore | Harry Radousky

Key words: Lawrence fellows, Lawrence Fellowship Program, postdoctoral positions.

Research Highlight

A View to a Kill | Alex Pertica

Key words: ballistic missile interceptor, High Altitude Observatory (HALO), high-speed camera, Remote Optical Characterization Sensor Suite (ROCSS), infrared spectrometry.

50th Anniversary Highlight

Biological Research Evolves at Livermore | Cindy Thomas

Key words: biological warfare agent detectors, Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (CAMS), chromosome painting, comparative genomics, computational biology, DNA repair, dosimetry, flow cytometry, food mutagens, glycophorin-A assay, Human Genome Project, Joint Genome Institute (JGI), proteomics, PEREGRINE, sperm mutations.

October 2002 S&TR Cover

October 2002

R&D 100 Awards Highlights

Sending Up Signals for Genetic Variation | Allen Christian

Key words: In Situ Rolling Circle Amplification, R&D 100 Award.

SiMM Is Anything But Simple | Ray Beach

Key words: silicon monolithic microchannel (SiMM) laser diode array, solid-state laser diodes.

World's Most Powerful Solid-State Laser | Brent Dane

Key words: neodymium-doped glass (Nd:glass), R&D 100 Award, solid-state heat-capacity laser (SSHCL), tactical laser weapon, U.S. Army Space and Missile Defense Command (USASMD).

Stepping Up to Extreme Lithography | Regina Soufli

Key words: extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL), magnetron sputtering deposition, production-scale thin-film coating tool, R&D 100 Award, semiconductor computer chips.

Relief for Acute and Chronic Pain | John Marion

Key words: electronic adhesive bandage, medical device, pain management, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS).

50th Anniversary Highlight

Energy and Environment: Understanding Our World | Norm Burkhard

Key words: atmospheric transport and dispersion, coal gasification, fossil fuel, fuel cells, global climate modeling, groundwater contamination, inertial confinement fusion, magnetic fusion, Marshall Islands, nuclear fuel cycle, nuclear waste repository, Project Plowshare, rock mechanics, Yucca Mountain.

September 2002 S&TR Cover

September 2002

Feature Articles

A Hitchiker’s Guide to Early Earth | Jennifer Blank

Key words: amino acids, astrobiology, liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy, origins of life, shock physics, solid-phase microextraction.

A New World of Maps | Charles H. Hall

Key words: BIOBASE, BIOURBAN, Elkhorn Slough, geobotanical remote sensing, geographic information sciences (GIS), Mammoth Mountain, national Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC), Nuclear Test Site, Salton Sea, Site 300, Tallgrass Prairie Preserve.

Research Highlight

Solid-Oxide Fuel Cells Stack Up to Efficient, Clean Power | Quoc Pham

Key words: colloidal spray deposition, energy conversion, fuel cell, fuel cell stack, high power density, multiplayer fuel cell, power generation, solid oxide, Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA), thin film deposition.

50th Anniversary Highlight

Empowering Light—Historic Accomplishments in Laser Research | Lamar Coleman

Key words: 4 pi laser, atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS), Beamlet, Cyclops, Continuous Laser Glass Melting Process, direct-drive target, extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL), hohlraum, indirect-drive target, inertial confinement fusion (ICF), Janus, laser guide star, laser peening, LASNEX code, Long path, National Ignition Facility (NIF), neodymium-doped glass (Nd:glass), Nova, Novette, Petawatt, potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals, Shiva, solid-state heat-capacity laser, spatial filters, x-ray laser.

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July/August 2002

Feature Articles

The Outlook Is for Warming, with Measurable Local Effects | Philip Duffy, Benjamin Santer

Key words: Climate modeling, Community Climate Model 3 (CCM3), global warming.

How Metals Fail | Richard Becker

Key words: 3D x-ray tomography, Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASCI), Fabry–Perot interferometry, gas gun, high explosives, High Explosives Applications Facility, Janus laser, Office of Munitions of the Department of Defense, Omega laser, proton radiography, Site 300, spall, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, stockpile stewardship.

Research Highlights

Converting Data to Decisions | Roger Aines

Key words: tochastic engine, Bayesian statistics, Monte Carlo method, electrical resistance tomography, Visalia, Savannah River site, Superfund.

50th Anniversary Highlight

Knowing the Enemy, Anticipating the Threat | Lauren de Vore

Key words: biological and chemical weapons, conflict simulation, biodetection, Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, forensic analysis, nonproliferation, treaty verification, seismic monitoring, weapons of mass destruction (WMD).

June 2002 S&TR Cover

June 2002

Feature Articles

A Two-Pronged Attack on Bioterrorism | Rod Balhorn

Key words: antibodies, bioterrorism, botulinum toxin, cancer treatment, Clostridium neurotoxins, high-affinity ligands, mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance, protein structure, synthetic chemistry, tetanus.

Adaptive Optics Sharpen the View from Earth | Deanna Pennington

Key words: active galactic nuclei, adaptive optics, atomic vapor laser isotope separation, binary star, black hole, California Extremely Large Telescope (CELT), deformable mirror, dye laser, Hubble Space Telescope, laser guide star, Lick Observatory, W. M. Keck Observatory.

Research Highlights

Experiments Re-create X Rays from Comets | Peter Beiersdorfer

Key words: charge exchange, comets, electron beam ion trap (EBIT), microcalorimeter, solar wind, x rays x-ray spectrometer (CRS).

50th Anniversary Highlight

Chemistry—50 Years of Exploring the Material World | Trish Baisden, Chris Gatrousis

Key words: actinides, aerogels, atmospheric tests, chemistry, computer simulation, crystal growth, high explosives, isotopes, materials aging, material science, metallurgy, multilayers, multiscale modeling, plutonium, polymers, radiochemistry, radiochemical sampling, welding.

May 2002 S&TR Cover

May 2002

Feature Articles

Building a Virtual Telescope | David Dearborn

Key words: Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASCI), ASCI Frost, ASCI White, binary stars, brown dwarfs, Cepheids, convective core, Djehuty, helium flash, Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram, California’s Institute for Geophysics and Planetary Physics, Mesh TV, stellar evolution, supernovas, TeraCluster2000 (TC2K), white dwarfs.

A New Understanding of Soft Materials | Mehdi Balooch

Key words: atomic force microscope (AFM), dentin, mechanical properties, nanoindenter, plaque, seismic response, vascular disease.

50th Anniversary Highlight

At Livermore, Audacious Physics Has Thrived for 50 Years | Karl Van Bibber, Ralph Jacobs

Key words: astrophysics, dark matter, fusion energy, nuclear cross section, opacity, quantum mechanics, sensors, stockpile stewardship, tabletop laser, thermonuclear processes, weapons research, x-ray laser.

April 2002 S&TR Cover

April 2002

Feature Articles

Quantum Simulations Tell the Atomic-Level Story | Guilia Galli

Key words: hydrogen, JEEP, nanostructures, quantum dots, quantum molecular dynamics, quantum Monte Carlo calculations, quantum simulations, water.

Forensic Science Center Maximizes the Tiniest Clue | Brian Andresen

Key words: anthrax, Chemical and Biological National Security Program, Forensic Science Center (FSC), gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS), laser-ablation mass spectroscopy, Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), solid-phase microextraction (SPME), stockpile stewardship, thin-layer chromatography (TLC).

Research Highlight

Bright Future for Compact Tactical Laser Weapons | C. Brent Dane

Key words: laser diode array, neodymium-doped glass (Nd:glass), neodymium-doped gadolinium-gallium-garnet (Nd:GGG), solid-state heat-capacity laser (SSHCL), tactical laser weapon, U.S. Army Space and Missile Defense Command (SMDC).

50th Anniversary Highlight

Engineering's Traditions Turns Ideas into Reality | Monya Lane

Key words: computational engineering, DYNA, DYNA3D, EIGER, Engineering Directorate, Flash X-Ray (FXR) Facility , Large Optics Diamond Turning Machine (LODTM), Laser program, magnetic fusion energy (MFE), microfluidic devices, microtechnology, nanotechnology, National Ignition Facility (NIF), nondestructive evaluation (NDE), nuclear weapons development, ParaDyn, precision engineering, stockpile stewardship, Nuclear Test program.

March 2002 S&TR Cover

March 2002

Feature Articles

Tracking Sown Virulence in Plague | Pat Fitch

Key words: bioterrorism agents, Chemical and Biological National Security Program, plague, SELDI-MS, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH), virulence, Yersinia pestis, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.

L-Gel Decontaminates Better Than Bleach | Ellen Raber

Key words: anthrax, biological warfare, Chemical and Biological Agent Decision Process, chemical warfare, decontamination, L-Gel, peroxymonosulfate.

Research Highlight

Faster Inspection of Laser Glass Coatings | Diane Chinn

Key words: laser glass, multilayer hafnia-silica coatings, National Ignition Facility (NIF), photothermal microscopy.

50th Anniversary Highlight

From Kilobytes to Petabytes in 50 Years | Bing Young

Key words: Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASCI), ASCI BlueGene/L, ASCI Purple, ASCI White, computation history, Cray, IBM, Livermore Advanced Research Computer (LARC), supercomputer, Univac.

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January/February 2002

50th Anniversary Highlight

Fifty Years of Innovation through Nuclear Weapon Design | Paul Chrzanowski, Bill Locke

Key words: 50th anniversary, nuclear weapon design, nuclear stockpile. Polaris missile, Project Plowshare, Test Program.

Feature Articles

Simulating Turbulence in Magnetic Fusion Plasmas | Bill Nevins

Key words: fusion, macroturbulence, magnetic fusion, Microturbulence, National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC), plasma, Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC), tokamak, turbulence.

Present at the Creation | Ken Moody, John Wild

Key words: element 114, element 116, heavy elements, island of stability, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia.

Research Highlights

Rapid Field Detection of Biological Agents | Rich Langlois

Key words: anthrax, Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS), biodetectors, biological warfare agents, bioterrorism, DNA analysis, flow cytometry, Handheld Advanced Nucleic Acid Analyzer (HANAA), pathogens, polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

Technology to Help Diabetics | Steve Lane

Key words: diabetes, glucose sensor.

December 2001 S&TR Cover

December 2001

Feature Articles

Simulation-Aided Design of Microfluidic Devices | David Clague

Key words: BioFluidic Chips (BioFlips), Center for Microtechnology, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), Dielectrophoresis (DEP), lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE), microfluidic devices, Reynolds number, Simulation of Biomolecular Microsystems (Simbiosys).

