William Peter Van Antwerp, John Joseph Mastrototaro, Stephen M. Lane, Joe H. Satcher, Jr., Christopher B. Darrow, Thomas A. Peyser, and Jennifer Harder
Detection of Biological Molecules Using Boronate-based Chemical Amplification and Optical Sensors
U.S. Patent 6,002,954
December 14, 1999
Method of determining the concentration of biological levels of polyhydroxylated compounds, particularly glucose. The method uses an amplification system that is an analyte transducer immobilized in a polymeric matrix. The system can be implanted under the skin and is biocompatible. When exposed to an optical source, the amplification system produces a signal capable of being detected outside the skin. Quantification of the analyte of interest is achieved by measuring the emitted signal.
M. Allen Northrup, Conrad M. Yu, and Norman F. Raley
Process for Forming a Porous Silicon Member in a Crystalline Silicon Member
U.S. Patent 6,004,450
December 21, 1999
Fabrication and use of porous silicon structures to increase the surface area of heated reaction chambers, electrophoresis devices, thermopneumatic sensor actuators, chemical preconcentrators, and filtering or control flow devices. In particular, such high-surface-area or specific-pore-size porous silicon structures will be useful in significantly augmenting the adsorption, vaporization, desorption, condensation, and flow of liquids and gases in applications that use such processes on a miniature scale. Devices that will benefit from a high-surface-area, porous-silicon structure include sample preconcentrators designed to absorb and subsequently desorb specific chemical species from a sample background; chemical reaction chambers with enhanced surface reaction rates; and sensor-actuator chamber devices with increased pressure for thermopneumatic actuation of integrated membranes. Devices that benefit from specific pore-size porous silicon are chemical-biological filters and thermally activated flow devices with active or adjacent surfaces such as electrodes or heaters.
Lawrence W. Hrubesh, John F. Poco, and Paul R. Coronado
Method for Producing Hydrophobic Aerogels
U.S. Patent 6,005,012
December 21, 1999
A method for treating a dried monolithic aerogel containing nondispersed particles with an organometallic surface-modifying agent to produce hydrophobic aerogels. The dried, porous hydrophobic aerogels contain a protective layer of alkyl groups, such as methyl groups, on the modified surfaces of the aerogel pores. The alkyl groups at the aerogel surface typically contain at least one carbon-metal bond per group.
John F. Holzrichter
Methods and Apparatus for Nonacoustic Speech Characterization and Recognition
U.S. Patent 6,006,175
December 21, 1999
A simultaneous recording of electromagnetic wave reflections and acoustic speech information is used to define the positions and velocities of the speech organs during the articulation of each acoustic speech unit. Well-defined time frames and feature vectors can be formed to describe the speech. The feature vectors can uniquely characterize the speech unit being articulated during each time frame. The onset of speech, rejection of external noise, vocalized pitch periods, articulator conditions, accurate timing, identification of the speaker, acoustic speech-unit recognition, and organ mechanical parameters can be determined.
Alan F. Jankowski, Daniel M. Makowiecki, Glenn D. Rambach, and Erik Randich
Hybrid Deposition of Thin-Film Solid-Oxide Fuel Cells and Electrolyzers
U.S. Patent 6,007,683
December 28, 1999
The use of vapor deposition techniques enables synthesis of the basic components of a solid-oxide fuel cell, namely, the electrolyte layer, the two electrodes, and the electrolyte-electrode interfaces. The vapor deposition techniques are used in the three critical steps of material synthesis to produce a thin-film solid-oxide fuel cell. The electrolyte is formed by reactive deposition of essentially any ion-conducting oxide, such as defect-free, yttria-stabilized zirconia by planar magnetron sputtering. The electrodes are formed from ceramic powders sputter- coated with an appropriate metal and sintered to a porous compact. The electrolyte-electrode interface is formed by chemical vapor deposition of zirconia compounds onto the porous electrodes to provide a dense, smooth surface on which to continue the growth of the defect-free electrolyte, whereby a single fuel cell or multiple cells may be fabricated.
Stephen P. Vernon and Natale M. Ceglio
Maskless Deposition Technique for the Physical Vapor Deposition of Thin-Film and Multilayer Coatings with Subnanometer Precision and Accuracy
U.S. Patent 6,010,600
January 4, 2000
A method for the production of axially symmetric, graded- and ungraded-thickness thin-film and multilayer coatings that avoids the use of apertures or masks to tailor the deposition profile. A motional averaging scheme permits the deposition of uniform-thickness coatings independent of the substrate radius. Coating uniformity results from an exact cancellation of substrate-radius-dependent terms, which occurs when the substrate moves at constant velocity. If the substrate is allowed to accelerate over the source, arbitrary coating profiles can be generated through appropriate selection and control of the substrate center-of-mass equation of motion. Other distributions are obtained by direct mapping between the coating thickness and substrate equation of motion, which can be used to tailor the coating profile without the use of masks and apertures.
