Daniel M. Makowlecki and Alan F. Jankowski
Method of Fabricating Boron Containing Coatings
U.S. Patent 5,897,751
April 27, 1999
A method for fabricating boron nitride, cubic boron nitride, and multilayer boron/cubic boron nitride hard coatings using magnetron sputtering in a selected atmosphere. These hard coatings may be applied to tools, electronic divices, and engine and other parts to reduce wear on tribological surfaces. These boron coatings contain no morphological growth features. For example, the boron is formed in an inert (for example, argon) atmosphere, while the cubic boron nitride is formed in a reactive (for example, nitrogen) atmosphere. The multilayer boron/cubic boron nitride is produced by depositing alternate layers of boron and cubic boron nitride, with the alternate layers having a thickness of 1 nanometer to 1 micrometer. The interfaces of the layers may be discrete or of a blended or graded composition.

Steven T. Mayer, Richard W. Pekala, and James L. Kaschmitter
Capacitor with a Composite Carbon Foam Electrode
U.S. Patent 5,898,564
April 27, 1999
Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin-film sheets. The thin-film sheets are used in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double-layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium-based battery insertion electrodes, fuel-cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, that is, prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, and graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative tradeoff of system resistivity and power to system energy.

Edward J. Kansa, Brian L. Anderson, Ananda M. Wijesinghe, and Brian E. Viani
Separation of Toxic Metal Ions, Hydrophilic Hydrocarbons, Hydrophobic Fuel, and Halogenated Hydrocarbons and Recovery of Ethanol from a Process Stream
U.S. Patent 5,906,748
May 25, 1999
A process to greatly reduce the bulk volume of contaminants obtained from a subsurface remediation using an effluent stream. The chemicals used for the subsurface remediation are reclaimed for recycling to the remediation process. Additional reductions in the bulk volume of contaminants are achieved by destroying the halogenated hydrocarbons with ultraviolet light and by the complete oxidation of hydrophobic fuel hydrocarbons and hydrophilic hydrocarbons. The contaminated bulk volume will arise primarily from the disposal of the toxic metal ions. The entire process is modular, so if there are any technological breakdowns in one or more of the component process modules, such modules can be readily replaced.


Livermore scientist Steve Gray has received the Defense Intelligence Agency Director's Award for his exceptional leadership in setting up a sophisticated Web site on a classified, secure network that combines up-to-date information on foreign proliferation with computational tools and models.
The program, named Dragon Fury, is now running on a classified network available to Department of Defense policymakers, the intelligence community, and war-fighting commanders. The Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) runs the Department of Defense's military intelligence operations.
According to the award citation, "Mr. Gray's dedication to the Dragon Fury Program has made it possible for senior-level defense policymakers, military planners, and combat commanders to access comprehensive, accurate, and timely information in order to perform their counterproliferation planning and execution missions. His consistently outstanding leadership and performance have brought great credit upon himself, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and the Defense Intelligence Agency."
Gray is believed to be the first non-DIA employee to receive this award.

Back to September 1999 // Science & Technology Review 1999 // Science & Technology Review // LLNL Homepage