Laboratory celebrates its 50th anniversary, its biological research
program begins its 40th year. Established in May 1963 by the Atomic
Energy Commission, the programs original mission was to investigate
the effects of ionizing radiation on humans.
Livermores biological research extends far beyond studying
the effects of radiation. A primary emphasis is countering the terrorist
threat that grips our nation. The anthrax scares in the fall of
2001 alerted us to the danger of bioterrorism and heightened the
need for fast, accurate, inexpensive methods to detect biological
warfare agents. Fortunately, long before last fall, Livermore was
a leader in developing innovative methods and technologies for early
detection of bioterrorism threats. Since the attack, the Laboratory
has intensified its efforts in this area so vital to national security.
effects and bioterrorism response have more in common than might
at first be apparent. The link is DNA, the genetic code of all living
things. Technologies developed during Livermores studies of
how radiation affects DNA contributed
to the founding of the Human Genome Project, the largest biological
research project ever undertaken. Since the working draft of the
human genome was completed in 2000, the genomes of many other animals
and microbes have been sequenced. Sequencing the DNA of bioagent
microbes supplies the basis for DNA signatures that are being put
to work in new detectors.
early analysis of DNA damage has evolved into long-term research
in several areas important to human health. Research on radiation
exposure resulted in new assays that were first used to evaluate
genetic changes in atom bomb survivors in Japan and later applied
to understanding the exposures incurred by workers who cleaned up
the Chernobyl nuclear power plant after the 1986 accident. Several
of these tools have broad application in bioscience. Another research
area focuses on how DNA repairs itself. One project analyzes the
ways that damaged DNA affects sperm during critical stages of reproduction.
Another examines how cooking certain foods produces chemicals that
damage DNA. Along the way, Livermore bioresearchers have pioneered
many new tools and methods for bioscience research, often collaborating
with physicists, chemists, engineers, and computer scientists.
Roger Batzel, then Laboratory director, said, I personally
view Bio-Med as an area which could well grow. Its been a
relatively small program, but I think it could develop into one
of the strengths of the Laboratory.
could hardly imagine how dramatically Livermores nascent biomedical
program would grow and change. The recent proposal to establish
a homeland security center of excellence at Livermore owes much
to the distinguished efforts over the years of many Livermore biological
||During the 1983 celebration
of the 20th anniversary of biomedical research at Livermore,
then Laboratory Director Roger Batzel, Associate Director Mort
Mendelsohn, and former Program Director John Gofman viewed the
work of bioscientist Laurie Gordon.
Of Chromosomes and DNA
Biological studies at Livermore have two major
origins. One was the advent of thermonuclear testing in the Pacific
Ocean during the mid-1950s. The other was Project Plowshare, which
was devoted to the peaceful uses of nuclear weapons for stimulating
underground natural gas production, mining, blasting out harbors,
and perhaps even creating a new Panama Canal. Testing in the Pacific
and in the Soviet Union had made radioactive fallout a major public
issue. With Plowshares vision of nuclear explosions near populated
areas for routine engineering tasks, nuclear contamination became
a more direct concern.
John Gofman, a professor
of medical physics at the Donner Laboratory of the University of
California at Berkeley, was recruited to set up the new program.
As it happened, Project Plowshare was largely shelved by the time
Gofman started working. But he studied the dose to humans
anyway, with an emphasis on radiation safety, says Mort Mendelsohn,
who followed Gofman as leader of the biomedical research program.
By 1963, the scientific
community suspected that DNA was the cellular part most sensitive
to radiation damage. Gofman had already become involved in cytogenetics,
the study of chromosomes, a field that was making major advances
at the time. According to Mendelsohn, Gofman wanted to measure
chromosomes for a reason that was way ahead of its time. Many
researchers were growing cancer cells in culture, and Gofman suggested
examining the chromosomes in these cells to see what changes they
had in common. He developed a method of analyzing chromosomes by
measuring their length. It proved to lack adequate sensitivity,
but his work set the stage for future cytogenetics progress at Livermore.
In 1974, two years after
Mendelsohns arrival, Livermore scientists made history when
they successfully measured and sorted hamster chromosomes using
flow cytometry. In humans and other complex organisms, DNA is packaged
into chromosomes. Humans have 23 pairs, or 46 total. With flow cytometry,
researchers could for the first time automatically identify and
sort individual chromosomes or whole cells for subsequent assessment.
|Marv Van Dilla, an expert
in flow cytometry, came to Livermore from Los Alamos in 1972.