Small Science Gets to the Heart of Matter | Christine Orme

Key words: atomic force microscope, biological sensors, biomineralization, carbon nanotubes, chemical sensors, confocal microscope, genomics, nanolaminates, proteomics, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

Research Highlights

When Lethal Agents Rain from the Sky | Glen Nakafuji

Key words: ALE3D, ALPHA, biological agent, chemical agent, lethality, liquid breakup, nerve agent, rarefied atmosphere.

Technology to Help Diabetics | Steve Lane

Key words: diabetes, glucose sensor.

November 2001 S&TR Cover

November 2001

Feature Articles

Welding Science: A New Look at a Fundamental Technology | John Elmer, Joe Wong

Key words: fusion welding, phase transformation, solidification kinetics, spatially resolved x-ray diffraction (SRXRD), stainless steel, synchrotron radiation, time-resolved x-ray diffraction (TRXRD), titanium, x-ray diffraction.

Probing the Subsurface with Electromagnetic Fields | Barry Kirkendall, Jeff Roberts

Key words: carbon sequestration, crosswell electromagnetic (EM) imaging, enhanced oil recovery (EOR), oil production.

Research Highlights

Probing the Liquid Water Surface | James Tobin

Key words: Advanced Light Source (ALS), extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), hydrogen bonds, liquid surface chemistry, microjet, molecular structure, near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS), water, x-ray spectroscopy.

New Targets for Inertial Fusion | Max Tabak

Key words: fast ignition, heavy-ion fusion, hohlraum, inertial fusion energy, laser fusion, Omega laser, petawatt laser.

October 2001 S&TR Cover

October 2001

Feature Article

Sharing the Power of Supercomputers | Mike McCoy

Key words: Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI), ASCI Blue Pacific, ASCI Frost, ASCI White, atmospheric sciences, carbon sequestration, Compass Cluster, elastic simulations, E3D, Institutional Computing Executive Group, JEEP, microfluidic devices, Multiprogrammatic and Institutional Computing Initiative, parallel computing, Scientific Computing and Communications Department, Sunbert, supercomputers, TeraCluster, TeraCluster2000 (TC2K), Terascale Simulation Facility.

Research Highlights

Further Developments in Ultrashort-Pulse Lasers | Mark Hermann

Key words: diffraction gratings, Falcon laser, femtosecond laser machining and cutting, high-average-power lasers, nanocrystals, optical-parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA), Petawatt, ultrashort-pulse lasers.

Simulating How the Wind Blows | Robert L. Lee

Key words: Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI), atmospheric dispersion, biological and chemical agents, Chemical and Biological National Security Program, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), National Atmospheric Release and Advisory Capability (NARAC), urban dispersion modeling.

September 2001 S&TR Cover

September 2001

R&D 100 Awards

Zeroing In on Genes | Allen Christian

Key words: gene recovery microdissection, genomic research, R&D 100 Award.

Big Glass for a Big Laser | Jack Campbell

Key words: continuous laser glass melting process, National Ignition Facility (NIF), neodymium-doped phosphate laser glass, platinum inclusions, R&D 100 Award.

Lasershot Makes Its Mark | Lloyd Hackel

Key words: Lasershot Marking System, laser peening, R&D 100 Award, safety-critical metal parts and components.

Feature Article

Tracking the Global Spread of Advanced Technologies | Eileen Vergino

Key words: asymmetry, biological warfare, Center for Global Security Research (CGSR), globalization, nonproliferation, nuclear weapons, terrorism.
July/August 2001 S&TR Cover

July/August 2001

Feature Articles

Annual Certification Takes a Snapshot of Stockpile's Health | James Tyler

Key words: Annual Certification, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Nuclear Weapons Council, Project Officers Groups (POGs), stockpile stewardship, subcritical experiments, U.S. Strategic Command.

Sensing for Danger | Rob Hills

Key words: Bayesian statistics, correlated sensor networks, Counterproliferation Analysis and Planning System (CAPS), gamma detector, Joint Biological Remote Early Warning System (JBREWS), neutron detector, nuclear terrorism, seismic detector, sensor or network fabrics, tactical engagement systems, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), Wide-Area Tracking System (WATS).

Research Highlights

It's the Pits in the Weapons Stockpile | Tom Shepp

Key words: Enhanced Surveillance Campaign, nuclear weapons, pits, plutonium.

Looking into the Shadow World | Harry Martz

Key words: computed tomography, constrained conjugated gradient (CCG), HADES, radiographic modeling, radiography, Stockpile Stewardship Program.

June 2001 S&TR Cover

June 2001

Feature Articles

Turning Carbon Directly into Electricity | John Cooper

Key words: biomass, carbon black, carbon dioxide, coal, direct carbon conversion, fuel cell, global warming, hydrogen fuel cell, hydropyrolysis, natural gas, petroleum coke, pyrolysis, turbostratic carbon.

Environmental Research in California and Beyond | Reed Maxwell, Steve Carle, and Gordon Seitz

Key words: Bay Areas Paleoseismic Experiment (BAPEX), Center for Mass Accelerator Spectrometry (CAMS), CHIRP, groundwater management, hydrogeology, MTBE, Orange County, paleoearthquakes, ParFlow, San Andreas Fault, SLIM-Fast, South Lake Tahoe, TSIM, University of California at Merced, Virtual Valley.

Research Highlights

This Nitrogen Molecule Really Packs Heat | Riad Manaa

Key words: Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI), fullerenes, high-energy-density materials, nitrogen.

PEREGRINE Goes to Work | Rosemary Walling

Key words: cancer treatment, Monte Carlo mathematics, PEREGRINE, U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

May 2001 S&TR Cover

May 2001

Feature Articles

Uncovering Hidden Defects with Neutrons | James Hall

Key words: Brookhaven National Laboratory, COG Monte Carlo radiation transport code, deuterium, Enhanced Surveillance Campaign, lithium deuteride, Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE), neutron imaging, neutron radiography and tomography, Nevada Test Site, Ohio University Accelerator Laboratory (OUAL), Pantex Plant, scintillator, stockpile stewardship, x-ray imaging, x-ray radiography, Y-12 Plant.

The Human in the Mouse Mirror | Lisa Stubbs

Key words: chromosome 19, comparative genetics, DNA, Human Genome Project (HGP), gene expression, Joint Genome Institute (JGI), mouse genome, PEG3, sequencing, section in situ hybridization.

Research Highlights

The NIF Target Chamber—Ready for the Challenge | Richard Sawicki

Key words: chamber pedestal, design engineering, final optics assembly (FOA), laser amplification, Laser and Target Area Building, National Ignition Facility, precision survey, Stockpile Stewardship Program, target chamber, target positioner, vibration control.

Indoor Testing to Begin Soon at Site 300 | Rick Visoria

Key words: Contained Firing Facility, hydrodynamic testing, Site 300, Stockpile Stewardship Program, W-80 Stockpile Life Extension Project.

April 2001 S&TR Cover

April 2001

Feature Article

A New Kind of Biological Research | Michael Colvin

Key words: abasic lesions, Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI), Ape1, bioflavanoids, botulinum, Center for Applied Scientific Computing, computational biochemistry, cyclophosphamide, DNA, first principles molecular dynamics, food mutagens, molecular dynamics, quantum mechanics, tetanus.

Research Highlights

The World's Most Accurate Lathe | Jeff Klingmann

Key words: Keck telescope, Large Optics Diamond Turning Machine (LODTM), National Aeronautical and Space Agency (NASA), precision engineering, Strategic Defense Initiative.

Leading the Attack on Cancer | Jim Felton, Dennis Matthews, Ken Turtletaub

Key words: cancer research, National Cancer Institute (NCI), PEREGRINE, University of California at Davis.

Electronic Memory Goes High Rise | Charles Cerjan

Key words: magnetic random access memory (MRAM), magnetic tunnel junctions, Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI).

March 2001 S&TR Cover

March 2001

Feature Articles

Inside the Superblock | Joe Sefcik

Key words: fissile materials, material disposition, Plutonium Facility, plutonium immobilization, radiography, Stockpile Stewardship Program, subcritical tests, Tritium Facility.

Exploring the Fundamental Limits of Simulation | Giulia Galli Gygi

Key words: Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI), blind prediction experiments, computing speed, Dirac observation, model validation, multiscale modeling, predictive simulations, software.

Research Highlights

Plutonium Up Close …Way Close | Adam Schwartz

Key words: : plutonium research, stockpile stewardship, transmission electron microscope.

Shocked and Stressed, Metals Get Stronger | Lloyd Hackel

Key words: Laser peening, Stockpile Stewardship Program, Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Disposal Program.

January/February 2001 S&TR Cover

January/February 2001

Feature Article

A Career of Distinguished Achievement Roger Batzel (1922-2000) | John H. Nuckolls, Philip Coyle

Key words: Advanced Test Accelerator, Atmospheric Release and Advisory Capability, biodosimetry, biomedical research, Brilliant Pebbles, DOE Distinguished Associate Award, Flash X-Ray Facility, Laboratory Directed Research and Development program, Nova laser, postdoctoral program, Roger Batzel, Spartan antiballistic warhead.

Research Highlights

From Dosimetry to Genomics | Mortimer L. Mendelsohn

Key words: biotechnology, chromosome libraries, chromosome painting, dosimetry, flow cytometry, Human Genome Project, Roger Batzel.

Swords into Plowshares and Beyond | Robert N. Schock

Key words: battery research, Climax Mine, coal-gasification, energy program, fuel cell research, International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), laser fusion energy, magnetic fusion energy, Mirror Fusion Test Facility-B (MFTF-B), National Ignition Facility (NIF), oil-shale retort, Project Plowshare, Roger Batzel, solar surrey, spheromak, uranium atomic vapor laser isotope separation (U-AVLIS), Yucca Mountain.

Adapting to a Changing Weapons Program | George H. Miller

Key words: arms control, Brilliant Pebbles, inertial confinement fusion (ICF), Roger Batzel, Strategic Defense Initiative, tactical nuclear weapons, treaty verification.

December 2000 S&TR Cover

December 2000

Feature Articles

Following Materials over Time and Space | Tomas Diaz de la Rubia

Key words: ASCI Blue, ASCI White, Center for Applied Scientific Computing (ASCI), dislocation dynamics, Laboratory Directed Research and Development, multiscale modeling, National Ignition Facility (NIF), plutonium, radiation damage, stockpile stewardship, Yucca Mountain.

The Art of Systems Science | Cynthia Annese, Annette MacIntyre

Key words: decision analysis; discrete-event simulation; National Ignition Facility (NIF); nonproliferation; operations research; reliability, availability, maintainability (RAM); plutonium disposition; risk analysis; statistics, Stockpile Stewardship Program; systems engineering.

