Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

Organized Energetic Composites Based on Micro and Nanostructures and Methods Thereof
Alexander E. Gash, Thomas Young-Jin Han, Donald J. Sirbuly
U.S. Patent 8,257,520 B2
September 4, 2012
An ordered energetic composite structure, according to one embodiment, includes an ordered array of metal fuel portions and an oxidizer in gaps between the metal fuel portions. An ordered energetic composite structure, according to another embodiment, includes at least one metal fuel portion having an ordered array of nanopores with an oxidizer in them. A method for forming an ordered energetic composite structure, according to one embodiment, includes forming an ordered array of metal fuel portions and depositing an oxidizer in gaps between the portions. A method for forming an ordered energetic composite structure, according to another embodiment, includes forming an ordered array of nanopores in at least one metal fuel portion and depositing an oxidizer in the nanopores.

Energy Resolution in Semiconductor Gamma Radiation Detectors Using Heterojunctions and Methods of Use and Preparation Thereof
Rebecca J. Nikolic, Adam M. Conway, Art J. Nelson, Stephen A. Payne
U.S. Patent 8,258,482 B2
September 4, 2012
In one embodiment, a system comprises a semiconductor gamma-detector material and a hole-blocking layer adjacent to it. In another embodiment, a system comprises a semiconductor gamma-detector material and an electron-blocking layer adjacent to the material. The electron-blocking layer is made of undoped mercury–cadmium–tellurium.

Electrostatic Generator–Motor Configuration
Richard Freeman Post
U.S. Patent 8,264,121 B2
September 11, 2012
This electrostatic generator–motor design includes a stator connected to a first central support centered about a central axis. The stator elements are attached to the first central support. Similarly, a second stator is connected to a central support centered about the central axis, and the second stator has stator elements attached to the second central support. A rotor between the first and second stators includes an outer support, where the rotor is centered about the central axis. The rotor has elements in contact with the outer support, and each element has a portion that extends radially from the outer support toward the axis of rotation.

Fabrication of Transparent Ceramics Using Nanoparticles
Nerine J. Cherepy, Thomas M. Tillotson, Joshua D. Kuntz, Stephen A. Payne
U.S. Patent 8,268,230 B2
September 18, 2012
This method for fabricating a transparent ceramic uses nanoparticles synthesized via organic-acid complex combustion. Metal salts are dissolved to produce an aqueous salt solution, and an organic chelating agent is added to produce a complexed metal sol. The sol is heated to form a gel that is dried into a powder. The powder is combusted to produce nanoparticles that are calcined to make oxide nanoparticles. A green body made from the oxide nanoparticles is sintered to produce the transparent ceramic.

Cermets from Molten Metal Infiltration Processing
Richard Lee Landingham
U.S. Patent 8,268,234 B2
September 18, 2012
These cermets have lower densities and/or higher hardness than boron carbide cermet. Incorporating ceramics into boron carbide powders or using them as a substitute for boron carbide results in cermets with lower densities and/or higher hardness. The ceramic powders have much finer particle size than those previously used, which significantly reduces the grain size of the cermet’s microstructure and improves its properties.

Method and System for Processing Optical Elements Using Magnetorheological Finishing
Joseph Arthur Menapace, Kathleen Irene Schaffers, Andrew James Bayramian, William A. Molander
U.S. Patent 8,271,120 B2
September 18, 2012
This method of finishing an optical element includes placing the optical element in a mount that has a plurality of fiducial marks overlapping with the element. A first metrology map is obtained for the optical element and the fiducial marks. A second metrology map is also obtained for the optical element without the fiducial marks, thus forming a difference map between the first and second maps. Mathematical fiducial marks are placed on the second metrology map using the difference map to form a third metrology map. Finally, the optical element is mounted and positioned in the fixture, the fiducial marks are removed, and the optical element is finished.

Carbon Fuel Particles Used in Direct Carbon Conversion Fuel Cells
John F. Cooper, Nerine Cherepy
U.S. Patent 8,283,078 B2
October 9, 2012
In this system, carbon particles are finely divided and introduced into a fuel cell along with a gas that contains oxygen. The finely divided particles are exposed to either carbonate salts; molten sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, lithium hydroxide, or mixtures of the three; mixed hydroxides; or alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

Large Optics Inspection, Tilting, and Washing Stand
Marion Jay Ayers, Shannon Lee Ayers
U.S. Patent 8,284,503 B2
October 9, 2012
A large optics stand provides a risk-free means of tilting large optics with ease. The optics are supported in the horizontal position by pads. In the vertical plane, saddles evenly distribute the optics’ weight over a large area.

