Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

Cryogenically Cooled Detector Pin Mount
William E. Hunt, Jr., Michael P. Chrisp
U.S. Patent 8,740,168 B2
June 3, 2014
With this focal plane assembly, a molybdenum baseplate can be mounted to another plate made from aluminum. The molybdenum pin is an interference fit (press fit) in the aluminum baseplate. An annular cutout area in the baseplate forms two annular flexures.

Resistive Foil Edge Grading for Accelerator and Other High Voltage Structures
George J. Caporaso, Stephen E. Sampayan, David M. Sanders
U.S. Patent 8,749,949 B2
June 10, 2014
When voltage is placed across a structure or device with a pair of electrical conductors separated by an insulator, resistive layers form around the conductors to force the electric potential within the insulator to distribute more uniformly and thus decrease or eliminate electric field enhancement at the conductor edges. The properties of resistive layers allow the voltage on the electrode to diffuse outward, reducing the field stress at the conductor edge. Tapered resistivity is preferred for this layer, with lower resistivity adjacent to the conductor and higher resistivity away from it. Generally, a resistive path across the insulator is provided, preferably by a region in the bulk of the insulator over which the resistive layer extends.

Two-Phase Mixed Media Dielectric with Macro Dielectric Beads for Enhancing Resistivity and Breakdown Strength
Steven Falabella, Glenn A. Meyer, Vincent Tang, Gary Guethlein
U.S. Patent 8,749,951 B2
June 10, 2014
This two-phase mixed-media insulator has a dielectric fluid filling the interstices between macro-sized dielectric beads packed into a confined volume. The packed dielectric beads inhibit electro-hydrodynamically driven current flows of the dielectric liquid and thereby increase the resistivity and breakdown strength of the two-phase insulator over the dielectric liquid alone. In addition, an electrical apparatus incorporates the two-phase mixed-media insulator to insulate between electrical components characterized by different electrical potentials. A method of electrically insulating between electrical components of different electrical potentials fills a confined volume between the electrical components with the two-phase dielectric composite. The macro dielectric beads are packed in the confined volume, and the interstices formed between the macro dielectric beads are filled with the dielectric liquid.

Determining Root Correspondence between Previously and Newly Detected Objects
David W. Paglieroni, N. Reginald Beer
U.S. Patent 8,754,802 B2
June 17, 2014
This system applies attribute- and topology-based change detection to networks of objects that were detected on previous scans of a structure, roadway, or area of interest. The attributes capture properties or characteristics of the objects, such as location, time of detection, size, elongation, and orientation. The topology of the network of previously detected objects is maintained in a constellation database that stores the object’s attributes and implicitly captures the network’s geometric structure. The system detects change by comparing the attributes and topology of new objects found on the most recent scan to the constellation database of previously detected objects.

Combined Raman and IR Fiber-Based Sensor for Gas Detection
Jerry C. Carter, James W. Chan, James E. Trebes, Stanley M. Angel, Boris Mizaikoff
U.S. Patent 8,759,767 B2
June 24, 2014
This double-pass fiber-optic spectroscopic gas sensor delivers Raman excitation light and infrared light to a hollow structure, such as a hollow fiber waveguide, containing a gas sample of interest. A retroreflector placed at the end of the structure sends light back through the waveguide where the light is detected at the same end as the light source. This double-pass retroreflector design increases the interaction path length of the light and the gas sample and reduces the form factor of the hollow structure.

Centrifugally Decoupling Touchdown Bearings
Richard F. Post
U.S. Patent 8,760,021 B2
June 24, 2014
Centrifugally decoupling mechanical bearing systems provide thin tensioned metallic ribbons contained in a support structure that rotates around a stationary shaft centered at low speeds by the action of the metal ribbons. Tension springs are connected to the ribbons on one end and to the support structure on the other end. The ribbons pass through slots in the inner ring of the support structure. The spring preloading thus ensures contact (or near contact) between the ribbons and the shaft at rotation speeds below the transition speed. Above this speed, however, the centrifugal force on the ribbons produces a tensile force on them that exceeds the spring tensile force so that the ribbons curve outward, effectively decoupling them from mechanical contact with the shaft. They still remain in position to act as a touchdown bearing in case of abnormally high transverse accelerations.

