Alan D. Conder and Bruce K. F. Young
Three-Dimensional Charge-Coupled Device
U.S. Patent 5,981,988
November 9, 1999
A monolithic three-dimensional charge-coupled device (3D-CCD) that uses the entire bulk of the semiconductor for charge generation, storage, and transfer. It vastly improves current CCD architectures that use only the surface of the semiconductor substrate. The 3D-CCD is capable of developing a strong electric field vector (E-field) throughout the depth of the semiconductor by using parallel (bulk) electrodes buried deep in the substrate material. Using backside illumination, the 3D-CCD architecture enables a single device to image photon energies from the visible, to the ultraviolet and soft x-ray, and out to higher energy x rays of 30 kiloelectronvolts and beyond. The buried, bulk electrodes are electrically connected to the surface electrodes, and an E-field parallel to the surface is established with the pixel in which the bulk electrodes are located. This E-field attracts charge to the bulk electrodes independent of depth; it confines the charge within the pixel in which it has been generated. Charge diffusion is greatly reduced because the E-field is made strong by the proximity of the bulk electrodes.

Dennis L. Matthews, Peter M. Celliers, Lloyd Hackel, Luiz B. Da Silva, C. Brent Dane, and Stanley Mrowka
High-Removal-Rate, Laser-Based Coating Removal System
U.S. Patent 5,986,234
November 16, 1999
A compact laser system that removes surface coatings (paint, dirt, and the like) at a rate as high as 93 square meters (1,000 square feet) per hour or more without damaging the surface. A high-repetition-rate laser with multiple amplification passes propagating through at least one optical amplifier is used, along with a delivery system consisting of a telescoping and articulating tube that also contains an evacuation system for simultaneously sweeping up the debris produced in the process. The amplification beam can be converted to an output beam by passively switching the polarization of at least one amplified beam. The system also has a personal safety system that protects against accidental exposures.

Henry N. Chapman and Donald W. Sweeney
Deformable Mirror for Short-Wavelength Applications
U.S. Patent 5,986,795
November 16, 1999
A deformable mirror compatible with short-wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) radiation that can be precisely controlled to nanometer and subnanometer accuracy. Actuators are coupled between a reaction plate and a face plate with a reflective coating. A control system adjusts the voltage supplied to the actuators. By coordinating the voltages supplied to the actuators, the reflective surface of the mirror can be deformed to correct for dimensional errors in the mirror or to produce a desired contour.


Technology Review, a magazine of innovation published by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, has named Christine Smith of the Laboratory's Industrial Partnerships and Commercialization office as one of its 100 Young Innovators, those under 35 who "exemplify the spirit of innovation in science, technology, and the arts."
Smith was featured in the November/December issue of the magazine, which cited her for efforts that "paved the way for productive research collaborations among thousands of people." While a graduate student at the University of California at Davis, Smith developed a laser-based method of designing nanocrystals. In doing so, she realized she needed facilities at Livermore, so she initiated a partnership between students at Davis and researchers at the Laboratory. She ended up doing some of her work in researcher Howard Lee's laboratory in H Division, while also linking other students with Lab researchers. That partnership endures to this day.
After graduating, Smith became director of the University of California's Campus-Laboratory Collaboration program, overseeing a $2-million budget to foster work among the university's campuses, the three national laboratories it manages, and government agencies and corporations.
The magazine noted that "partnerships established through Smith's programs have led to advances in polymer design and human genomics. Equally at home with high-level scientists and venture capitalists, Smith could be an important catalyst in the formation of many future collaborations."

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