Research Highlights

A Solution for Carbon Dioxide Overload | James W. Johnson

Key words: carbon dioxide sequestration, reactive transport modeling.

Preparing for Strong Earthquakes | François Heuze

Key words: Campus Earthquake Program (CEP), Campus-Laboratory Collaboration Program, ground-motion analysis, Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA).

November 2000 S&TR Cover

November 2000

Feature Articles

Cutting-Edge Environmental Modeling | Bill Dannevik

Key words: atmospheric modeling, Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC), global climate modeling, groundwater modeling, hydrology, Nevada Test Site, seismic modeling, Underground Test Area, Virtual Valley, Yucca Mountain.

Protons Reveal the Inside Story | Ed Hartouni

Key words: Advanced Hydrotest Facility (AHF), Big Explosive Experiment Facility, Brookhaven National Laboratory's Alternating Gradient Synchrotron, Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility (DAHRT), Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory's Main Ring, Flash X Ray (FXR), hydrotests, Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE), multiple coulomb scattering, Nevada Test Site (NTS), proton radiography, quadrupole magnets, stockpile stewardship, x-radiography.

Research Highlights

Matter That Matters | Dieter Schneider

Key words: Coulomb coupling parameter, cryogenic Penning ion trap (RETRAP), electron-beam ion trap (EBIT), highly ionized plasmas, microplasmas, white dwarf stars.

New Imaging Technique Gets Under the Skin...Deep | Harry Radousky

Key words: cancer detection, Center for Laser Imaging and Cancer Diagnostics, Materials Research Institute, spectral polarization difference imaging (SPDI).

October 2000 S&TR Cover

October 2000

Feature Article

A New World of Seeing | Terri Quinn

Key words: Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI), Assessment Theater, MeshTV, metadata, SimTracker, Terascale Browser, Visual Interactive Environment for Weapon Simulation (VIEWS), Visualization Work Center.

Research Highlights

The Many Faces of Carbon Dioxide | Choong-Shik Yoo

Key words: carbon dioxide, diamond anvil cell.

Award-Winning System Assays Radioactive Waste with Radiation | Pat Roberson

Key words: active and passive computed tomography, nondestructive evaluation, waste inspection tomography, nondestructive assay (NDA), waste disposal, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), R&D 100 Awards.

Nanoscale Chemistry Yields Better Explosives | Randy Simpson, Tom Tillotson

Key words: aerogel, energetic materials, explosives, nanocomposites, PETN, propellants, pyrotechnics, RDX, sol-gel, xerogel.

September 2000 S&TR Cover

September 2000

Feature Articles

Preventing Nuclear Nonproliferation: The Post-Cold War Challenge | William Dunlop

Key words: All-Russian Research Institute of Technical Physics, Advangard Foundation, Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), highly enriched uranium; Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (IPP); Mayak, Minatom; mixed oxide (MOX) fuel; Nuclear Cities Initiative (NCI); Material Protection, Control, and Accounting program; Proliferation Prevention and Arms Control program; plutonium; Sarov; Snezhinsk; Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty START; warhead dismantlement.

"Shocking" Gas-Gun Experiments | Neil Holmes

Key words: : equations of state, Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research (JASPER) facility, planetary physics, shock physics, stockpile stewardship, two-stage light-gas gun.

Research Highlights

Mining Data for Gems of Information | Chandrika Kamath

Key words: Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI), data mining, Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty Centimeters (FIRST), patatern recognition, Sapphire.

Low Emittance, High Brightness: A New X-Ray Light Source | Art Toor

Key words: free-electron laser, Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), linear accelerator, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center.

July/August 2000 S&TR Cover

July/August 2000

Feature Articles

Underground Explosions Are Music to Their Ears | Dave Conrad

Key words: Big Explosives Engineering Facility, Device Assembly Facility, ejecta, High Explosives Applications Facility, Integrated Safety Management, Nevada Test site, plutonium, Site 300, spall, stockpile stewardship, subcritical tests, U1A complex.

Biomedical Research Benefits from Counting Small | John Knezovich

Key words: biomedical research, carbon-14, Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (CAMS), Marshall Islands, MeIQx, National Institutes of Health (NIH), nutrition, pesticides, PhIP, plutonium, radioisotope tracing, tritium.

Research Highlight

Mighty Small Dots | Howard Lee

Key words: all-optical switch, demultiplexing, light-emitting diode (LED), logic gate, quantum dot, quantum effects, semiconductor.

June 2000 S&TR Cover

June 2000

Feature Articles

New Day Dawns in Supercomputing | Mark Seager

Key words: Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI), Pacific Blue, ASCI White, Academic Strategic Alliance Program, Terascale Simulation Facility (TSF), Stockpile Stewardship Program.

Uncovering the Secrets of Actinides | Lou Terminello

Key words: actinides, colloids, Forensic Science Center, Glenn T. Seaborg Institute for Transactinium Science, Nevada Test Site, plutonium, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, stockpile stewardship, uranium.

Research Highlights

A Predictable Structure for Aerogels | Glenn Fox

Key words: aerogels, dendrimers, polymers.

Tibet: Where Continents Collide | Rick Ryerson

Key words: accelerator mass spectrometry, cosmogenic isotopes, dating techniques, faults, plate tectonics, Tibet.

May 2000 S&TR Cover

May 2000

Feature Articles

Uncovering Bioterrorism | Bert Weinstein

Key words: anthrax, bacteriophage, biological signatures, biological weapons, Centers for Disease Control (CDC), DNA, Gene Chip, plague, plasmids, virulence.

Laser Technology Follows in Lawrence's Footsteps | Steve Hargrove

Key words: Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS), Calutron, diode lasers, erbium, E.O. Lawrence, Gadolinium, gas centrifuge, gaseous diffsion, laser guide star, laser isotope separation (LIS), Manhattan Project, Uranium enrichment, United States Enrichment Corp. (USEC).

Research Highlights

Imaging Catheter Gives Surgeons the Inside Picture | Luis Da Silva

Key words: advanced imaging catheter, LATIS, medical technology, optical coherence tomography (OCT), radiation transport modeling.

JanUSP Opens New World of Physics Research | Paul Springer

Key words: ion lens, Janus, JanUSP, Nova, Petawatt, stockpile stewardship.

April 2000 S&TR Cover

April 2000

Feature Articles

The Joint Genome Institute: Decoding the Human Genome | Elbert Branscomb

Key words: bioinformatics, DNA, functional genomics, Human Genome Project, Joint Genome Institute (JGI), microbial genetics, mouse genome, sequencing.

The Next Accelerator for Revolutionizing Physics | Karl van Bibber

Key words: accelerator structure, electron-positron linear collider, high-energy particle accelerator, Next Linear Collider (NLC), positron target, proton collider, solid-state modulator, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), Tevatron.

Research Highlights

A Speckled Look at Saturn's Moon, Titan | Bruce Macintosh

Key words: adaptive optics, Saturn, speckle imaging, Titan.

Remote Sensor Test Range—Proving Ground for Tomorrow's Sensing Technologies | Hal Goldwire

Key words: chemical release testing, Frenchman Flat, HAZMAT Spill Center, Mountain Lion test series, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Remote Sensor Test Range (RSTR), remote sensing.

March 2000 S&TR Cover

March 2000

Feature Articles

The Amazing Power of the Petawatt | Michael Perry

Key words: chirped-pulse amplification, diffractive optics, fast ignition, laser cutting, Nova, Petawatt, proton beam.

Building a Virtual Time Machine | Bill Glassley

Key words: Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI), Blue Pacific, computer simulation, Engineered Barrier System, Nevada Test Site, nuclear waste repository, NUFT (non-isothermal unsaturated flow and transport), Performance Confirmation Period, power wall, Yucca Mountain.

Research Highlight

Dead Sea Explosions Trigger International Cooperation | Keith Nakanishi

Key words: Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), Dead Sea, Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Gulf of Aqaba, knowledge base, Middle East and North Africa (MENA), Seismic monitoring, United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).

January/February 2000 S&TR Cover

January/February 2000

Feature Articles

Simulating Warfare Is No Video Game | Faith Shimamoto

Key words: combat simulation, Conflict Simulation Laboratory, Fleet Battle Experiment-Echo, Janus, JCATS (Joint Conflict and Tactical Simulation), Joint Conflict Model, Joint Tactical Simulation, Joint Warfighting Center, U.S. Marine Corps, Multiple Integrated Laser Engagement System, Special Response Team, U.S. Navy, Urban Warrior Advanced Warfighting Experiment.

Supernova Hydrodynamics Up Close | Bruce Remington

Key words: hydrodynamics, modeling, Nova laser, Omega laser, Supernova 1987A, supernovas, turbulence.

Research Highlights

Agile Manufacturing: Gearing Up to Meet Demand | Bob Burleson

Key words: agile manufacturing, machine controller, munitions manufacturing, product realization process, U.S. Army.

Bringing Hypersonic Flight Down to Earth | Preson Carter

Key words: HyperSoar, hypersonic aircraft, "skip."

December 1999 S&TR Cover

December 1999

Feature Article

The Internal Combustion Engine at Work-Modeling Considers All Factors | Charlie Westbrook

Key words: Center for Fuels Assessment, combustion modeling, diesel fuels, HCT code, Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), internal combustion engine, Plasma-Assisted Catalytic Reduction (PACR).

Research Highlights

Multilayers Illuminate the Sun's Secrets | Troy Barbee

Key words: chromosphere, corona, extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL), multilayers, photosphere, sun, Transition Region and Corona Explorer (TRACE).

Of Mice and Men | Lisa Stubbs

Key words: adenocarcinoma, chromosome, comparative genetics, DNA, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), gene, Human Genome Center, Joint Genome Institute, translocation.

Experiment Mimics Nature's Way with Plasmas | David N. Hill

Key words: CORSICA, deuterium, dynamo, magnetic fusion energy, plasma, spheromak, tokamak.

November 1999 S&TR Cover

November 1999

Feature Articles

Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography: Imaging the Future | Don Sweeney

Key words: Extreme Ultraviolet Limited Liability Company, extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL), masks, phase-shifting diffraction interferometer (PSDI), precision deposition system, reflective multilayers, submicrometer metrology, thin films, Ultra Clean Ion Beam Sputter Deposition System, Virtual National Laboratory (VNL).

Handling Fluids in Microsensors | Robin Miles and Peter Krulevitch

Key words: Center for Microtechnology, dielectrophoresis, impedance sensor, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) pump, microdevices, microfluidics.

Research Highlights

A Crowning Achievement for Removing Toxic Mercury | Glenn Fox

Key words: activated carbon, crown polymers, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Mercaptoplex, mercury, precipitation.

