Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

Hand-Held Portable Microarray Reader for Biodetection
Deanna Lynn Thompson, Matthew A. Coleman, Stephen M. Lane, Dennis L. Matthews, Joanna Albala, Sebastian Wachsmann-Hogiu
U.S. Patent 8,428,398 B2
April 23, 2013
This handheld portable microarray reader for biodetection is engineered to be small enough for portable applications. A high-powered light-emitting diode emits excitation light, which is then received by an excitation filter, a slide in a slide holder assembly, an emission filter, a lens, and finally, a charge-coupled-device camera.

Layered Reactive Particles with Controlled Geometries, Energies, and Reactivities, and Methods for Making the Same
Gregory M. Fritz, Robert Allen Knepper, Timothy P. Weihs, Alexander E. Gash, John S. Sze
U.S. Patent 8,431,197 B2
April 30, 2013
This energetic composite has multiple reactive particles, each with a reactive multilayer construction. The composite is formed by successively depositing reactive layers on a rod-shaped substrate having a longitudinal axis. The substrate is divided into multiple longitudinal segments that are substantially uniform. When the substrate is removed from the segments, the reactive particles have a controlled, cylindrically curved or otherwise rod-contoured geometry that facilitates handling and improves the particles’ packing fraction. The reactant multilayer construction controls the stability, reactivity, and energy density of the energetic composite.

System and Method for Generating a Deselect Mapping for a Focal Plane Array
Jay V. Bixler, Timothy G. Brandt, James L. Conger, Janice K. Lawson
U.S. Patent 8,445,838 B1
May 21, 2013
A method for generating a deselect mapping for a focal plane array includes gathering a data set for a focal plane array when it is exposed to light or radiation from a first known target. The data set is then analyzed to determine which pixels or subpixels of the array to add to a deselect mapping. Once the pixels or subpixels are added, the deselect mapping is stored. In another embodiment, pixels or subpixels are deselected based on a deselect mapping. A data set can then be gathered and output using the pixels or subpixels that are not deselected when the focal plane array is exposed to light or radiation from a target of interest.

Approximate Error Conjugation Gradient Minimization Methods
Jeffrey S. Kallman
U.S. Patent 8,447,565 B2
May 21, 2013
In one embodiment, a method includes selecting a subset of rays from a set of all rays to use in an error calculation for a constrained conjugate gradient minimization problem. The subset is used to calculate an approximate error, and a minimum in a conjugate gradient direction is calculated based on the approximate error. In another embodiment, the system includes a processor for executing logic. Logic is provided to select a subset of rays for use in an error calculation for a constrained conjugate gradient minimization problem, using that subset to calculate an approximate error, and finally using the approximate error to calculate a minimum in a conjugate gradient direction. Computer programs, methods, and systems are described for applying the approximate error in constrained conjugate gradient minimization problems.

System and Method for Characterizing, Synthesizing, and/or Canceling Out Acoustic Signals from Inanimate Sound Sources
John F. Holzrichter, Greg C. Burnett, Lawrence C. Ng
U.S. Patent 8,447,585 B2
May 21, 2013
This system can be used to characterize, synthesize, or cancel acoustic signals from inanimate sound sources. Propagating wave electromagnetic sensors monitor the excitation sources in various sound-producing systems, such as machines and musical instruments, as well as the acoustic output from these systems. Such information is used to generate a transfer function that characterizes the sound-producing system. With the transfer function, acoustic output from the sound-producing system may be synthesized or canceled. The methods disclosed enable accurate calculation of matched transfer functions relating specific excitations to specific acoustic outputs. Knowledge of such signals and functions can be used to replicate various sounds, identify sound sources, and develop sound cancellation applications.

Stent with Expandable Foam
Thomas S. Wilson, Duncan J. Maitland, Ward Small, IV, Patrick R. Buckley, William J. Benett, Jonathan Hartman, David A. Saloner
U.S. Patent 8,449,592 B2
May 28, 2013
A stent for treating a physical anomaly has a skeletal support structure for expanding in the anomaly and a shape-memory material coupled to the support structure.

Radar Network Communication through Sensing of Frequency Hopping
Farid Dowla, Faranak Nekoogar
U.S. Patent 8,451,164 B2
May 28, 2013
In one embodiment, a radar communication system includes a plurality of radars that can operate with different sensing and reporting frequencies. Each radar is adapted for operating at the sensing frequency until an event is detected. The first radar to sense an event sends a reporting frequency corresponding to its identification/location frequency when the event is detected, and all the other radars in the system switch their reporting frequencies to match it. In another embodiment, a method is presented for communicating information in a radar system.

