Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

Dual Isotope Notch Observer for Isotope Identification, Assay and Imaging with Mono-Energetic Gamma-Ray Sources
Christopher P. J. Barty
U.S. Patent 8,369,480 B2
February 5, 2013
A dual isotope notch observer for isotope identification, assay, and imaging with monoenergetic gamma-ray sources includes a detector arrangement with three detectors downstream from the object under observation. The third detector, which operates as a beam monitor, is an integrating detector that monitors the total beam power arriving at its surface. The first and second detectors each include an integrating detector surrounding a foil. The foils of these two detectors are made of the same atomic material, but each foil is a different isotope. For example, the first foil may comprise uranium-235, and a second foil may comprise uranium-238. The integrating detectors surrounding these pieces of foil measure the total power scattered from the foil and can be similar in composition to the final beam monitor. Nonresonant photons will, after calibration, scatter equally from both foils.

Method and Computer Program Product for Maintenance and Modernization Backlogging
Bernard G. Mattimore, Paul E. Reynolds, Jill M. Farrell
U.S. Patent 8,380,550 B2
February 19, 2013
In one embodiment, this computer program for determining future facility conditions includes a computer-readable medium with a computer-readable program code. The code will calculate a time-period-specific maintenance cost, modernization factor, and backlog factor. Future facility conditions equal the time-period-specific maintenance cost plus modernization factor plus backlog factor. In another embodiment, a computer-implemented method calculates a time-period-specific maintenance cost, modernization factor, and backlog factor. Future facility conditions equal the time-period-specific maintenance cost plus modernization factor plus backlog factor. Other embodiments are also presented.

Diagnosis and Assessment of Skeletal Related Disease Using Calcium-41
Darren J. Hillegonds, John S. Vogel, Robert L. Fitzgerald, Leonard J. Deftos, David Herold, Douglas W. Burton
U.S. Patent 8,388,930 B2
March 5, 2013
A method of determining calcium metabolism in a patient comprises the steps of administering the radioactive isotope calcium-41 to the patient and allowing time to elapse sufficient for dissemination and reaction of the calcium-41 by the patient. A sample of the calcium-41 is then obtained from the patient, and its calcium content is isolated in a form suitable for precise measurement of isotopic calcium concentrations. Finally, the calcium content is measured to determine parameters of calcium metabolism in the patient.

Method and System for Laser-Based Formation of Micro-Shapes in Surfaces of Optical Elements
Isaac Louis Bass, Gabriel Mark Guss
U.S. Patent 8,389,889 B2
March 5, 2013
A method of forming a surface feature extending into a sample includes providing a laser to emit an output beam and modulating the output beam to form a pulse train with a plurality of pulses. The method also includes (a) directing the pulse train along an optical path intersecting an exposed portion of the sample at a position i, and (b) focusing a first portion of the plurality of pulses to impinge on the sample at the position i. Each pulse is characterized by a spot size at the sample. The method further includes (c) ablating at least a portion of the sample at the position i to form a portion of the surface feature, and (d) incrementing counter i. The method includes (e) repeating steps (a) through (d) to form the surface feature. The sample is free of a rim surrounding the surface feature.

Method and System for Assembling Miniaturized Devices
Richard C. Montesanti, Jeffrey L. Klingmann, Richard M. Seugling
U.S. Patent 8,393,066 B2
March 12, 2013
An apparatus for assembling a miniaturized device includes a manipulator system with six manipulators to position and orient components of the miniaturized device with submicrometer precision and micrometer-level accuracy. The manipulator system includes a first plurality of motorized axes, a second plurality of manual axes, and force and torque sensors. Each of the six manipulators includes at least one translation stage, at least one rotation stage, tooling attached to at least one translation stage or one rotation stage, and a mechanism disposed at a distal end of the tooling for attaching at least a portion of the miniaturized device to the tooling. The apparatus also includes an optical coordinate-measuring machine (OCMM) including a machine-vision system, a laser-based distance-measuring probe, and a touch probe. The apparatus also includes an operator control system coupled to the manipulator system and OCMM.

Catalyst Functionalized Buffer Sorbent Pebbles for Rapid Separation of Carbon Dioxide from Gas Mixtures
Roger D. Aines
U.S. Patent 8,394,350 B2
March 12, 2013
A method for separating carbon dioxide from gas mixtures uses a slurried media impregnated with buffer compounds. The solid media is coated with a catalyst or enzyme that promotes the transformation of carbon dioxide to carbonic acid. Buffer sorbent pebbles with a catalyst or enzyme coating are used for rapid separation of carbon dioxide from gas mixtures.

Synthesis of Triazole-Based and Imidazole-Based Zinc Catalysts
Carlos A. Valdez, Joe H. Satcher, Jr., Roger D. Aines, Sarah E. Baker
U.S. Patent 8,394,351 B2
March 12, 2013
Various methods are described herein related to a zinc-centered catalyst for removing carbon dioxide from atmospheric or aqueous environments. According to one embodiment, a method for creating a tris(triazolyl)pentaerythritol molecule includes connecting a pentaerythritol molecule with a propargyl halide molecule to create a trialkyne molecule, and connecting the trialkyne molecule with an azide molecule to create the tris(triazolyl)pentaerythritol molecule. In another embodiment, a method for creating a tris(imidazolyl)pentaerythritol molecule includes alkylating an imidazole 2-carbaldehyde molecule to create a monoalkylated aldehyde molecule, reducing the monoalkylated aldehyde molecule to create an alcohol molecule, converting the alcohol molecule to create an alkyl halide molecule using thionyl halide, and reacting the alkyl halide molecule with a pentaerythritol molecule to create a tris(imidazolyl)pentaerythritol molecule. In another embodiment, zinc is bound to the tris(triazolyl)pentaerythritol molecule to create a zinc-centered tris(triazolyl)pentaerythritol catalyst for removing carbon dioxide from atmospheric or aqueous environments.