Shown here in 1973, Van Dilla was instrumental in establishing
the Laboratorys preeminence in cytometric research. Livermore
was the first to use flow cytometry to sort chromosomes.
During the 1970s and 1980s,
the Laboratory made rapid advances in flow cytometry and was for
many years a premier institution for cytometric research. In fact,
Mendelsohn and other Livermore scientists founded the Society for
Analytic Cytology, now the International Society for Analytic Cytology.
The journal Cytometry, first issued in 1980, was published from
Livermore for many years. More recently, Livermore engineers miniaturized
flow cytometry in microfluidic systems that support medical devices
and detectors for biological and chemical agents. (See S&TR,
Handling Fluids in
By 1979, scientists had
learned how to sort human chromosomes, which are much smaller and
more varied than the hamsters. By 1984, says Mendelsohn, We
had increased our proficiency and confidence in flow cytometry such
that we could separately identify and study each of the human chromosomes.
This ability, combined with worldwide developments in recombinant
DNA technology, led to the LivermoreLos Alamos project to
build human chromosome-specific DNA libraries.
The development of
chromosome-specific libraries was important, continues Mendelsohn.
At that time, sequencing technology was slow and primitive.
The thought of sequencing the entire human DNA was overwhelming.
But when the sequencing process could be broken down into smaller
pieceschromosomesit became a possibility.
At a 1984 meeting, molecular
geneticists from around the world brainstormed the potential for
DNA-oriented methods to detect heritable mutations in the children
of people who survived the atom bombs in Japan. Many of the questions
were so challenging that large-scale, detailed genomic sequence
analysis would be needed to even attempt to answer them. (To this
day, the basic question of how often heritable mutations occur remains
unanswered.) Recognizing the classes of problems that require large-scale,
detailed sequence data helped inspire the idea of sequencing the
entire human genome.
In 1986, the Department of
Energy launched a major initiative to completely decipher the human
genetic code. A year later, Livermore researchers began to study
chromosome 19, which they had earlier learned was home to several
genes important for DNA repair. DOE joined forces with the National
Institutes of Health in 1990 to kick off the Human Genome Project.
In 1992, Anthony Carrano
became associate director of biomedical research. Carrano, who had
been studying chromosomes and DNA since arriving at Livermore in
1973, was instrumental in building the Laboratorys human genome
efforts, particularly sequencing. In 1996, he helped form the Joint
Genome Institute (JGI). This collaboration of the Livermore, Berkeley,
and Los Alamos national laboratories pooled resources to form a
production facility to sequence human chromosomes 5, 16, and 19
for the international Human Genome Project.
During the 1990s, sequencing
technologies matured, becoming ever more automated. Sequencing speed
increased rapidly. A working draft of the three chromosomes was
completed in April 2000, a year ahead of a greatly accelerated schedule
set just 18 months earlier. (See S&TR, April
2000, The Joint
Genome Institute: Decoding the Human Genome.) This accomplishment
was a major step toward understanding DNA and its functions and
a significant contribution to the completion of draft sequences
of the entire genome in June 2000.
|Bioscientists Anthony Carrano,
who later became associate director, and Larry Thompson in 1978.
They had just developed a quick and efficient test to detect
damage to genes. The test was based on a finding by Livermore
scientists that there is a direct relationship between hard-to-spot
gene mutations and an easily recognized process that occurs
during cell division. Today, Thompson performs research on DNA
Much to Learn
In the excitement over the
completed sequence of the human genome, it is easy to forget that
this step is just a prologue. The next step is to identify all of
our genes and determine what they do and how they do it. Comparative
genomicsin which the genomes of different species are comparedis
helpful. Mouse DNA is useful because about 99 percent of a mouses
genes are similar to human genes. Comparing how these genes work
in mice and how they are activated under different conditions tells
us much about our own genes. A JGI team led by Livermore biologist
Lisa Stubbs compared human chromosome 19 with similar sections of
the mouse DNA to understand the functional significance of DNA sequences.
(See S&TR, May
Human in the Mouse Mirror.) Stubbs notes, Imagine taking
human chromosomes, shattering them into pieces of varying lengths,
and putting them back together in a different order. Thats
what mouse chromosomes look like. The Japanese pufferfish
(fugu) has also been sequenced because its genome is a compact version
of our own.
