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William J. Benett, James B. Richards, Fred P. Milanovich
Convectively Driven PCR Thermal-Cycling
U.S. Patent 6,586,233 B2
July 1, 2003
A polymerase chain reaction system provides an upper and lower temperature zone in a fluid sample. Channels set up convection cells in the fluid sample and move the fluid sample repeatedly through the upper and lower temperature zones, which creates thermal cycling.

Kevin G. Knauss, Carl O. Boro, Steven R. Higgins, Carrick M. Eggleston
Hyperbaric Hydrothermal Atomic Force Microscope
U.S. Patent 6,586,734 B2
July 1, 2003
A hyperbaric hydrothermal atomic force microscope (AFM) is provided to image solid surfaces in fluids, either liquid or gas, at pressures greater than normal atmospheric pressure. The sample can be heated and its surface imaged in aqueous solution at temperatures greater than 100°C with less than 1 nanometer of vertical resolution. A gas-pressurized microscope base chamber houses the stepper motor and piezoelectric scanner. A chemically inert, flexible membrane separates this base chamber from the sample cell environment and constrains a high-temperature, pressured liquid or gas in the sample cell while allowing movement of the scanner. The sample cell is designed for continuous flow of liquid or gas through the sample environment.

Sasa Bajt
Technique to Quantitatively Measure Magnetic Properties of Thin Structures at <10 nm Spatial Resolution
U.S. Patent 6,590,209 B1
July 8, 2003
A highly sensitive, high-resolution magnetic microscope images magnetic properties quantitatively. Imaging is done with a modified transmission electron microscope that allows imaging of the sample in a zero magnetic field. Two images from closely spaced planes, one in focus and one slightly out of focus, are sufficient to calculate the absolute values of the phase change imparted to the electrons and, hence, to obtain the magnetization vector field distribution.

Sang K. Sheem
Low-Cost Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor
U.S. Patent 6,597,820 B1
July 22, 2003
The size and cost of fabricating fiber-optic pressure sensors is reduced by fabricating the membrane of the sensor in a nonplanar shape. The design of the sensors may be made in such a way that the nonplanar membrane becomes a part of an air-tight cavity. The membrane thus becomes resilient because of the air-cushion effect of the cavity. Such nonplanar membranes are easier to make and attach.

Earl R. Ault, Brian J. Comaskey, Thomas C. Kuklo
High Average Power Laser Using a Transverse Flowing Liquid Host
U.S. Patent 6,600,766 B1
July 29, 2003
A laser includes an optical cavity. A diode laser pumping device is located within the optical cavity. An aprotic lasing liquid containing neodymium rare-earth ions fills the optical cavity. A circulation system that provides a closed loop for circulating the aprotic lasing liquid into and out of the optical cavity includes a pump and a heat exchanger.

M. Allen Northrup
Temperature Control Apparatus
U.S. Patent 6,602,473 B1
August 5, 2003
A silicon-based sleeve-type chemical reaction chamber that combines heaters, such as doped polysilicon for heating and bulk silicon for convection cooling. The reaction chamber combines a critical ratio of silicon- and nonsilicon-based materials to provide the thermal properties desired. For example, the chamber may combine a critical ratio of silicon and silicon nitride to the volume of material to be heated (such as a liquid) to provide uniform heating and yet meet low power requirements. The reaction chamber will also allow a secondary tube (such as plastic) to be introduced into the reaction sleeve that contains the reaction mixture, thereby alleviating any potential material incompatibilities. The reaction chamber may be used in any chemical reaction system to synthesize or process organic, inorganic, or biochemical reactions, such as the polymerase chain reaction, and other DNA reactions, such as the ligase chain reaction. The reaction chamber may also be used in synthesis instruments, particularly those for DNA amplification and synthesis.

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UCRL-52000-03-10 | October 8, 2003