Vapor-Deposited Porous Films for Energy Conversion
Alan F. Jankowski, Jeffrey P. Hayes, Jeffrey D. Morse
U.S. Patent 6,913,998 B2
July 5, 2005
Metallic films are grown with a spongelike morphology in the as-deposited condition using planar magnetron sputtering. The deposit’s morphology is characterized by metallic continuity in three dimensions with continuous and open porosity on the submicrometer scale. The stabilization of the spongelike morphology is found over a limited range of the sputter-deposition parameters, that is, of working gas pressure and substrate temperature. This spongelike morphology is an extension of the features as generally represented in the classic zone models of growth for physical vapor deposits. Nickel coatings were deposited with working gas pressures up to 4 pascals and for substrate temperatures up to 1,000 kelvins. The morphology of the deposits is examined in plan and cross-sectional views with scanning electron microscopy. The parametric range of gas pressure and substrate temperature (relative to the absolute melt point) under which the spongelike metal deposits are produced appears universal for other metals, including gold, silver, and aluminum.
Magneto-Radar Detector and Method
Thomas E. McEwan
U.S. Patent 6,914,552 B1
July 5, 2005
A varying magnetic field excites slight vibrations in an object, and a radar sensor detects the vibrations at a harmonic of the excitation frequency. The synergy of the magnetic excitation and radar detection increases the detection range compared with the range of conventional magnetic metal detectors. The radar rejects background clutter by responding only to reflecting objects that are vibrating at a harmonic excitation field, thereby significantly improving detection reliability. In one arrangement, ultrawideband micropower impulse radar can be used to improve materials penetration and provide range information. The magneto-radar may be used to screen patients before they have magnetic resonance imaging, to detect land mines, and to find hidden treasures.
High Average Power Laser Gain Medium with Low Optical Distortion Using a Transverse Flowing Liquid Host
Brian J. Comaskey, Earl R. Ault, Thomas C. Kuklo
U.S. Patent 6,914,926 B2
July 5, 2005
A high-average-power, low-optical-distortion laser gain medium is based on a flowing liquid media. A diode laser pumping device with tailored irradiance excites the laser active atom, ion, or molecule within the liquid media. A laser active component of the liquid media exhibits energy storage times comparable to or longer than the liquid’s thermal optical response time. A closed-loop system for mixing and circulating the lasing liquid into and out of the optical cavity includes a pump, a diffuser, and a heat exchanger. A liquid-flow gain cell includes flow straighteners and flow-channel compression.
Protein Crystallography Prescreen Kit
Brent W. Segelke, Heike I. Krupka, Bernhard Rupp
U.S. Patent 6,916,455 B2
July 12, 2005
A kit for prescreening protein concentration for crystallization includes multiple vials, reagents, and sample plates. The reagents and protein samples in solutions of varying concentrations are placed on the sample plates and incubated. After incubation, the plates are examined to determine which sample concentrations are too low and which are too high. The optimal concentrations for protein crystallization are selected and used.
System Using a Megawatt Class Millimeter Wave Source and a High-Power Rectenna to Beam Power to a Suspended Platform
Malcolm Caplan, Herbert W. Friedman
U.S. Patent 6,919,847 B2
July 19, 2005
A system for beaming power to a high-altitude platform is based on a high-power millimeter gyrotron source, optical transmission components, and a high-power receiving antenna—that is, a rectenna. This system can rectify received millimeter energy and convert it into usable electrical power.
Combined Advanced Finishing and UV Laser Conditioning Process for Producing Damage Resistant Optics
Joseph A. Menapace, John E. Peterson, Bernardino M. Penetrante, Philip E. Miller, Thomas G. Parham, Michael A. Nichols
U.S. Patent 6,920,765 B2
July 26, 2005
This finishing and ultraviolet (UV) conditioning method reduces the density of sites that are prone to laser-induced damage on the surface of fused silica optics. The resulting optics have far fewer catastrophic defects and can better resist optical deterioration when exposed to a high-power laser beam.
Fiber Optic Micro Accelerometer
Steve P. Swierkowski
U.S. Patent 6,921,894 B2
July 26, 2005
This accelerometer has a wafer with a proof mass integrated into it and an optical fiber. At least one spring member is connected to the proof mass. A Fabry–Perot cavity is formed by two partially reflective surfaces, one on the proof mass and another on the end of the optical fiber. The two surfaces, which form part of an optical detection system, are used to detect movement of the proof mass through the optical fiber.