Flat-Panel Displays Slim Down with Plastic | Tom Sigmon

Key words: active-matrix liquid-crystal display, amorphous silicon, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, enhanced chemical-vapor deposition, excimer laser, flat-panel display, liquid-crystal display, polysilicon, sputtering, thin-film transistor (TFT).

October 1999 S&TR Cover

October 1999

R&D 100 Awards

The Optical Modulator and Switch: Light on the Move | Ted Weiskamp

Key words: amplitude modulation, fiber-optic communications, optical modulator/switch (OMS), signal amplification.

From Dinosaur Bones to Software, Gamma Rays Protect Property | Muriel Ishikawa

Key words: DNA fingerprinting, digital watermark, gamma rays, Gamma Watermark.

Higher-Power Green Lasers Open up Precision Machining | Jim Chang

Key words: compound parabolic concentrator (CPC), diode-pumped solid-state green laser (DPSSGL), industrial lasers, precision laser machining.

Breakthrough Design for Accelerators | Hugh C. Kirbie

Key words: Advanced Radiograp;hic Machine (ARM), Bechtel Nevada Corporation, Integrated Gate Bipolar Transistors, MOSFETs (metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor), Next Linear Collider, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center.

New Deposition System for the Microchip Revolution | James A. Folta

Key words: extreme-ultraviolet lithography (EUVL), multilayer coatings, sputter deposition.

PEREGRINE Takes Aim at Cancer Tumors | Ralph Patterson

Key words: cancer treatment, Monte Carlo calculations, PEREGRINE, radiation dose, radiation treatment planning.

September 1999 S&TR Cover

September 1999

Feature Article

A Better Picture of Aging Materials | James Lemay

Key words: ALE3D, core surveillance, enhanced surveillance, materials science, modeling, modulated molecular-beam spectroscopy, positron-annihilation lifetime spectroscopy, scanning probe microscopy, solid-phase microextraction (SPME), surface chemistry, x-ray tomography.

Research Highlights

Researchers Determine Chernobyl Liquidator's Exposure | Dennis Atkinson and Dick Wavrik

Key words: final optics assemblies (FOAs), hohlraum, National Ignition Facility (NIF) target chamber, Nevada Test Site, Stockpile Stewardship Program.

Target Chamber's Dedication Marks a Giant Milestone | Irene Jones and Joe Lucas

Key words: biodosimeter, Chernobyl, FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization), glycophorin A (GPA), hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT), liquidators.

July/August 1999 S&TR Cover

July/August 1999

Feature Articles

On Target: Designing for Ignition | Steve Haan

Key words: ablator, Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, deuterium-tritium (D-T), F3D, Hohlraum, HYDRA, Rayleigh-Taylor hydrodynamic instability, ignition, implosion, laser-plasma instability, LASNEX, Los Alamos National Laboratory, National Ignition Facility (NIF), polyimide, stockpile stewardship.

A New View of the Universe | Scot Olivier

Key words: adaptive optics, astronomy, Keck Observatory, laser guide star, Lick Observatory.

Research Highlights

Quantum Molecular Calculations | Guilia Galli Gygi and Francois Gygi

Key words: Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI), computational biology, DNA, high explosives, JEEP, material behavior, quantum molecular dynamics (QMD), semiconductor.

AAA in the Sky for Satellites | Arno Ledebuhr

Key words: agile satellite, hydrogen peroxide propulsion, microsatellite (MicroSat).

June 1999 S&TR Cover

June 1999

Feature Articles

Forewarnings of Coming Hazards | Ron Baskett

Key words: ADAPT (Atmospheric Data Assimilation and Parameterization Tool), Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC), ARAC Emergency Response Modeling System, atmospheric dispersion modeling, Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System, emergency incident response, GRIDGEN (Grid Generator), LODI (Lagrangian Operational Dispersion Integrator).

Unraveling the Mystery of Detonation | Randy Simpson

Key words: Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI), CHEETAH, CHEQ, detonation, equation of state, high explosives, hydrodynamic codes, initiation, insensitive high explosives, thermochemical codes.

Research Highlights

Collaboration Ignites Laser Advances | Ted Perry, Bob McCrory, John Soares, Charles Verdon

Key words: diode-pumped solid-state laser, direct drive, flashlamp cooling, indirect drive, inertial confinement fusion (ICF), KDP (potassium dihydrogen phosphate) crystals, Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, National Ignition Facility (NIF), Nova laser, Omega laser, smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD), spatial filters.

Predicting Material Behavior from the Atomic Level Up | John Moriarty

Key words: atomic scale modeling, body-centered-cubic (bcc) crystal structure, dislocation dynamics (DD), edge dislocation, mesoscale modeling, microscale modeling, multiscale modeling, polycrystals, screw dislocation, stockpile stewardship, transmission electron microscopy.

May 1999 S&TR Cover

May 1999

Feature Articles

Leveraging Science and Technology in the National Interest | Cory Coll

Key words: ALE3D, CALE, Cheetah, explosives, Department of Defense, fiber-composite sabot, fuse, GLO (global local optimizer), Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), Penetration Augmented Munition (PAM), PERMS (propellant energy response to mechanical stimuli), safety assessment, warhead.

The Revelations of Acoustic Waves | Gregory K. Clark

Key words: accelerometers, acoustic signals, algorithms, artificial neural networks, Bixby Creek Bridge, Caltrans, Department of Energy/National Gas and Oil Technology Partnership, heart valves, National Ignition Facility, Nevada Test Site, numerical models, oil exploration, San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, signal processing, structure analysis.

Research Highlight

Pulses of Light Make Faster Computers | Mark Lowry

Key words: embedded system, lambda-connect, Moore's law, multimode glass fiber (MMF), optoelectronics, photonics, vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSL) diode, ultrascale computing, wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM).

April 1999 S&TR Cover

April 1999

Feature Articles

Structural Biology Looks at the Ties That Bind | Rodney Balhorn

Key words: clostridium toxins, computational biochemistry, DNA repair, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, protein structure prediction, structural biology, tetanus, x-ray crystallography.

Duplicating the Plasmas of Distant Stars | Paul Springer

Key words: accretion, Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI), Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), Astro-E, astrophysics, binary star, cepheids, hohlraum, Hubble constant, iron, Livermore X-ray Spectral Synthesizer (LXSS), National Ignition Facility (NIF), Nova, OPAL, opacity, plasmas, Saturn facility, Stockpile Stewardship, supernovae, white dwarf, x-ray astronomy, X-ray Multi-Mirror Mission (XMM), x-ray spectroscopy, Z-Machine.

Research Highlights

Seismic Monitoring Techniques Put to a Test | Bill Walter

Key words: Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), discriminants, National Data Center, nuclear test.

Sleuthing MTBE with Statistical Data | Anne Happel

Key words: gasoline releases, groundwater, leaking underground fuel tanks (LUFTs), methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE), MTBE regulation, statistical analysis, transport mechanisms, water quality.

March 1999 S&TR Cover

March 1999

Feature Articles

Site 300 Keeps High Explosives Science on Target | Milt Grissom

Key words: enhanced surveillance, environmental restoration, Fabry-Perot interferometer, Flash X-Ray (FXR) machine, high explosives, High Explosives Application Facility (HEAF), hydrodynamic tests, MOLE, shaped charges, Site 300, stockpile stewardship.

Putting More Pressure on Hydrogen | Robert C. Cauble

Key words: equation of state (EOS), gas gun, high-energy density, Hugoniot, metallized hydrogen, Nova laser.

Research Highlights

Methane Hydrate: A Surprising Compound | William B. Durham

Key words: clathrate, energy sources, gas hydrates, methane hydrate, global climate, superheating.

LATIS: Modeling Laser Effects on Tissue | Rich London

Key words: arthritis, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), enlarged prostate, laser surgery, laser-tissue interaction modeling, LATIS code, LATIS3D code, stroke, tissue welding.

January/February 1999 S&TR Cover

January/February 1999

Feature Articles

Leading the Best and the Brightest | Lyle Cox

Key words: Argus laser, atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS), copper vapor lasers, Cyclops laser, diode-pumped solid-state laser, inertial confinement fusion (ICF), Janus laser, loop road system, Materials Testing Accelerator (MTA), Military Research Associates, Nd:glass (neodymium-doped glass) laser, Nevada Test Site, Nova laser, O Program, Operation Hardtack, Operation Matterhorn, Polaris, Royston Plan, S-1 supercomputer, SCALD (Structured Computer Aided Logic Design), Shiva laser, site planning, solid-state lasers, Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), Woods Hole.

Research Highlights

Imaging the Elephant: The BaBar Detector and the Mystery of Matter | Doug Wright

Key words: BaBar Detector, B Factory, Big Bang, B mesons and anti-B mesons, charge parity violation, particle physics, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC).

1998 Nobel Prize Winner Laughlin Credits Livermore Colleagues | Robert Laughlin

Key words: fractional quantum Hall effect, Laughlin's Wave Function, Nobel Prize, quarks.

December 1998 S&TR Cover

December 1998

Feature Articles

Energy to Keep Everything Running | Mark Strauch

Key words: carbon sequestration, energy, fuel cell, global warming, nuclear waste repository, ocean model, quality assurance (QA), solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC), superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES), thin films, Yucca Mountain.

Antimatter Helps to Protect Our Nuclear Stockpile | Richard Howell

Key words: electrons, linear accelerator, materials science, nondestructive analysis, Pelletron electrostatic accelerator, positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy, positron microprobe, DOE Stockpile Stewardship Program.

Research Highlights

A Shaker Exercise for the Bay Area | Shawn Larsen, David McCallen

Key words: bridge dynamic analysis, campus-laboratory collaboration, E3D, earthquake simulation, earthquake risk assessment, Hayward fault, hazard assessment, San Francisco Bay Bridge, seismic safety, SUSPNDRS.

Forensic Science Sleuthing | Brian Andreson

Key words: Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Forensic Science Center, gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS), solid-phase microextraction (SPME), thin-layer chromatography (TLC).

November 1998 S&TR Cover

November 1998

Feature Articles

Controlling the World's Most Powerful Laser | Paul VanArsdall

Key words: Ada, applications frameworks, Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) networks, CORBA (Common Object Request Broker Architecture), distributed control system, front-end processor (FEP), National Ignition Facility (NIF), NIF Integrated Computer Control System, Nova, object-oriented programming, Unix, VxWorks.

Getting Down to Environmental Cleanup Basics | Kenneth Jackson, Norman Burkhard

Key words: accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), electromagnetic induction tomography, electrical resistance tomography, environmental geophysics, environmental management, joint inversion, mixed waste, modeling, moisture flux, Nevada Test Site, NUFT flow transport code, rock physics, rock properties, site characterization, thermal treatment, underground imaging, vadose zone.