Structure-Sequence Based Analysis for Identification of Conserved Regions in Proteins
Adam T. Zemla, Carol E. Zhou, Marisa W. Lam, Jason R. Smith, Elizabeth Pardes
U.S. Patent 8,452,542 B2
May 28, 2013
These computational methods and the associated hardware and software products are used to score conservation in a protein structure based on a computationally identified family or cluster of protein structures. A method of computationally identifying a family or cluster of protein structures is also disclosed herein.

Deionization and Desalination Using Electrostatic Ion Pumping
William L. Bourcier, Roger D. Aines, Jeffery J. Haslam, Charlene M. Schaldach, Kevin C. O’Brien, Edward Cussler
U.S. Patent 8,460,532 B2
June 11, 2013
This invention provides a new method for purifying ionic solutions, such as to desalinate water, using engineered charged surfaces to sorb ions from such solutions. Surface charge is applied externally and synchronized with oscillatory fluid movements between substantially parallel charged plates. Ions are held in place during fluid movement in one direction by the electric double layer and are released for transport during fluid movement in the opposite direction by removing the applied electric field. In this way, ions, such as salt, are “ratcheted” across the charged surface from the feed side to the concentrate side. The simple process involves only pumps, charged surfaces, and manifolds for fluid collection.

Phase Stable Rare Earth Garnets
Joshua D. Kuntz, Nerine J. Cherepy, Jeffery J. Roberts, Stephen A. Payne
U.S. Patent 8,461,535 B2
June 11, 2013
A transparent ceramic according to one embodiment includes a rare-earth garnet comprising AhBiCjO12, where h is 3 ± 10 percent, i is 2 ± 10 percent, and j is 3 ± 10 percent. The A element is a rare-earth element or a mixture of these elements; B includes at least one of the elements aluminum, gallium, and scandium; and C includes at least one of the elements aluminum, gallium, and scandium, where A is at a dodecahedral site of the garnet, B is at an octahedral site of the garnet, and C is at a tetrahedral site of the garnet. In another embodiment, the rare-earth garnet has scintillation properties. In a third embodiment, a radiation detector includes a transparent ceramic as described above and a photodetector optically coupled to the rare-earth garnet.

Compounds for Neutron Radiation Detectors and Systems Thereof
Stephen A. Payne, Wolfgang Stoeffl, Natalia P. Zaitseva, Nerine J. Cherepy, M. Leslie Carman
U.S. Patent 8,461,546 B2
June 11, 2013
In one embodiment, a material has an optical response signature for neutrons that differs from the optical response signature for gamma rays. Although the material is not stilbene, its performance is comparable to or superior to stilbene in terms of distinguishing neutrons from gamma rays. Another embodiment uses a substantially pure crystal whose optical response signature for neutrons differs from the optical response signature for gamma rays. The substantially pure crystal is made from the following group of materials: 1-1-4-4-tetraphenyl-1-3-butadiene, 2-fluorobiphenyl-4-carboxylic acid, 4-biphenylcarboxylic acid, 9-10-diphenylanthracene, 9-phenylanthracene, 1-3-5-triphenylbenzene, m-terphenyl, bis-MSB, p-terphenyl, diphenylacetylene, 2-5-diphenyoxazole, 4-benzylbiphenyl, biphenyl, 4-methoxybiphenyl, n-phenylanthranilic acid, and 1-4-diphenyl-1-3-butadiene.

Smart Container UWB Sensor System for Situational Awareness of Intrusion Alarms
Carlos E. Romero, Peter C. Haugen, James M. Zumstein, Richard R. Leach, Jr., Mark L. Vigars
U.S. Patent 8,461,989 B2
June 11, 2013
This in-container monitoring sensor system is based on an ultrawideband (UWB) radar intrusion detector positioned in a container and having a range gate set to the container wall farthest from the detector. Multipath reflections within the container make every point on or in the container appear to be at the range gate, allowing intrusion detection anywhere in the container. Other sensors in the system discriminate false alarms and may monitor parameters such as radiation. A subsystem controls system operation, and communications and information extraction capability may be available. A method for detecting intrusion into a container uses UWB radar and may include false-alarm discrimination. In addition, a secure container has a UWB-based monitoring system.