Laser Bandwidth Interlock Capable of Single Pulse Detection and Rejection
James P. Armstrong, Steven James Telford, Rodney Kay Lanning, Andrew James Bayramian
U.S. Patent 8,284,809 B2
October 9, 2012
A pulse of laser light is switched out of a pulse train and spatially dispersed into its constituent wavelengths. The pulse is collimated to a suitable size and then diffracted by high-groove-density multilayer dielectric gratings. Diffraction imparts a different angle to each wavelength. As a result, when the wavelengths are brought to the far field with a lens, their colors have spread out in a linear arrangement. The distance between wavelengths (resolution) can be tailored for the specific laser and application by altering the number of times the beam strikes the diffraction gratings, the groove density of the gratings, and the focal length of the lens. End portions of the linear arrangement are each directed to a respective detector, which converts the signal to a 1 if the level meets a set point or a 0 if the level does not. If both detectors produce a 1, the pulse train is allowed to propagate into an optical system.

Simultaneous Acquisition of Differing Image Types
Stavros G. Demos
U.S. Patent 8,285,015 B2
October 9, 2012
This system has a device with different image components for forming an image from an area of interest and a device for illuminating that area with light containing multiple components. At least one light source is coupled to the illumination device to provide light to the illumination device containing different components that have distinct spectral characteristics and relative intensity. An image analyzer coupled to the image-forming device decomposes the image formed into multiple component parts based on the type of imaging. Multiple image-capture devices receive these different parts of the image. The image produced by the image-forming device is decomposed into multiple component parts based on type of imaging. These parts are then used to output image information. Additional systems and methods are presented.

Bio-Threat Microparticle Simulants
George Roy Farquar, Roald N. Leif
U.S. Patent 8,293,535 B2
October 23, 2012
A biothreat simulant includes a carrier with DNA encapsulated in it. A method for making such a simulant involves providing a carrier and encapsulating DNA in the carrier.

Automated High-Throughput Flow-Through Real-Time Diagnostic System
John Frederick Regan
U.S. Patent 8,298,763 B2
October 30, 2012
This automated real-time flow-through system can process multiple samples in an asynchronous, simultaneous, and parallel fashion for nucleic acid extraction and purification, followed by assay assembly, genetic amplification, multiplex detection, analysis, and decontamination. The system can hold and access an unlimited number of fluorescent reagents that may be used to screen samples for the presence of specific sequences. The apparatus works by associating extracted and purified sample with a series of reagent plugs that have been formed in a flow channel and delivered to a flow-through real-time amplification detector. The detector has multiple optical windows, to which the sample–reagent plugs are placed in an operative position. The diagnostic apparatus includes sample multiposition valves, a master sample multiposition valve, a master reagent multiposition valve, reagent multiposition valves, and an optical amplification and detection system.

Forming Foam Structures with Carbon Foam Substrates
Richard L. Landingham, Joe H. Satcher, Jr., Paul R. Coronado, Theodore F. Baumann
U.S. Patent 8,303,883 B2
November 6, 2012
With this invention, foams of desired cell sizes can be formed from metal or ceramic materials coating the surfaces of carbon foams that are subsequently removed. For example, metal is placed over a solgel foam monolith and melted to produce a metal–solgel composition. The solgel foam monolith is removed, leaving a metal foam.

High Strength Air-Dried Aerogels
Paul R. Coronado, Joe H. Satcher, Jr.
U.S. Patent 8,304,465 B2
November 6, 2012
A method for preparing high-strength, air-dried organic aerogels involves the solgel polymerization of organic gel precursors, such as resorcinol with formaldehyde, in aqueous solvents with resorcinol-to-carbon ratios of greater than about 1,000 and resorcinol-to-formaldehyde ratios of less than about 1:2.1. This approach uses a procedure analogous to that for preparing resorcinol–formaldehyde aerogels to generate wet gels that can be air dried at ambient temperatures and pressures. The method significantly reduces the time and/or energy required to produce a dried aerogel compared with the time required by conventional methods using supercritical solvent extraction. Shrinkage exhibited by the air-dried gel is typically less than 5 percent.

Discriminant Forest Classification Method and System
Barry Y. Chen, William G. Hanley, Tracy D. Lemmond, Lawrence J. Hiller, David A. Knapp, Marshall J. Mugge
U.S. Patent 8,306,942 B2
November 6, 2012
A hybrid machine-learning methodology and system for classification combines classical random forest methodology with discriminant analysis (DA) techniques to provide enhanced classification capability. A DA technique that measures an object’s features to predict its class membership, such as linear discriminant analysis or Andersen–Bahadur linear discriminant technique, is used to split the data at each node in its classification trees to train and grow the trees and the forest. When training is finished, a set of n DA-based decision trees of a discriminant forest is produced for use in predicting the classification of new samples of unknown class.

Tunable Photonic Cavities for In-Situ Spectroscopic Trace Gas Detection
Tiziana Bond, Garrett Cole, Lynford Goddard
U.S. Patent 8,309,929 B2
November 13, 2012
Compact tunable optical cavities are provided for in situ near-infrared spectroscopy. Microelectromechanical systems–tunable vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) platforms represents a solid foundation for a new class of compact, sensitive, and fiber-compatible sensors for fieldable, real-time, multiplexed gas-detection systems. Detection limits for gases with near-infrared cross sections, such as dioxygen, methane, carbon oxides, and nitrogen oxides, have been predicted to span approximately from tenths to tens of parts per million. Exemplary oxygen detection design and a process for 760-nanometer continuously tunable VCSELs is provided. This technology enables in situ self-calibrating platforms with adaptive monitoring by exploiting photonic field-programmable gate arrays.