Research Highlights

When Collisions Reveal All | Alex Hamza

Key words: highly charged ions, SIMS (secondary ion mass spectrometry), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) emission microscope.

Collaboration Opens Door to Understanding Genetic Kidney Disorder | Linda Ashworth, Anne Olsen

Key words: chromosome 19, congenital nephrotic syndrome, DNA clones, DNA mapping and sequencing, Human Genome Project, kidney disease, Peutz/Jeghers syndrome.

October 1998 S&TR Cover

October 1998

R&D 100 Awards

INDUCT95 Helps U.S. Stay #1 in Semiconductors | Peter Vitello

Key words: computer-aided design, INDUCT95, plasma, plasma simulation, semiconductor.

Zeroing In on Low Temperatures for Surgery | Peter Celliers

Key words: infrared sensor, laser surgery, optical fiber, semiconductors, Two-Color Fiber-Optic Infrared Sensor.

Blasts of Light to Strengthen Metals | Lloyd Hackel

Key words: high-energy laser, high-repetition-rate laser, laser peening, LasershotSM Peening System.

A Better Look at dental Tissue | Bill W. Colston, Jr.

Key words: dental diagnostics, Optical Dental Imaging System, optical imaging.

Bridge Diagnosis at 55 mph | Jose E. Hernandez

Key words: HERMES Bridge Inspector, infrastructure maintenance, micropower impulse radar (MIR), nondestructive evaluation, roadway inspection, ultrawideband sensors.

Putting Thieves on Notice | Bob Stoddard

Key words: fiber-optic systems, laser systems, Light Lock Optical Security System, optoelectronic-mechanical locks, security systems.

Automating Fine Grinding of Precision Lenses | Mark Picotty, John S. Taylor, Kenneth Blaedel

Key words: acoustic-emission detector, grinding, optics manufacturing, OptiPro-AED, proximity sensor, precision engineering.

September 1998 S&TR Cover

September 1998

Feature Articles

Forensic Seismology Supports the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty | Jay Zucca

Key words: Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), International Data Center, Knowledge Base, MENA (Middle East and North Africa) region, National Data Center, Nevada Test Site, SOFAR (sound fixing and ranging) channel, Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TTBT).

A Short History of the Laboratory at Livermore | Bart Hacker

Research Highlights

The X-Ray Laser: From Underground to Tabletop | Jim Dunn, Al Osterheld

Key words: chirped-pulse amplification, plasmas, soft x rays, tabletop x-ray laser.

Down-to-Earth Testing of Microsatellites | Arno Ledebuhr

Key words: AGILE (air-table guided-intercept and line-of-sight experiments), dynamic air-bearing table, dynamic air-bearing rail, ground testing, microsatellite, spacecraft interceptor, space vehicle.

July/August 1998 S&TR Cover

July/August 1998

Celebrating Edward Teller at 90

Glimpses of an Exceptional Man

Still Shaking Up Science Today

Gifts of a Fertile Mind

For the Love of Science

Edward Teller's Awards, Honorary Degrees, and Books | Timeline: From Birth to Present

June 1998 S&TR Cover

June 1998

Feature Articles

Reducing the Threat of Biological Weapons | Fred Milanovich

Key words: biodetectors, bioinformatics, biological warfare agents, decontamination, DNA analysis, flow cytometry, genomics, National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (ARAC), polymerase chain reaction (PCR), weapons of mass destruction.

At the Crossroads of Technology and Policy | Ronald F. Lehman, II

Key words: Center for Global Security Research (CGSR), Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection, computer security, International Science and Technology Center (ISTC), Joint Verification Experiments (JVE), Lab-to-Lab program, land-mine removal, National Infrastructure Protection Center, nonproliferation, Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TTBT).

Research Highlights

Shaped Charges Pierce the Toughest Targets | Dennis Baum

Key words: ALE3D code, Big Explosives Experimental Facility (BEEF), C-language Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (CALE) code, framing camera, image-converter camera, Nevada Test Site, shaped charge, x-ray radiography.

A New Approach for Magnetically Levitating Trains—and Rockets | Richard F. Post, J. Ray Smith

Key words: Halbach arrays, Inductrack, magnetically levitated (maglev) trains.

May 1998 S&TR Cover

May 1998

Feature Articles

They All Like It Hot: Faster Cleanup of Contaminated Soil and Groundwater | Robin L. Newmark, Roger D. Aines

Key words: dynamic underground stripping, electrical resistance tomography, groundwater contamination, hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation, modeling, noble-gas tracers, NUFT code, remediation, soil contamination.

Computational Mechanics Moves Ahead | Peter Raboin

Key words: computational mechanics, computer modeling and simulation, DYNA3D, finite-element method, nonlinear behavior, NIKE3D, ParaDyn, parallel computing, solid and structural analysis, TOPAZ3D.

Research Highlights

Corsica: Integrated Simulations for Magnetic Fusion Energy | Ronald H. Cohen

Device Assembly Facility: New Facilities for Handling Nuclear Explosives | James Page

Key words: Device Assembly Facility (DAF), DOE, high explosives, Nevada Test Site, nuclear-explosive operations, nuclear weapon assembly and disassembly, stockpile stewardship, subcritical experiments.

April 1998 S&TR Cover

April 1998

Feature Article

Computer Simulations in Support of National Security | Randy Christensen

Key words: Academic Strategic Alliances Program, Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI), computer infrastructure, computer platform, parallel computing, PathForward, problem-solving environment, Stockpile Stewardship Program, simulation, teraflops, weapons codes.

Research Highlights

Argus Oversees and Protects All | Gregory Davis

Key words: Argus, Argus field processor (AFP), remote access panel (RAP), security technology.

Of Josephson Junctions, Quasi-particles, and Cooper Pairs | Simon Labov

Key words: Cooper pairs, detectors, Josephson junction, quasi-particles, spectrometry.

March 1998 S&TR Cover

March 1998

Feature Articles

Keeping Laser Development for the National Ignition Facility on Target | Howard T. Powell, Richard H. Sawicki

Key words: Amplab, amplifier, Beamlet, beamline, deformable mirror, flashlamp, fusion, laser, National Ignition Facility (NIF), Nova, Pockels cell, power conditioning, pulsed power.

Tracing the Role of Carbon Dioxide in Global Warming | Philip B. Duffy, Ken Caldeira

Key words: carbon cycle, carbon dioxide (CO2), climate change, climate model, fossil-fuel burning, global warming, greenhouse gas, marine biology, mass spectrometry, ocean carbon cycle, ocean convection, proxy data, radiocarbon (14C).

Research Highlights

Reliable Software for Protection Systems | Gary Lynn Johnson

Key words: instrumentation and control systems, nuclear power plants, safety-critical systems, software engineering.

Keeping the "More" in Moore's Law | Don Sweeney

Key words: extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography technology, Advanced Microtechnology Program, Ultra Clean Ion Beam Sputter Deposition System, Absolute Interferometer.

January/February 1998 S&TR Cover

January/February 1998

Feature Articles

Making Information Safe | Doug Mansur

Key words: AIS (Automated Information System) Alarms, Computer Incident Advisory Capability (CIAC), Computer Security Technology Center (CSTC), computer intrusions, document classification, hacker, incident response, Internet, Morris Worm, Network Intrusion Detector (NID), Secure Software Distribution System (SSDS), Security Profile Inspector (SPI), software patches and upgrades, Text Analysis Project (TAP), virus, White Hat review.

Engineering Precision into Laboratory Projects | Ken Blaedel

Key words: diamond turning, extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, femtosecond laser cutter, KDP (potassium dihydrogen phosphate), Large Optics Diamond Turning Machine (LODTM), machine design, National Ignition Facility (NIF), optical systems, precision engineering, process development.

Research Highlights

Enhanced Surveillance of Aging Weapons | Jeffrey Kass and John Kolb

Key words: diagnostics, enhanced stockpile surveillance, high explosives, nondestructive evaluation, nuclear explosive package (NEP), Nuclear Weapons Information Group, stockpile stewardship.

A National Strategy against Terrorism Using Weapons of Mass Destruction | Dennis Imbro

Key words: counterterrorism, cytometer, Forensic Science Center, Joint Biological Remote Early Warning System (JBREWS), Livermore Study Group, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) instrument, portable radiation detector, weapons of mass destruction (WMD), Wide-Area Tracking System (WATS).

December 1997 S&TR Cover

December 1997

Feature Articles

Advancing Technologies and Applications in Nondestructive Evaluation | Clint Logan

Key words: computed tomography, digital radiography, dual-band thermography, gamma-ray spectroscopy, geothermal reservoir, infrared computed thermography, inspection, laser amplifier slabs, nondestructive evaluation, KDP crystal, optical inspection, piston, soil and contaminant transport, ultrasonics, waste assay, zeolite target.

Atomic Engineering | Troy Barbee, Jr.

Key words: multilayers, nanostructured materials, sputtering, thermo-electrics, x-ray optics, x-ray lasers.

Research Highlights

Marrying Astrophysics with the Earth | Duane Liedahl

Key words: Astrophysics, astrophysical plasmas, atomic physics.

Continuing Work in Breast Cancer Detection Technologies | J. Patrick Fitch

Key words: breast cancer, data compression, detection algorithms, digital mammography, linear ultrasonic diffraction tomography, mammogram library, microcalcifications.

November 1997 S&TR Cover

November 1997

Feature Articles

A New World of Biomedical Research: The Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry | Caroline Holloway

Key words: accelerator mass spectroscopy, biomedical research, calcium, Human Genome Project, human subjects, MelQx, osteoporosis, radiocarbon dating, tandem Van de Graff accelerator, toxicology.

Isotope Tracers Help Manage Water Resources | Dave Smith

Key words: groundwater, groundwater contamination, hydrology, Nevada Test Site, nuclear chemistry, radioisotopes, stable isotopes, water resource management.

Research Highlights

LANDMARC: Making Land-Mine Detection and Removal Practical | Steve Azevedo

Key words: antipersonnel mines, antitank mines, humanitarian land-mine detection, ground-penetrating radar, LANDMARC (Land-Mine Detection Advanced Radar Concept), micropower impulse radar (MIR), subsurface imaging, ultrawide bandwidth.

Improved Detonation Modeling with CHEETAH | Laurence Fried

Key words: Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI), Chapman-Jouget, CHEETAH, High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF).

October 1997 S&TR Cover

October 1997

Feature Articles

R&D 100 Awards Intro | Karena McKinley

New Interferometer Measures to Atomic Dimensions | Gary Sommargren

Key words: extreme ultraviolet lithography, fiber optics, integrated circuit manufacturing, interferometry, optics.

