Joseph C. Farmer
Method and Apparatus for Capacitive Deionization and Electrochemical Purification and Regeneration of Electrodes
U.S. Patent 5,954,937
September 21, 1999
An electrically regeneratable electrochemical cell for capacitive deionization, electrochemical purification, and regeneration of electrodes. Each cell includes two end plates, each with an adjacent end electrode. An insulator layer is interposed between the end plates and the end electrodes. Each end electrode includes a single sheet of conductive material with high-specific surface area and sorption capacity. In one embodiment, the sheet of conductive material is formed of carbon aerogel composite. The cell further includes a plurality of generally identical double-sided intermediate electrodes that are equidistally separated from each other between the two end electrodes. As the electrolyte enters the cell, it flows through a continuous open serpentine channel defined by the electrodes, substantially parallel to the electrode surfaces. By polarizing the cell, ions are removed from the electrolyte and are held in the electric double layers formed at the carbon aerogel surfaces of the electrodes. As the cell is saturated with the removed ions, the cell is regenerated electrically, thus significantly minimizing secondary wastes.

Luis E. Zapata and Lloyd Hackel
Lamp System with Conditioned Water Coolant and Diffuse Reflector of Polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE)
U.S. Patent 5,971,565
October 26, 1999
A lamp system with a soft, high-intensity output that covers a large area is provided by water-cooling a long-arc lamp inside a diffuse reflector of polytetra-fluorethylene and titanium dioxide white pigment. The water is kept clean and pure with a 1-micrometer particulate filter and an activated charcoal/ultraviolet irradiation system that circulates, deionizes, and biologically sterilizes the coolant water at all times, even when the long-arc lamp is off.

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