Method and System for High Power Reflective Optical Elements
Stavros G. Demos, Alexander M. Rubenchik, Raluca A. Negres
U.S. Patent 8,395,079 B2
March 12, 2013
A method of repairing damage in an optical element includes a laser system with at least one optical element. The element has a coating layer with an incident light surface. A pulse from the laser system is directed to impinge on the incident light surface. The method also includes sustaining damage to a portion of the incident light surface and melting this portion and a region adjacent to the damaged portion. The method further includes flowing material from the adjacent region to the damaged portion and solidifying the material in the damaged portion and the region adjacent to it.

Passive Blast Pressure Sensor
Michael J. King, Roberto J. Sanchez, William C. Moss
U.S. Patent 8,397,551 B2
March 19, 2013
A passive blast-pressure sensor detects blast overpressures of a predetermined minimum threshold pressure. The blast-pressure sensor includes a piston–cylinder arrangement. One end of the piston has a detection surface exposed to a blast-event-monitored medium through one end of the cylinder. The other end of the piston has a striker surface positioned to impact a contact-stress-sensitive film. The film is positioned against a strike surface of a rigid body, such as a backing plate. The contact-stress-sensitive film changes color in response to a predetermined minimum contact stress that is defined as a product of the predetermined minimum threshold pressure and an amplification factor of the piston. In this way, a color change in the film arises from the impact of the piston accelerated by the blast event, providing visual indication that a blast overpressure encountered from the blast event was more than the predetermined minimum threshold pressure.

Capacitive De-Ionization Electrode
William D. Daily, III
U.S. Patent 8,398,840 B2
March 19, 2013
An electrode cell used in a capacitive deionization reactor consists of the electrode support structure, a nonreactive conductive material, the electrode accompaniment or substrate, and a flow-through screen separator. These “layers” are repeated, and the electrodes are sealed together with gaskets between two end plates to create stacked sets of alternating anode and cathode electrodes.

Aerial Vehicle with Paint for Detection of Radiological and Chemical Warfare Agents
Joseph C. Farmer, James L. Brunk, S. Daniel Day
U.S. Patent 8,409,524 B2
April 2, 2013
This paint is used to detect radiological or chemical substances. The paint is connected to a surface, and a material carried by the paint indicates when a radiological or chemical substance is detected. A thermoactivation material is also carried by the paint. In one embodiment, a surface is painted with an indicator material, and the surface is monitored for indications of a radiological or chemical substance. In another embodiment, the paint is connected to a vehicle, and a material carried by the paint indicates the presence of a radiological or chemical substance.

Surface with Two Paint Strips for Detection and Warning of Chemical Warfare and Radiological Agents
Joseph C. Farmer
U.S. Patent 8,409,525 B1
April 2, 2013
This system warns of corrosion, chemical, or radiological substances. A surface is covered with a paint or coating that includes an indicator material, and the surface is monitored for the detection of corrosion, chemical, or radiological substances.

High Precision, Rapid Laser Hole Drilling
Jim J. Chang, Herbert W. Friedman, Brian J. Comaskey
U.S. Patent 8,410,396 B1
April 2, 2013
This laser system produces a first laser beam for rapidly removing the bulk of material in an area to form a ragged hole. The system produces a second laser beam for accurately cleaning up the ragged hole so that the final hole has high-precision dimensions.

Corrosion-Resistant Multilayer Structures with Improved Reflectivity
Regina Soufli, Monica Fernandez-Perea, Jeff C. Robinson
U.S. Patent 8,416,829 B1
April 9, 2013
In one embodiment, a thin-film structure includes a substrate, a first corrosion barrier layer above the substrate, and a reflective layer above the first corrosion barrier layer. The reflective layer comprises at least one repeating set of sublayers, and one sublayer of each set of sublayers is made of a corrodible material. A second corrosion barrier layer is above the reflective layer. In a second embodiment, a system includes an optical element with the thin-film structure described above as well as an image-capture or spectrometer device. In a third embodiment, a laser includes a light source and the thin-film structure.

Shielding and Activity Estimator for Template-Based Nuclide Identification Methods
Karl Einar Nelson
U.S. Patent 8,417,467 B2
April 9, 2013
In one embodiment, activity of one or more radionuclides is estimated. One or more templates are received that correspond to one or more radionuclides, contributing to a probable solution. One or more weighting factors are received, with each weighting factor representing a contribution of one radionuclide to the probable solution. An effective areal density, an effective atomic number (Z), an effective metric, and an estimated activity are computed for each radionuclide. In other embodiments, computer program, systems, and methods are presented for estimating the activity of one or more radionuclides.