Paul B. Mirkarimi and Claude Montcalm
Method to Adjust Multilayer Film Stress-induced Deformation of Optics
U.S. Patent 6,011,646
January 4, 2000
A buffer layer located between a substrate and a multilayer to counteract stress in the multilayer and thus reduce or cancel out substrate deformation. The buffer layer, with a stress of sufficient magnitude and opposite in sign, provides a tunable, near-zero net stress in substrates such as an optic for an extreme ultraviolet lithography tool. Buffer layers have been deposited, for example, between molybdenum-silicon and molybdenum-beryllium multilayer films and their associated substrate, reducing the stress significantly, wherein the magnitude of the stress is less than 100 megapascals and near-normal incidence (5 degrees) reflectance of over 60 percent is obtained at 13.4 and 11.4 nanometers, respectively. The present invention is applicable to crystalline and noncrystalline materials and can be used at ambient temperatures.
Ward Small IV and Peter Celliers
Single-Fiber Multicolor Pyrometry
U.S. Patent 6,012,840
January 11, 2000
A fiber-based multicolor pyrometry setup for real-time, noncontact temperature and emissivity measurement. The system includes single optical fiber to collect radiation emitted by a target, a reflective rotating chopper to split the collected radiation into two or more paths while modulating the radiation for lock-in amplification (that is, phase-sensitive detection), at least two detectors (possibly of different spectral bandwidths, with or without filters to limit the wavelength regions detected), and optics to direct and focus the radiation onto the sensitive areas of the detectors. A computer algorithm is used to calculate the true temperature and emissivity of a target based on blackbody calibrations. The system components are enclosed in a light-tight housing, with provision for the fiber to extend outside to collect the radiation. The temperature range of the pyrometer system is determined by the spectral characteristics of the optical components.
David R. Shafer
Reflective Optical Imaging System
U.S. Patent 6,014,252
January 11, 2000
An optical system compatible with short-wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) radiation and comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate. The four optical elements are characterized in order from object to image as convex, concave, convex, and concave mirrors. The optical system is particularly suited for step-and-scan lithography methods. The invention increases the slit dimensions associated with ringfield scanning optics, improves wafer throughput, and allows higher semiconductor device density.
Gary E. Sommargren
Embedded Fiducials in Optical Surfaces
U.S. Patent 6,014,264
January 11, 2000
Fiducials and a method for embedding them in optical surfaces are provided. Fiducials, or marks on a surface, are important for optical fabrication and alignment, particularly when individual optical elements are aspherical. Fiducials are used during the course of the polishing process to connect interferometric data and the equation describing the aspheric elements to physical points on the optic. By embedding fiducials below the surface and slightly outside the clear aperture of the optic, the fiducials are not removed by polishing, do not interfere with the polishing process, and do not affect the performance of the finished optic.
David M. Cooper, associate director for Computation and the Laboratory's Chief Information Officer, has been named by Computerworld as one of the Premier 100 Information Technology Leaders for 2000. Cooper is the only honoree from any government agency or national laboratory.
The selected 100 were those who most closely matched an information technology leadership index defined by the magazine's editors. Said editor-in-chief Maryfran Johnson, "Computerworld set out . . . to define who the most influential IT leaders are and what makes them tick. . . .The dramatic technological changes that Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has made under David Cooper's leadership exemplifies what Computerworld looks for in its `Premier 100' honorees."
Cooper also was recently reappointed for a second term on President Clinton's Information Technology Advisory Committee. He had served on it since February 1997 as co-chair of the subcommittee on High Performance Computing and Communications.
The American Association of Engineering Societies (AAES) has elected Ted Saito as this year's chair. Saito served on the organization's board last year and previously sat as president of SPIE (International Society for Optical Engineering). He is a program leader in the Engineering Directorate.
AAES is the umbrella organization for more than 20 engineering societies. Saito's priority as chair will beto increase public awareness of the value that engineering brings to society. "Public surveys indicate most people feel they don't know enough about the profession," Saito says, "and they don't realize engineering's vital role in our economic well-being and national security." He will also be monitoring public policy issues and tracking legislation that would affect engineers, including a national portable retirement plan for them.
Saito has a B.S. in engineering and basic science from the U.S. Air Force Academy in Colorado, an M.S. in physics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and a Ph.D. in physics from Pennsylvania State University.