Another outgrowth of the
Human Genome Project is proteomics, the study of the 100,000 or
so proteins that are generated by our DNA. Proteins are the building
blocks of our cells and of the molecular machinery that runs our
tissues, organs, and bodies. Understanding how proteins operate
is essential to understanding how biological systems work.
X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy
are two tools Livermore is using to determine the three-dimensional
structure of proteins at the atomic level. From that structure,
computational methods can attempt to model a proteins function.
But determining the structure protein by protein would take years
of research to complete. Instead, Livermore scientists are using
the minimal data available in computational models to try to predict
a proteins structure.
|Researcher Laura Chittenden
is shown with a mouse. Mouse DNA, 99 percent of which is similar
to human DNA, is being compared to human DNA to help uncover
clues to gene regulation and control.
the first 10 years of Livermores biological research program,
scientists searched for biological measurements that would indicate
the radiological dose to which an individual had been exposed. Livermore
developed several biological dosimeters to detect and measure changes
in human cells, significantly advancing the study of human radiation
biology and toxicology. The first was the glycophorin-A assay that
detects residual mutations in human red blood cells from exposure
to radiation decades earlier. Its first use was on atom bomb survivors
Work on the glycophorin-A
assay begat one of Livermores first biotechnology projects.
In the late 1970s, Laboratory biologists needed antibodies that
recognize the subtle distinction between normal and mutant red blood
cells. Researchers rolled up their sleeves and began to produce
these and many other made-to-order monoclonal antibodies (antibodies
derived from a single cell) with a range of potential usesfrom
detecting sickle cell anemia to evaluating how fast cancer cells
are growing. Livermore is no longer in the production mode, but
many of its monoclonal antibodies were commercially produced and
used by others.
Another important technology
developed at Livermore in the mid-1980s is chromosome painting.
Scientist Dan Pinkel was instrumental in developing this technology,
and the patent for this work has been one of the most lucrative
in Livermores patent portfolio for the past several years.
When first developed, chromosome
painting was used to identify DNA damage in which the ends of two
chromosomes break off and trade places with each other. These reciprocal
translocations are one of the distinguishing effects of radiation
damage to DNA. Using chromosome painting, scientists can see and
count translocations between two differently painted chromosomes
to determine a persons likely prior exposure to ionizing radiation.
This method of identifying translocations is 10 to 100 times faster
than it was before, with greatly increased reliability.
A third dosimetry method
measures the frequency of mutations in the hypoxanthine phosphoribosylantransferase
(HPRT) gene in lymphocytes. This assay was developed elsewhere,
but since the 1980s, researchers led by biological scientist Irene
Jones have greatly expanded understanding of the assays ability
to detect DNA damage from ionizing radiation.
Immediately after the 1986
Chernobyl nuclear accident, the glycophorin-A assay was put to work
to screen cleanup workers for their exposures. Years later, bioscientists
used the HPRT assay and chromosome painting to measure mutations
and alterations in lymphocytes to reconstruct the doses received.
(See S&TR, September
Determine Chernobyl Liquidators' Exposure.)
|Chromosome painting is the
process scientists use to fluorescently label small pieces of
DNA from a chromosome-specific library. These chromosome-specific
fluorescent probes bind to complementary sequences of the target
chromosome and, when viewed under a microscope using fluorescent
light, can reveal a targeted gene along a chromosome. This photo
is of chromosomes from one-day-old mouse embryos. The bright
green chromosomes are chromosomes 1, 2, 3, and X. The orange
one is chromosome Y.
Meets the ComputerThe Early Days
Throughout its 50-year history, the Laboratory has pioneered
the use of powerful computers to solve complex scientific
problems. Challenges in biological research were no
the mid-1960s, new work on the dynamics of cell multiplication
made use of computer codes first developed for Livermores
weapons program. Part of an effort to design an optimal
radiation dosage program for cancer therapy, the study
included an ingenious calculation system using computer
codes to simulate cell activity.
remarkable combination of an electron microscope and
a computer in 1968 produced dramatic three-dimensional
images of organelles, tiny working parts within the
cell nucleus. Using essentially the same process the
human brain uses to produce three-dimensional images
from two flat picturesone taken with each eyethe
computer took 12 electron microscope shots, integrated
the information, and created three-dimensional images
of the organelles that were 50,000 times their real
size. The feat had never before been accomplished.