Compact, More Powerful Chips from Virtually Defect-Free, Thin-Film System | Stephen Vernon

Key words: extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL), photolithography, R&D 100 Award, thin-film deposition, Ultra Clean Ion Beam Sputter Deposition System.

A New Precision Cutting Tool: The Femtosecond Laser | Brent Stuart, Michael Perry

Key words: Chirped-pulse amplification, demilitarization, femtosecond laser, lasers, laser surgery, R&D 100 Award.

MELD: A CAD Tool for Photonics Systems | Richard Ratowsky

Key words: computer-aided design, fiber optic communications, flexible manufacturing, photonics.

The Tiltmeter: Tilting at Great Depths to Find Oil | Steven Hunter

Key words: earthquake faults, geothermal energy, oil-well-drilling, Oil Field Tiltmeter, R&D 100 Award.

Smaller Insulators Handle Higher Voltage | Bob Stoddard

Key words: capacitor, electron emission, insulator, insulator fabrication, secondary emission avalanche, Ultra High Gradient Insulator (Ultra-HGI), voltage breakdown, voltage divider.

Computer Storage Management Software: The Next Generation | Dick Watson

Key words: Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI), computer network, hierarchical storage management, large-scale computer storage, parallel computing, supercomputing.

September 1997 S&TR Cover

September 1997

Feature Articles

Nova Laser Experiments and Stockpile Stewardship | Theodore Perry, Bruce Remington

Key words: equation of state, Hugoniot, hydrodynamic instability, opacity, National Ignition Facility (NIF), Nova laser, radiative heat transfer, Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program, weapons physics.

Sharing the Challenges of Nonproliferation | Bill Dunlop, Paul Herman, T. R. Koncher, Janet Hauber

Key words: arms reduction; Chelyabinsk-70; gamma-ray spectrometer; highly enriched uranium (HEU); Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (IPP) program; International Science and Technology Center (ISTC); laboratory-to-laboratory work; low-enriched uranium; Materials Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC&A) program; newly independent states (NIS); nuclear nonproliferation; NunnLugar Cooperative Threat Reduction bill; safeguards, transparency, and irreversibility; transparency measures; verification; vulnerability analysis; Russia.

Research Highlight

Taming Explosives for Training | John Kury

Key words: nonhazardous explosives for security training and testing (NESTT), simulated explosives, canine training.

July/August 1997 S&TR Cover

July/August 1997

Feature Articles

Assuring the Safety of Nuclear Power | Mark Strauch

Key words: Argus, FESSP, nuclear fuel cycle, nuclear power, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, nuclear safety, nuclear waste, Nuclear Systems Safety Center, plutonium disposition, United States Enrichment Corp., uranium enrichment, Yucca Mountain.

The Microtechnology Center: When Smaller is Better | Ray Mariella

Key words: bioanalysis, DNA analysis, DNA sequencing, flow cytometry, gas chromatography, microactuators, microdevices, microstructures, photonics, polymerase chain reaction, semiconductors, shape-memory alloys, thin films.Research Highlights

Speeding the Gene Hunt: High-Speed DNA Sequencing | Joe Balch

Key words: DNA sequencing, Human Genome Project, microchannel, polyacrylamide gel.

Microbial Treatment of High Explosives | John Knezovich, Jeff Daniels

Key words: Decontamination, demilitarization, hazardous waste, high explosives, microbial treatment.

June 1997 S&TR Cover

June 1997

Feature Articles

Transforming Explosive Art into Science | Randall Simpson

Key words: ALE3D, CHEETAH, Fabry-Perot interferometry, GAUSSIAN, high explosives, High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF), HMX (cyclo-tetramethylene-tetranitramine), MOLPAK, PALM, stockpile stewardship, TATB (triamino-trinitrobenzene), TNT (trinitrotoluene), TOPAZCHEM.

On the Offensive against Stroke Attack | J. Patrick Fitch

Key words: laser "clot-busting," laser-tissue interaction modeling, LATIS code, medical photonics, microsensors, neuroprotectant drugs, shape-memory microgripper, stroke.

Research Highlight

Laser Targets: The Next Phase | Steve Letts, Evelyn Fearon

Key words: laser target, National Ignition Facility (NIF), inertial confinement fusion (ICF), fuel capsule, plasma polymer, polymer shell, micro-encapsulation, poly(alpha-methylstyrene) (PAMS), hydrodynamic instability.

May 1997 S&TR Cover

May 1997

Feature Article

Peregrine | Christine Hartmann Siantar, Ed Moses

Key words: cancer treatment, Monte Carlo physics, nuclear databases, radiation dose calculations, radiation therapy, tumors.

Research Highlights

The Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell | Fred Mitlitsky

Key words: electric cars, fuel cell, Helios, hydrogen, Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles, zero-emission vehicles.

Better Flash Radiography Using the FXR | Ray Scarpetti, Joe Baker, Norm Back

Key words: flash x radiography (FXR), gamma-ray camera, hydrodynamic testing, induction linear accelerator, pulsed electron beam, pulsed x-ray source, stockpile stewardship.

Nuclear Weapons Information Project | Bruce Lownsberry

Key words: archives, Nuclear Weapons Information Project, Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program.

April 1997 S&TR Cover

April 1997

Feature Article

Dealing with a Dangerous Surplus from the Cold War | Len Gray

Key words: ceramics, deep boreholes, fissile materials, immobilization, nuclear waste repository, plutonium disposition, plutonium oxide processes, spent fuel standard, Synroc, vitrification, waste forms, weapon pits.

Research Highlights

Volcanoes: A Peek into Our Planet's Plumbing | Annie Kersting, Frederick Ryerson

Key words: crustal growth, global climate, island-arc volcanoes.

Optical Networks: The Wave of the Future | Bill Lennon

Key words: acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF), Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), fiber optics, National Transparent Optical Network (NTON), remote visualization, standards, Synchronous Optical Network (SONET), wavelength division multiplexing (WDM).

March 1997 S&TR Cover

March 1997

Feature Articles

Site 300's New Contained Firing Facility | Charles F. (Joe) Baker

Key words: environment, health and safety; flash x-ray (FXR) machine; high-explosives testing; stockpile stewardship.

Computational Electromagnetics: Codes and Capabilities | Cliff Shang

Key words: electromagnetic field, electromagnetic susceptibility, kicker, modeling, opto-electronics, photonics, wakefield.

Research Highlights

Ergonomics Research: Impact on Injuries | Steve Burastero

Key words: carpal tunnel syndrome, ergonomics, industrial health, work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs).

The Linear Electric Motor: Instability at 1,000 g's | Guy Dimonte

Key words: acceleration, linear electric motor (LEM), Rayleigh-Taylor instability.

January/February 1997 S&TR Cover

January/February 1997

Feature Articles

The B-Factory and the Big Bang | Karl van Bibber, Marshall Mugge, Robert Yamamoto

Key words: accelerators, Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI), Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT), Advanced Hydrotest Facility (AHF), B-Factory, B meson, BaBar detector, Big Bang, Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (CAMS), charge parity violation, LINAC, Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS), Next Linear Collider (NLC), Photon-Electron New Heavy Ion Experiment (PHENIX), Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program, 100-terawatt laser.

Assessing Exposure to Radiation | William Robison, Tore Straume, Joe Lucas, Thomas Sullivan, Lynn Anspaugh, Ivan Proctor, David Hickman

Key words: accelerator mass spectrometry, Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC), biodosimetry, biokinetic model, BRAVO test, Chernobyl accident, dose reconstruction, dose assessment, FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization), Marshall Islands, prospective dosimetry, worker exposure.

Research Highlights

The Next Generation of Computer Storage | Dick Watson

Key words: computer network, hierarchical storage management, large-scale computer storage, parallel computing, supercomputing.

A Powerful New Tool to Detect Clandestine Nuclear Tests | Charles Carrigan

Key words: comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, nuclear proliferation, nuclear treaty verification, NUFT (Non-Isothermal Unsaturated Flow and Transport).

December 1996 S&TR Cover

December 1996

Feature Articles

Crossing the Petawatt Threshold | Michael Perry

Key words: chirped-pulse amplification, fast ignition, laser interference lithography, multilayer dielectric gratings, National Ignition Facility, Nova, Petawatt laser, plasma mirror, Ti:sapphire laser, 100-TW laser.

High Explosives in Stockpile Surveillance Indicate Constancy | Anders Lundberg, Fran Foltz, James LeMay

Key words: accelerated aging, high explosive (HE), LX-17, nuclear weapon, PBX, pin-dome test, predictive capability, snowball tests, stockpile evaluation, stockpile surveillance, TATB.

Research Highlights

Visualizing Body Motion | Shin-Yee Lu, Robert K. Johnson

Key words: 3-D visualization, biomechanics, image processing, motion study, movement reconstruction.

Studying the Earth's Formation: The Multi-Anvil Press at Work | William Minarik, Frederick Ryerson

Key words: earth core formation, multi-anvil press.

November 1996 S&TR Cover

November 1996

Feature Articles

Simulations to Save Time, Money, and Lives | Diana Sackett

Key words: conflict simulation, Janus, Joint Conflict and Tactical Simulation (JCATS), Joint Tactical Simulation (JTS).

The Secrets of Crystal Growth | James De Yoreo, Terry Land

Key words: atomic-force microscope (AFM), protein crystallography, crystals, KDP (potassium dihydrogen phosphate), National Ignition Facility (NIF), scanning tunneling microscope (STM), stockpile stewardship.

Research Highlights

Addressing a Cold War Legacy with a New Way to Produce TATB | Phil Pagoria, Alex Mitchell, Robert Schmidt

Key words: insensitive high explosives (IHE), stockpile stewardship, TATB (triamino-trinitrobenzene).

DNA Sequencing: The Next Step in the Search for Genes | Linda Ashworth

Key words: chromosome, DNA sequencing, gene, Human Genome Project

October 1996 S&TR Cover

October 1996

Feature Article

Assessing Humanity's Impact on Global Climate | William Dannevik

Key words: Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP), carbon cycle, carbon dioxide, climate modeling, global climate, global climate model, greenhouse effect, massively parallel computers, sulfate aerosols.

Research Highlights

Livermore Wins Six R&D 100 "Oscars" | Karena McKinley

Electronic Dipstick Signals New Measuring Era | Tom McEwan

Key words: electronic dipstick, micropower impulse radar (MIR), R&D 100 Award, transient digitizer.

Signal Speed Gets Boost from Tiny Optical Amplifier | Mark Lowry, Sol DiJaili, Frank Patterson

Key words: fiber-optic communications; semiconductor optical amplifier; photonic integrated circuit; R&D 100 Award; vertical cavity surface emitting laser.