Methods for Threshold Determination in Multiplexed Assays
Lance F. Bentley Tammero, John M. Dzenitis, Benjamin J. Hindson
U.S. Patent 8,762,068 B2
June 24, 2014
These methods for determining threshold values of signatures in an assay enable target detection. The methods determine a probability density function of negative samples and a corresponding false-positive rate curve. A false-positive criterion is established, and a threshold for that signature is determined as a point at which the false-positive rate curve intersects the false-positive criterion. Also described are a quantitative method for analyzing and interpreting the assay results and a method for determining a desired limit of detection for a signature in an assay.

Microcantilever-Based Gas Sensor Employing Two Simultaneous Physical Sensing Modes
Albert Loui, Donald J. Sirbuly, Selim Elhadj, Scott K. McCall,
Bradley R. Hart, Timothy V. Ratto
U.S. Patent 8,762,075 B2
June 24, 2014
A system designed for detecting and identifying gases includes a piezoresistive microcantilever transducer, wherein dissipation of heat from the piezoresistive microcantilever into one or more gases is measured by changes in an electrical resistance. Shifts are measured in resonant frequency of the vibrating microcantilever due to viscous damping by one or more gases. A subsystem then correlates the measured changes in resistance and the shifts in resonant frequency to identify one or more gases. A method for detecting and identifying one or more gases includes determining both the dissipation of heat from a microcantilever into one or more gases and the shifts in resonant frequency of the microcantilever due to viscous damping by one or more gases. Other systems, methods, and computer program products are also described.

Electrochemical Formation of Hydroxide for Enhancing Carbon Dioxide and Acid Gas Uptake by a Solution
Gregory Hudson Rau
U.S. Patent 8,764,964 B2
July 1, 2014
A system for forming metal hydroxide from a metal carbonate uses a water electrolysis cell containing an acid-producing anode and a hydroxyl-producing cathode. The cell is immersed in a water solution with sufficient ionic content to allow an electric current to pass between the cathode and anode. Once a metal carbonate is placed close to the acid-producing anode, a direct current electrical voltage is applied across the acid-producing anode and the hydroxyl-producing cathode to generate acid at the anode and hydroxyl ions at the cathode. The acid dissolves part of the metal carbonate into metal and carbonate ions, allowing the metal ions to travel toward the cathode and combine with the hydroxyl ions to form the metal hydroxide. The carbonate ions travel toward the anode and form carbonic acid and/or water and carbon dioxide.

Colorimetric Chemical Analysis Sampler for the Presence of Explosives
Peter J. Nunes, Joel Del Eckels, John G. Reynolds, Philip F. Pagoria, Randall L. Simpson
U.S. Patent 8,765,080 B1
July 1, 2014
A device for testing for explosives comprises a body containing an explosive-detecting reagent, a lateral flow swab unit connected to the body, and a dispenser connected to both the body and the swab unit. The dispenser selectively allows the explosives-detecting reagent to be delivered to the lateral-flow swab unit.

Chip-Based Droplet Sorting
Neil Reginald Beer, Abraham Lee, Andrew Hatch
U.S. Patent 8,765,455 B2
July 1, 2014
This noncontact system sorts monodisperse water-in-oil emulsion droplets in a microfluidic device. Sorting is based on either the droplet’s contents and their interaction with an applied electromagnetic field or identification.

Object Detection with a Multistatic Array Using Singular Value Decomposition
Aaron T. Hallquist, David H. Chambers
U.S. Patent 8,766,845 B2
July 1, 2014
Provided is a method and system for detecting the presence of subsurface objects within a medium. In some embodiments, the detection system operates in a multistatic mode to collect radar return signals generated by an array of transceiver antenna pairs that are positioned across a surface and travel down it. The detection system converts the return signals from a time domain to a frequency domain, resulting in frequency return signals. The detection system then performs a singular value decomposition for each frequency to identify its singular value. It then detects a subsurface object by comparing the identified values to the expected values when no subsurface object is present.