1973, Livermores cytophotometric data conversion
system (CYDAC) was attracting interest when it showed
that it could measure the DNA in individual chromosomes
to great sensitivity. CYDAC studies showed unsuspected
small differences in chromosomal DNA content among supposedly
its first clinical application in 1974, CYDAC confirmed
a suspected chromosome abnormality in a patient with
chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). In the early 1960s,
scientists discovered that CML was invariably associated
with a loss of genetic material from a portion of chromosome
22. This aberration was rarely found otherwise. About
10 years later, researchers at the
of Chicago found an excess of chromosomal matter on
chromosome 9 in the same patients. They suspected that
the lost material from chromosome 22 had been captured
by chromosome 9. It took CYDACs unprecedented
precision to confirm that hypothesis and set cancer
researchers on the track of other DNA translocations.
at Livermore combined mechanical skills with an understanding
of biology to design the cytophotometric data converter
(CYDAC), a highly sensitive diagnostic instrument that
measures the amount of DNA in chromosomes. In this 1976
photograph, bioresearcher Linda Ashworth uses CYDAC
to scan chromosomes from a mammalian cell.
natural extension of studying the effects of ionizing radiation
on humans was to explore how radiation and chemicals interact with
human genetic material to produce cancers, mutations, and other
the face of damaging toxins, DNA is able to repair itselfup
to a point. How DNA repairs itself has been a focus of ongoing research
under bioscientist Larry Thompson almost since the Laboratory began
to study DNA damage. Livermore chose to sequence chromosome 19 as
part of the Human Genome Project because its properties suggested
that it was gene-rich, which proved to be an accurate prediction.
Chromosome 19 has the highest gene density of any human chromosome.
It was also an apt choice because Livermore researchers had earlier
discovered that three genes on chromosome 19 are involved in the
repair of DNA damaged by radiation or chemicals. In studies of the
Chernobyl cleanup workers, a goal has been to understand why the
same dose of radiation has different effects on the cells of individuals.
Identifying the differences in DNA repair gene sequence and function
for different individuals is key.
In the 1970s, Livermores
growing expertise in flow cytometry enabled researchers to analyze
and sort sperm for the first time. Using this approach, scientists
could begin to study the effects of pollutants on DNA during critical
stages of sperm formation. Under the leadership of biophysicist
Andrew Wyrobek, Livermore has developed several powerful molecular
methods to visualize individual chromosomes in sperm and to detect
genetic defects in embryos. (See S&TR, November/December
Genetic Contribution of Sperm: Healthy Baby or Not?) These research
methods, combined with animal models, have broad implications for
screening males for chromosomal abnormalities and genetic diseases,
for studying the effects of exposure to mutagenic agents, and for
assessing genetic risks to embryos and offspring.
Even the food we eat can
damage our DNA. Both 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b] pyrinidine
(PhIP) and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazol [4,5-f] quinoxaline (MeIQx)
are heterocyclic aromatic amines that appear in meat when it is
cooked at high temperature. These compounds and others produced
when they are digested form adducts, which are molecules that attach
to DNA strands and may interfere with their function. Jim Felton,
who is now deputy associate director for Biology and Biotechnology
Research Program (BBRP), led a group studying food mutagens for
almost two decades.
PhIP and MeIQx have been
shown to cause cancer in laboratory animals when administered at
high doses. More recently, researchers wanted to know whether DNA
and protein adducts can be detected in laboratory animals and humans
when they take in a smaller, more typical dietary amount of these
substances. In numerous experiments using carbon-14-tagged PhIP
and MeIQx molecules, the team has confirmed not only that adducts
can be detected at low doses, but also that humans may be more sensitive
to these substances than mice or rats.
Such experiments would not
have been possible without Livermores Center for Accelerated
Mass Spectrometry. Physics-based accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS)
is so sensitive that it can find one carbon-14 atom among a quadrillion
other carbon atoms. It can observe the interaction of mutagens with
DNA in the first step in carcinogenesis. Livermore is one of just
a few institutions in the world using AMS routinely for biomedical
and pharmaceutical applications, and it is a recognized leader in
the field. (See S&TR, July/August
Research Benefits from Counting Small.)
Continuing a long tradition
of collaboration with universities, Livermore joined forces with
the University of California at Davis Cancer Center in October 2000
to fight cancer, the nations second leading killer. Together,
they are researching cancer biology, prevention, and control as
well as new cancer detection and treatment techniques. In July 2002,
the center attained National Cancer Center status from the National
Cancer Institute. AMS is a key technology in this collaborations
||Meat cooked at high temperatures
produces mutagens, which are compounds that can damage DNA.