Methods for Globally Treating Silica Optics to Reduce Optical Damage
Philip Edward Miller, Tayyab Ishaq Suratwala, Jeffrey Devin Bude, Nan Sherr, William Augustus Steele, Ted Alfred Laurence, Michael Dennis Feit, Lana Louie Wong
U.S. Patent 8,313,662 B2
November 20, 2012
A method for preventing damage to optical components by high-intensity light sources includes annealing the optical component for a predetermined period. Another method is to etch the optical component in an etchant made of fluoride and bifluoride ions. The method also includes ultrasonically agitating the etching solution, followed by rinsing the optical component in a bath.

Method to Planarize Three-Dimensional Structures to Enable Conformal Electrodes
Rebecca J. Nikolic, Adam M. Conway, Robert T. Graff, Catherine Reinhardt, Lars F. Voss, Qinghui Shao
U.S. Patent 8,314,400 B2
November 20, 2012
Methods for fabricating three-dimensional PIN structures having conformal electrodes are provided, as well as the structures themselves. The structures include a first layer and an array of pillars with cavity regions between the pillars. A first end of each pillar is in contact with the first layer. A segment is formed on the second end of each pillar. The cavity regions are filled with a material that may have a functional role, such as a neutron-sensitive material. The fill material covers each segment, and a portion of it is etched back to expose part of the segment. A first electrode is deposited onto the fill material and each exposed segment, thereby forming a conductive layer with a common contact to each exposed segment. A second electrode is deposited onto the first layer.

UWB Multi-Burst Transmit Driver for Averaging Receivers
Gregory E. Dallum
U.S. Patent 8,315,290 B2
November 20, 2012
A multiburst transmitter for ultrawideband (UWB) communication systems generates a sequence of precisely spaced radio-frequency (RF) bursts from a single trigger event. The transmitter circuit has two oscillators: a gated burst-rate oscillator and a gated RF burst or RF power output oscillator. The burst-rate oscillator produces a relatively low-frequency (megahertz-range) square wave output for a selected transmit cycle and drives the RF burst oscillator, which produces bursts of much higher frequency (in the gigahertz range) during the transmit cycle. The frequency of the burst-rate oscillator sets the spacing of the RF burst packets. The first oscillator output passes through a bias driver to the second oscillator. The bias driver conditions, or level shifts, the signal from the first oscillator for input into the second and controls the length of each RF burst. A trigger pulse actuates a timing circuit, formed of a flip-flop and associated reset time-delay circuit, that controls the operation of the first oscillator—that is, how long it oscillates, which defines the transmit cycle.

In Vivo Spectral Micro-Imaging of Tissue
Stavros G. Demos, Shiro Urayama, Bevin Lin, Ramez Moussa Ghobrial Saroufeem
U.S. Patent 8,320,650 B2
November 27, 2012
In vivo endoscopic methods and apparatuses for implementing fluorescence and autofluorescence microscopy, with and without exogenous agents, can effectively (with resolution sufficient to image nuclei) visualize and categorize various abnormal tissue forms.

Spatial Filters for High Average Power Lasers
Alvin C. Erlandson
U.S. Patent 8,320,056 B2
November 27, 2012
A spatial filter has a filter element with a second one overlapping it. The first element includes a pair of cylindrical lenses separated by a specified distance. Each lens pair has a defined focal length, and a slit filter is positioned between them. The second filter element includes a second pair of cylindrical lenses separated by a second specified distance. The second pair also has a specific focal length, and a slit filter is positioned between these lenses.

Solid-to-Hybrid Transitioning Armature Railgun with Non-Conforming-to-Prejudice Bore Profile
Jerome Michael Solberg
U.S. Patent 8,322,328 B2
December 4, 2012
This improved railgun has a system for accelerating a solid-to-hybrid transitioning armature projectile using a barrel whose bore does not conform to a cross-sectional profile of the projectile. The system contacts and guides the projectile only by the rails in a low-pressure bore volume, which minimizes damage, failure, or underperformance caused by plasma armatures, insulator ablation, or restrikes.

Nano-Laminate-Based Ignitors
Troy W. Barbee, Jr., Randall L. Simpson, Alexander E. Gash, Joe H. Satcher, Jr.
U.S. Patent 8,328,967 B2
December 11, 2012
Solgel chemistry is used to prepare igniters comprising energetic multilayer structures coated with energetic materials. These igniters can be tailored to be stable to environmental aging, that is, where they are exposed to extremes of both hot and cold temperatures (–30 to 150°C) and both low and high relative humidity (from 0 to 100 percent).