SixDOF Sensor Improves Manufacturing Flexibility | Charles Vann

Key words: manufacturing, robotics, R&D 100 Award, six-degrees-of-freedom (SixDOF) sensors.

A Simple, Reliable, Ultraviolet Laser: Ce:LiSaf Laser | Chris Marshall

Key words: Ce:LiSAF, cerium crystal, R&D 100 Award, tunable ultraviolet laser, solid-state laser.

Giant Results from Smaller, Ultrahigh-Density Sensor | Andrew Hawryluk

Key words: CPP-GMR (surrent perpendicular to the plane-giant magnetoresistive) device, disk drive, R&D 100 Award, ultrahigh-density magnetic sensor.

Thinner is Better with Laser Interference Lithography | Mike Perry

Key words: display, field-emission display (FED), laser, laser lithography, R&D 100 Award.

September 1996 S&TR Cover

September 1996

Feature Articles

Taking Lasers beyond the National Ignition Facility | Steve Payne

Key words: diode-pumped solid-state lasers, final optic, gas-cooled slab (GCS), gain medium, inertial confinement fusion (ICF), inertial fusion energy (IFE).

Jumpin' Jupiter! Metallic Hydrogen | Bill Nellis

Key words: gas gun, hydrogen-fluid, liquid, metallic, Jupiter, National Ignition Facility, shock compression tests, stockpile stewardship.

Research Highlight

Modeling Human Joints and Prosthetic Implants | Karin Hollerbach

Key words: biomechanical modeling, finite-element modeling, Institute for Scientific Computing Research (ISCR), NIKE3D, prosthetic point implants.

August 1996 S&TR Cover

August 1996

Feature Article

Keeping the Nuclear Stockpile Safe, Secure, and Reliable | Carol T. Alonso

Key words: Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI), Advanced Design and Production Technologies (ADaPT), Advanced Hydrotest Facility (AHF), Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, (CTBT), flash x-ray (FXR), National Ignition Facility (NIF), Nova, Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program (SSMP), stockpile surveillance.

Research Highlights

Molten Salt Takes the Bang out of High Explosives | Ravi Upadhye

Key words: dismantlement, high explosives, incineration, molten salt destruction, open burning. open detonation.

Security Clearances Meet the Electronic Age | Scott Strait

Key words: DOE's Integrated Safeguards and Security System (DISS), electronic security clearances.

Exploring Oil Fields with Crosshole Electromagnetic Induction | Mike Wilt

Key words: crosshole electromagnetic (EM) induction, electrical resistivity, oil-field imaging.

July 1996 S&TR Cover

July 1996

Feature Articles

Frontiers of Research in Advanced Computations | Dennis Hewett

Key words: advanced computer modeling methods-alternating-direction-implicit (ADI), embedded curved-boundary (ECB), grid and particle hydrodynamics (GaPH), KEN, low-frequency electromagnetic (Darwin); computer vision; Institute for Scientific Computing Research (ISCR); massively parallel processing (MPP).

The Multibeam Fabry-Perot Velocimeter: Efficient Measurement of High Velocities | Dave Goosman

Key words: Fabry-Perot interferometry, optical velocimetry, optics, streak cameras.

Research Highlights

High-Tech Tools for the American Textile Industry | Jose Hernandez, Chip Hatfield

Key words: AMTEX, computer-aided fabric evaluation, demand-activated manufacturing architecture, technology transfer, textiles, TEXTNET.

Rock Mechanics: Can the Tuff Take the Stress? | Steve Blair, Eileen Vergino

Key words: geomechanics, nuclear waste repository, tuff, Yucca Mountain Project.

June 1996 S&TR Cover

June 1996

Feature Articles

Theory and Modeling in Materials Science | Lloyd L. Chase

Key words: computer modeling, materials science, material structure, microstructures, molecular dynamics.

LLNL and DOE Collaborate on Successful Fusion-Plant Cleanup | Mark Mintz, Robert Fischer

Key words: cleanup, decontamination, decommission, disposal, tritium, low-level waste, waste certification.

Research Highlights

Solving the Mammoth Mountain CO2 Mystery | Laura Hainsworth

Key words: accelerator mass spectrometry, carbon-14, magmatic CO2, volcanic activity.

A Closer Look at Osteoporosis | John Kinney

Key words: computed tomography, human parathyroid hormone, osteoporosis, steroidal anti-inflammatories, x-ray tomographic microscopy (XTM).

May 1996 S&TR Cover

May 1996

Feature Articles

Mitigating Lightning Hazards | Richard Hasbrouck

Key words: hazard management, lightning, radio-frequency testing.

Groundwater Modeling: More Cost-Effective Cleanup by Design | Robert J. Gelinas

Key words: artificial neural network (ANN), genetic algorithm, groundwater contamination, groundwater remediation, hydrostratigraphic analysis, inverse modeling, volatile organic compound (VOC).

Dual-Band Infrared Computed Tomography: Searching for Hidden Defects | Nancy Del Grande

Key words: dual-band infrared computed tomography, nondestructive inspection and evaluation.

Research Highlight

Plating Shop Moves to Finish Off Waste | Jack Dini, Chris Steffani

Key words: metal finishing, chemical and electrochemical processes, electroplating, pollution prevention, waste minimization.

April 1996 S&TR Cover

April 1996

Feature Articles

MACHO: Collaboration Is Key to Success | Charles Alcock, Claire Max, Tim Axelrod

Key words: CDD sensor, MACHO, microlensing event, dark matter, extrasolar, light curve.

The Electromechanical Battery: A New Look at an Old Idea | Dick Post

Key words: electromechanical battery (EMB), energy efficiency, storage cells, flywheel.

Research Highlights

Graffiti-Zapping Laser Shows Promise | Dennis Matthews

Key words: graffiti removal, high-average-power laser.

Adding Agility Manufacturing | Bob Burleson

Key words: agile manufacturing, intelligent controller, Manufacturing Operating System (MOS).

March 1996 S&TR Cover

March 1996

Feature Articles

The Safe Disposal of Nuclear Waste | Bill Clarke

Key words: engineered barrier system (EBS); high-level radioactive waste; spent fuel; Yucca Mountain Project.

The Diamond Anvil Cell: Probing the Behavior of Metals under Ultrahigh Pressures | Jagannadham Akella, Bruce Goodwin, Sam Weir

Key words: actinides, diamond anvil cell, equations of state, lanthanides, science-based stockpile stewardship, shock-wave experiments, x-ray diffraction.

Research Highlight

Getting Along without Gasoline: The Move to Hydrogen Fuel | Ray Smith

Key words: alternative vehicles, electrolysis, hybrid-electric car, hydrogen fuel.

January/February 1996 S&TR Cover

January/February 1996

Feature Articles

Groundwater Cleanup Using Hydrostratigraphic Analysis | Richard Blake

Key words: hydrostratigraphic analysis, groundwater, groundwater restoration and remediation, hydrostratigraphic unit (HSU), pump-and-treat.

Micropower Impulse Radar | Stephen Azevedo, Tom McEwan

Key words: electronic dipstick; micropower impulse radar (MIR); radar heart monitor; ultrawide-band radar, radar imaging, microwave sensors.

Research Highlights

Probing with Syncroton-Radiation-Based Spectroscopies | Louis Terminello

Key words: synchrotron radiation, spectroscopy, Advanced Light Source, Beamline 8.0, material interfaces.

Operating a Tokamak from Across the Country | Tom Casper

Key words: Magnetic fusion, remote operation, distributed computing.

November/December 1995 S&TR Cover

November/December 1995

Feature Articles

The Genetic Contribution of Sperm: Healthy Baby or Not? | Andrew J. Wyrobek

Key words: aneuploidy; chromosomal abnormality; DNA probes; fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH); Klinefelter syndrome; sperm-human, rodent; sex chromosomes.

Research Highlights

1995 R&D 100 Award Winners

R&D 100 Awards Recognize Five Laboratory Inventions

A Shared Award in Aerogel Process Technology | Lawrence Hrubesh, Joseph C. Farmer

A Light Funnel for Diode-Pumped, Solid-State Lasers | Raymond Beach

One of the World's Brightest Lasers | Brent Dane

A Miniature Mass Spectrometer | Daniel Dietrich, Robert Keville

More Efficient, Less Expensive Electron Beam Processing | Booth Myers, Hao-Lin Chen

October 1995 S&TR Cover

October 1995

Feature Articles

Powering Future Vehicles with the Refuelable Zinc/Air Battery | John F. Cooper

Key words: alternative fuel; electric vehicle; refuelable; zinc/air battery

Gamma-Ray Imaging Spectrometer | Klaus-Peter Ziock

Key words: gamma rays-gamma-ray arc-minute telescope imaging spectrometer (GRATIS), gamma-ray astronomy, gamma-ray bar imaging telescope (GRABIT), gamma-ray camera, gamma-ray imaging spectrometer (GRIS); special nuclear material (SNM); Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START).

Research Highlight

Positioning Health Care Technologies for the 21st Century | Pat Fitch

The Short-Pulse Laser: A Safe, Painless Surgical Tool | Luiz DaSilva, Mike Perry, Mike Feit, Brent Stuart

September 1995 S&TR Cover

September 1995

Feature Articles

Food Mutagens:Mutagenic Activity, DNA Mechanisms, and Cancer Risk | James S. Felton

Key words: accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS); adduct dosimetry; amino-imidazoazaarene (AIA); bioactivation; cancer risk assessment; carcinogen; carcinogenicity; DNA adducts; food mutagen; mutagens-2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AaC); 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5- f]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx); 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenyl-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP); 32P-postlabeling.

Multilayer Dielectric Gratings: Increasing the Power of Light | Michael Perry, Bruce Shore, Robert Boyd, or Jerry Britten

Key words: chirped pulse amplification; dielectrics; diffraction gratings-metallic, multilayer dielectric; petawatt laser; short-pulse laser.

Research Highlights

Taking Short-Pulse Laser Energy to New Peaks | Michael Perry, John L. Miller, Max Tabak, Brent Stuart or Bruce Hammel

Sonoluminescence and Tabletop "Micro" Thermonuclear Fusion | William C. Moss

August 1995 S&TR Cover

August 1995

Feature Articles

Scanning Tunneling Microscopy: Opening a New Era of Materials Engineering | Peter J. Bedrossian

Key words: atomic ordering, disilicide, interface, molybdenum/silicon, nanoengineer, scanning tunneling microscopy, silicide, surface physics, thin film.

