Table 1. Some of the required interdisciplinary research, analytic methods, and tools needed to understand the possible connection of mutagens in cooked food to cancer.

  • What cooked foods contain mutagens?
  • What are the
    mutagenic compounds?
  • What amounts are produced?

  • By what mechanism are mutagens formed during cooking?

  • How potent (mutagenic) are the compounds?

  • How are mutagens activated metabolically?

  • How is DNA affected?

  • How are tumors induced?

  • What are the health
    risks from exposure?
  • What people are
  • Who is most at risk?

  • Research required
  • Chemical extraction
    and purification
  • Identification and quantification
  • Proof of structure
  • Synthesis of isomers

  • Study precursors and reaction conditions in chemical models
  • Aqueous vs dry heating
  • Vary cooking temperature

  • Mutagenicity research (e.g., use chemical to innduce mutations,
    and count frequency
    of mutant cells or chromosomal changes)

  • Study chemical intermediates (bioactivation pathways)
  • Modulate metabolism in cell models
  • Radioactive labeling

  • DNA damage
    and repair
  • DNA binding analysis
  • DNA adduct analysis

  • Carcinogenicity research (e.g., assess tumor induction in various tissues in laboratory animals)

  • Dose-response assessment in humans
  • Adduct formation as
    an indicator of exposure
  • Risk assessment
  • Extrapolation from animal studies

  • Analytic methods and tools
  • Gas chromatography (GC)
  • Liquid chromatography (LC)
  • Mass spectrometry (MS)
  • High-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS)
  • Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry
  • Ames/Salmonella test
  • Monoclonal antibodies

  • Modeling mutagens from
    amino acids
  • Heavy isotope incorporation

  • High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)
  • Ames/Salmonella test
  • Animal mutation studies
    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell cultures

  • Cell models
    Mammalian cell systems
    Bacterial cell cultures
  • Enzyme inhibitors

  • Computational chemistry analysis
  • 32P-postlabeling of DNA adducts
  • Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS)
  • Models
    Whole animals (in vivo)
    Animal cells in culture
    (in vitro)
    Bacterial assays

  • Animal models

  • 32P-postlabeling of DNA adducts
  • Accelerator mass spectrometry
  • Epidemiology

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