Particle Beam Injector System and Method
Gary Guethlein
U.S. Patent 8,466,429 B2
June 18, 2013
These methods couple a charged particle beam to a radio-frequency quadrupole accelerator. Coupling relies in part on the sensitivity of the input phase-space acceptance of the radio-frequency quadrupole to the angle of the input charged particle beam. A first electric field across a beam deflector deflects the particle beam at an angle that is beyond the acceptance angle of the radio-frequency quadrupole. A narrow portion of the charged particle beam can be deflected at an angle within the acceptance angle of the radio-frequency quadrupole by momentarily reversing or reducing the established electric field. In another configuration, a beam is directed at an angle within the acceptance angle of the radio-frequency quadrupole by the first electric field and, because of the second electric field, is deflected beyond this acceptance angle.

Structure Based Alignment and Clustering of Proteins (STRALCP)
Adam T. Zemla, Carol E. Zhou, Jason R. Smith, Marisa W. Lam
U.S. Patent 8,467,971 B2
June 18, 2013
These computational methods cluster a set of protein structures based on local and pair-wise global similarity values. Pair-wise local and global similarity values are generated based on pair-wise structural alignments for each protein in the set of protein structures. Initially, the protein structures are clustered based on pair-wise local similarity values. The protein structures are then clustered based on pair-wise global similarity values. A representative structure and spans of conserved residues are identified for each cluster. The representative protein structure is used to assign newly solved protein structures to a group. The spans are used to characterize conservation and assign a “structural footprint” to the cluster.

Compositions of Corrosion-Resistant Fe-based Amorphous Metals Suitable for Producing Thermal Spray Coatings
Joseph C. Farmer, Frank M. G. Wong, Jeffery J. Haslam, Xiaoyan (Jane) Ji, Sumner D. Day, Craig A. Blue, John D. K. Rivard, Louis F. Aprigliano, Leslie K. Kohler, Robert Bayles, Edward J. Lemieux, Nancy Yang, John H. Perepezko, Larry Kaufman, Arthur Heuer, Enrique J. Lavernia
U.S. Patent 8,480,864 B2
July 9, 2013
This method for coating a surface provides a source of amorphous metal that contains the following elements in the range of composition given in parentheses: manganese (1 to 3 atomic percent), yttrium (0.1 to 10 atomic percent), and silicon (0.3 to 3.1 atomic percent). The source also contains the following elements in the range of composition given in parentheses: chromium (15 to 20 atomic percent), molybdenum (2 to 15 atomic percent), tungsten (1 to 3 atomic percent), boron (5 to 16 atomic percent), carbon (3 to 16 atomic percent), and the balance iron. The amorphous metal can be applied to a surface by a spray.

Synthetic Aperture Integration (SAl) Algorithm for SAR Imaging
David H. Chambers, Jeffrey E. Mast, David W. Paglieroni, N. Reginald Beer
U.S. Patent 8,482,452 B2
July 9, 2013
This method can detect subsurface objects within a medium. In some embodiments, the imaging and detection system operates in a multistatic mode to collect radar return signals generated by an array of transceiver antenna pairs that are positioned across and down the surface. The imaging and detection system preprocesses the return signal to suppress certain undesirable effects. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images generated from the real aperture radar images of the preprocessed return signal are postprocessed to improve detection. Peaks in the energy levels of these postprocessed image frames indicate the presence of a subsurface object.

Transverse Pumped Laser Amplifier Architecture
Andrew James Bayramian, Kenneth Manes, Robert Deri, Al Erlandson, John Caird, Mary Spaeth
U.S. Patent 8,483,255 B2
July 9, 2013
An optical gain architecture includes a pump source and a pump aperture. A gain region has a gain element to amplify light at a laser wavelength. The gain region is characterized by a first side intersecting an optical path, a second side opposing the first side, a third side adjacent the first and second sides, and a fourth side opposing the third side. The architecture also includes a dichroic section between the pump aperture and the first side of the gain region. The dichroic section is characterized by low reflectance at a pump wavelength and high reflectance at the laser wavelength. The architecture additionally includes a first cladding section proximate to the third side of the gain region and a second cladding section proximate to the fourth side of the gain region.

Data Transformation Methods for Multiplexed Assays
Lance F. Bentley Tammero, John M. Dzenitis, Benjamin J. Hindson
U.S. Patent 8,494,780 B2
July 23, 2013
The methods described improve the performance of an array assay. A correlation is determined between fluorescence intensity-related parameters and the assay’s negative control values. The parameters are then adjusted as a function of the correlation. As a result, the assay’s sensitivity is improved without changing its specificity.