Risk Assessments: From Reactor Safety to Health Care | Edwin Jones

Key words: engineering risk assessment; Fission Energy Systems Safety Program (FESSP), Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC); probabilistic, risk, risk assessment,

Research Highlights

Crucial Steps Taken in Laser Guide Star System | Scot Olivier

Forensic Science Center Update | Brian Andresen

July 1995 S&TR Cover

July 1995

Feature Article

Mutagens | James S. Felton, Mark G. Knize

The Role of Cooked Food in Genetic Changes
The Challenge of Identification
The Cooking Makes the Difference

Key words: Ames/Salmonella assay; amino-imidazoazaarenes (AIAs); carcinogen; DNA adducts; heterocyclic amines; high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); mutagens-airborne, in cooked foods, in fried beef; mutagenicity; 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP); 2-amino-3-methyl-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ); 2-amino-3,8-dimethyl-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx).

Research Highlights

Hydrogen Hybrid Vehicle | J. Ray Smith

Modeling for More Accurate Weather Forecasting | Jinwon Kim, Norman Miller, Donald Ermak,William Dannevik

Energy and Technology Review

April 1995 S&TR Cover

April 1995

Feature Articles

Creating Microsphere Targets for Inertial Confinement Fusion Experiments | Robert Cook

Key words: drop-tower technology; inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target capsules; microshell; microsphere; mode growth; National Ignition Facility (NIF); Nova laser; Rayleigh-Taylor hydrodynamic instability; Sphere Mapper.

E&TR Celebrates 20 Years | Carl Haussmann, Lyle Cox, Jim Frank

Research Highlights

Laser Fabrication of Beryllium Components | Jim Hanafee

The Kinetic Energy Interceptor: Shooting a Bullet with a Bullet | Glenn Pomykal

Note: April 1995 was the last issue of Energy and Technology Review. July 1995 was the start of Science and Technology Review.

March 1995 S&TR Cover

March 1995

Feature Articles

The LLNL Portable Tritium Processing System | Mark Mintz, Thomas Reitz

Key words: glovebox technology; Tritium Inventory Removal Project; tritium processing.

X-Ray Lasers and High-Density Plasma | Luiz B. Da Silva, Robert C. Cauble, Stephen B. Libby

Key words: interferometry; moiré deflectometry; National Ignition Facility (NIF); plasma imaging; x-ray laser-plasma diagnostics.

Research Highlights

Silicon Carbide Microcomponents | Alex V. Hamza, Mehdi Balooch

Modern Technology for Advanced Military Training | Mike Uzelac, JoAnn Matone

January/February 1995 S&TR Cover

January/February 1995

State of the Laboratory

Nonproliferation, Arms Control, and International Security

Defense and Nuclear Technologies

Experimental Science


Environmental Research and Technology Development

Environmental Restoration, Protection, and Waste Management


Biology and Biotechnology


Physics and Space Technology

Chemistry and Materials Science


Economic Competitiveness


Operations and Administration


December 1994 S&TR Cover

December 1994

Feature Articles

The National Ignition Facility: An Overview | Jeffrey Paisner/Kenneth Manes

Key words: environmental safety and health (ES&H); National Ignition Facility (NIF)-radiation dose; tritium inventory; waste stream.

A Tour of the Proposed National Ignition Facility | John R. Murray

Key words: adaptive optics; Beamlet Demonstration Project; deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel; fusion energy; multipass lasers; National Ignition Facility (NIF); neodymium glass lasers; Pockels cell; potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP).

NIF and Science Security | Stephen B. Libby

Key words: inertial confinement fusion; National Ignition Facility; Stockpile Stewardship Program.

The Role of NIF in Developing Inertial Fusion Energy | B. Grant Logan, Michael T. Tobin

Key words: drivers-laser drivers, heavy-ion drivers; energy sources-fission breeder reactors, fossil fuels, inertial fusion energy, magnetic fusion energy, solar energy; fusion chambers; fusion power technology; International Thermonuclear Experiment; National Ignition Facility; targets-direct-drive targets, indirect-drive targets.

Science on the NIF | Richard W. Lee

Key words: astrophysics; high-pressure physics; hydrodynamics; National Ignition Facility-high-energy laser experiments; plasma physics; radiation sources; radiative properties.

NIF Environmental, Safety, and Health Considerations | Jon M. Yatabe, Michael T. Tobin

Key words: environmental safety and health (ES&H); National Ignition Facility (NIF)-radiation dose; tritium inventory; waste stream.
November 1994 S&TR Cover

November 1994

Feature Articles

1994 R&D 100 Awards | Michael D. Perry, Robert Boyd, James D. Tucker, James De Yoreo, Stephen A. Payne, David Hopkins, Michael Pocha

Legacy of the X-Ray Laser Program | Joseph Nilsen

Key words: Aerogels-SEAgel, silica, organic; biological imaging; digital mammography; laboratory x-ray laser; multilayer mirrors; three-dimensional x-ray computer tomography; x-ray diagnostic techniques-electro-optics devices; x-ray gauging technique; x-ray laser microscopes; x-ray laser physics-electron-beam ion trap (EBIT); Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI).

Research Highlights

Elevated CO2 Exposure and Tree Growth | James L. Houpis

Meniscus Coating | Jerald A. Britten

October 1994 S&TR Cover

October 1994

Feature Articles

The Industrial Computing Initiative | Michel G. McCoy

Key words: computer performance; grand challenge problems; High-Performance Parallel Processing Project (H4P); Industrial Computing Initiative (ICI); massively parallel processing

Artificial Hip Joints: Applying Weapons Expertise to Medical Technology | Pete J. Davis

Key words: National Machine Tool Partnership; precision engineering; single-point turning.

Research Highlights

KEN Project: Real-World Face Recognition | Martin Lades

Modeling Groundwater Flow and Chemical Migration | Steven Ashby

Gas and Oil National Information Infrastructure | Carol Hunter

August/September 1994 S&TR Cover

August/September 1994

Feature Articles

Nanotribology: Modeling Atoms When Surfaces Collide | James Belak

Key words: crack propagation; materials fabrication-copper, fused silica glass, silicon, silver; molecular dynamics (MD) modeling; single-point diamond turning; tribology research.

Toward Improved Understanding of Material Surfaces and Interfaces | David B. Boercher, John E. Klepeis, Christine J. Wu

Key words: atomic structure; bonding; computational methods-ab initio, model force laws, molecular dynamics; crystal structure; interfaces; materials modeling; semiconductors; surfaces.

Predicting the Structural and Electronic Properties of Scintillators | John E. Klepeis, Eric L. Shirley, Michael P. Surh

Key words: electrons; local-density approximation; pseudopotentials; quasiparticles; radiation detection; scintillators.

Research Highlights

Using Computers to Build Better Computers | James Belak, James N. Glosli

Modeling Large Molecular Systems | James Belak, Roy Pollock

Massively Parallel Computing CRADA | Christian Mailhoit, Lin H. Yang

Designing Better Microelectronics Devices | Christian Mailhoit, David B. Boercker

Polymeric Nitrogen: A Potential Compound to Store Energy | Andy McMahan, Hector E. Lorenzana

July 1994 S&TR Cover

July 1994

Feature Articles

Pathfinder and the Development of Solar Rechargeable Aircraft | Nicholas J. Colella, Gordon S. Wenneker

Key words: fuel cells-rechargeable, regenerative, unitized regenerative; HALSOL; high-altitude unmanned flight; Pathfinder; solar aircraft.

ASTRID Rocket Flight Test | John C. Whitehead, Lee C. Pittenger, Nicholas J. Colella

Key words: advanced single-stage technology rapid insertion demonstration (ASTRID); RAPTOR; rocket propulsion.

June 1994 S&TR Cover

June 1994

Feature Articles

The Clementine Satellite | Michael J. Shanon

Key words: asteroid-Geographos; imaging-Earth, Moon; missile-Titan IIG; satellite-Clementine; sensors-laser imaging, detection, and ranging (LIDAR) system, long-wave infrared (LWIR) camera, near-infrared (NIR) camera, Star Tracker Stellar Compass, ultraviolet/visible charge-coupled device (CCD) camera; spacecraft-Lunar Scout, Surveyor; space programs-Discovery, MESUR.

Uncertainty and the Federal Role in Science and Technology | Ralph E. Gomory, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation

Key words: science and technology-basic research, federal support, goals, individual investigators, large projects.

May 1994 S&TR Cover

May 1994

Feature Articles

Modified Retorting for Waste Treatment | Robert J. Cena

Key words: hot-recycled-solid (HRS) process; high explosive; liquid gun propellant; oil shale retorting; sodium nitrate decomposition; thermal treatment; waste treatment.

Cleaning Up Underground Contaminants | Roger Aines, Robin Newmark, John Ziagos, Alan Copeland, Kent Udell

Key words: dynamic underground; electrical resistance heating; electrical resistance tomography; environmental cleanup; steam injection; underground gasoline contamination-cleanup.

April 1994 S&TR Cover

April 1994

Feature Articles

World's Fastest Solid-State Digitizer | Thomas E. McEwan, Joseph D. Kilkenny, Gregory Dallum

Key words: cathode-ray-tube; computer code-LabVIEW; high-speed oscilloscope; impulse radars; National Ignition Facility; Nova laser; R&D 100 award; Schottky diode; single-shot transient digitizer.

The MACHO Camera System: Searching for Dark Matter | Charles Alcock

Key words: Center for Particle Astrophysics; charge-coupled device (CCD) camera; computer code-Sodophot; dark matter; exotic matter theory; gravitational microlensing; Large Magellanic Cloud; massive compact halo objects (MACHOs); Milky Way; Mount Stromlo and Siding Spring Observatories; Optical Gravitational Lens Experiment; R&D 100 award.

March 1994 S&TR Cover

March 1994

Feature Articles

Forensic Science Center | Brian D. Andresen, Patrick M. Grant

Key words: Chemical Weapons Convention; cold fusion; fingerprint imaging materials; Forensic Science Center; Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry; fragmentation ions; gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry (GC/MS); high-performance liquid chromatograph; ion cyclotron resonance/mass spectrometry (ICR/MS); ion storage trap/time-of-flight (IT/TOF); Non-Proliferation Greaty; nuclear magnetic resonance; polymerase chain reaction (PCR); Round Robin III.

Melanoma at LLNL: An Update | Dan H. Moore, III, Jeffrey S. Schneider, Deborah E. Bennett, H. Wade Patterson

Key words: melanoma-incidence of, in situ, invasive, malignant; moles; skin cancer.

Center for Healthcare Technologies | Anthony V. Carrano

Key words: accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS); Center for Healthcare Technologies (CHT); digital mammography; genetics research; healthcare; pulsed x-ray imaging.

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