Fuel Cell Components and Systems Having Carbon-Containing Electrically-Conductive Hollow Fibers
Kevin C. Langry, Joseph C. Farmer
U.S. Patent 8,771,899 B2
July 8, 2014
According to one embodiment, a system includes a structure having an ionically conductive, electrically resistive electrolyte–separator layer covering an inner or outer surface of a carbon-containing, electrically conductive hollow fiber coupled to a catalyst. An anode extends along part of the structure’s length, and a cathode extends along part of the length on the opposite side of the hollow fiber. In another embodiment, a method includes acquiring a structure having an ionically conductive, electrically resistive electrolyte—separator layer covering an inner or outer surface of a carbon-containing, electrically conductive hollow fiber coupled with a catalyst along one side. An anode extends along part of the structure’s length, and a cathode extends along part of the length on the opposite side of the hollow fiber.

Corrosion Resistant Amorphous Metals and Methods of
Forming Corrosion Resistant Amorphous Metals

Joseph C. Farmer, Frank M. G. Wong, Jeffery J. Haslam, Nancy Yang, Enrique J. Lavernia, Craig A. Blue, Olivia A. Graeve, Robert Bayles, John H. Perepezko, Larry Kaufman, Julie Schoenung, Leo Ajdelsztajn
U.S. Patent 8,778,459 B2
July 15, 2014
This system for coating a surface comprises a source for amorphous metal and ceramic particles and applying them to the surface by a spray. The coating is a composite material made of amorphous metal that contains one or more of the following elements in the specified range of composition: yttrium (greater than or equal to 1 atomic percent), chromium (14 to 18 atomic percent), molybdenum (greater than or equal to 7 atomic percent), tungsten (greater than or equal to 1 atomic percent), boron (less than or equal to 5 atomic percent), or carbon (greater than or equal to 4 atomic percent).

Amorphous Metal Formulations and Structured Coatings for Corrosion and Wear Resistance
Joseph C. Farmer
U.S. Patent 8,778,460 B2
July 15, 2014
This system for coating a surface has a source of amorphous metal that contains more than 11 elements and can be applied to a surface with a spray. A coating comprising a composite material made of amorphous metal that contains more than 11 elements can also be used. An apparatus for producing a corrosion-resistant, amorphous-metal coating on a structure has a deposition chamber. A deposition source inside the chamber produces a spray of the composite material, and a system directs the spray onto a structure.

Monolithic Three-Dimensional Electrochemical Energy Storage System on Aerogel or Nanotube Scaffold
Joseph Collin Farmer, Michael Stadermann
U.S. Patent 8,778,540 B1
July 15, 2014
A monolithic, three-dimensional, electrochemical energy storage system is provided on an aerogel or nanotube scaffold. An anode, separator, cathode, and cathodic current collector are deposited on the aerogel or nanotube scaffold.

Air Breathing Lithium Power Cells
Joseph C. Farmer
U.S. Patent 8,778,546 B2
July 15, 2014
A cell suitable for use in a battery, according to one configuration, includes a catalytic oxygen cathode, a stabilized zirconia electrolyte for selective oxygen anion transport, a molten salt electrolyte, and a lithium-based anode. Another version of this cell includes a catalytic oxygen cathode, an electrolyte, a membrane selective to molecular oxygen, and a lithium-based anode.

Nanodevices for Generating Power from Molecules and
Batteryless Sensing

Yinmin Wang, Xianying Wang, Alex V. Hamza
U.S. Patent 8,778,563 B2
July 15, 2014
This nanoconverter or nanosensor can directly generate electricity through physisorption interactions with molecules that are dipole-containing organic species in a molecule interaction zone. Semiconductor nanowires or nanotubes with a high surface-to-volume ratio (such as zinc oxide, silicon, or carbon) are grown either aligned or randomly aligned on a substrate. Epoxy or other nonconductive polymers are used to seal portions of the nanowires or nanotubes to create molecule noninteraction zones. By correlating certain molecular species to voltages generated, a nanosensor may quickly identify which species is detected. Nanoconverters in a series parallel arrangement may be constructed in planar, stacked, or rolled arrays to supply power to nanometer- and micrometer-scale devices without using external batteries. In some cases, breath, from human or other life forms, contains sufficient molecules to power a nanoconverter. A membrane permeable to certain molecules around the molecule interaction zone increases the nanosensor’s selectivity response to specific molecules.