Here, a fully instrumented hamburger patty is fried to determine
its temperature as a function of depth as well as the corresponding
concentrations of food mutagens. The data are used to develop
computer simulations of the cooking process and to predict the
formation of mutagens.
the Computer to Work
Computers have played an
integral role in biological research at Livermore for years (see
the box on p. 26). In fact, the biomedical program was the first
one at Livermore to purchase a personal computer for scientific
use. The Procurement Department looked on this purchase with considerable
suspicion, viewing a personal computer only as a means to play Pong.
But that little PC automated what had been a tedious manual cell-counting
process, and it is impossible to imagine the Laboratory without
desktop computers today.
Using both mainframe and
personal computers, the Laboratory has pioneered many new ways to
use the computer in a biological research setting. Bioinformatics
is an area of special strength. In bioinformatics, computer scientists
organize the results of molecular biologists work, developing
databases and new analytical tools so that the data can be put to
good use. Livermores leading role in the Human Genome Project
would not have been possible without the efforts of BBRPs
bioinformatics team. Computer scientist Tom Slezak started this
group almost 25 years ago and still leads it.
Our work is bottom
of the iceberg stuff and invisible to most people, says
Slezak. But its really important. In sequencing the
human genome, the flood of data was enormous. As other organisms
are sequenced and as the field of comparative genomics takes off,
we try to leverage our computational capabilities to stay a step
or two ahead.
Computational biology, a
relatively recent research area, builds on the Laboratorys
strength in computations. According to Michael Colvin, who leads
the Computational Biology Group at Livermore, The emerging
explanation of biological functions in terms of their underlying
chemical processes is creating an important role for predictive
chemical simulations in biological research.
scientists are at the forefront of integrating computation and experiment
in bioscience. Ongoing computational biology projects include studying
the action of anticancer drugs, DNA-binding properties of mutagens
in food, the binding of ligands to selected sites on proteins, the
mechanisms of DNA repair enzymes, and the biophysics of DNA base
pairing. (See S&TR, April
New Kind of Biological Research.)
A particularly exciting tool
in computational biology is first-principles quantum mechanics methods
to describe the electronic structure of atoms and their chemical
properties. Computerized quantum simulations permit researchers
to see inside biochemical processes to learn how reactions
are taking place on a molecular and even atomic level. Such simulations
are highly intensive computationally and had to await the arrival
of massively parallel computers before they could be performed.
(See S&TR, April
Simulations Tell the Atomic-Level Story.)
||This classical molecular dynamics
simulation examines the motion of 1 of 10 proteins of Escherichia
coli polymerase III, the major DNA replication enzyme in E.
coli bacteria. This proteins function is to proofread
a newly synthesized DNA strand by excising any incorrect bases
immediately after they are added to the DNA. The goal of this
simulation is to understand the chemical mechanism of the proofreading
function. Shown as sticks is the proofreading protein. The yellow
and green spheres simulate the double-stranded DNA being proofread.
Bacteria, viruses, biological
toxins, or genetically altered organisms could be used to threaten
urban populations, destroy livestock, and wipe out crops. These
agents are difficult to detect and to identify quickly and reliably.
Yet, early detection and identification are crucial for minimizing
their potentially catastrophic human and economic cost. At Livermore,
developing technologies to detect agents of biological warfare has
been under way for a decade. Livermore researchers pioneered technologies
for rapid detection of tiny amounts of DNA. Equally important has
been identifying specific DNA sequences that can be targeted with
our detectors. With the recent anthrax attacks and the resulting
awareness of bioterrorism threats, Livermore has stepped up its
efforts to optimize stationary and portable equipment to detect
The foundation for this research
was laid during the early years of the program and studies of DNA.
For example, by computationally comparing the DNA sequence of Yersinia
pestis, the bacterium that causes bubonic plague, with the sequence
of its close relatives and other bacteria, Livermore has been able
to develop unique DNA signatures that allow Yersinia to be quickly
detected. (See S&TR, May
An entirely new sequencing
analysis technique, developed by Livermores bioinformatics
team, recently won one of two 2002 Lawrence Livermore Science and
Technology Awards. Using their experience from many years on the
Human Genome Project, the team members found a novel way to perform
whole genome analysis to compare genomic sequences. With it, they
can rapidly determine unique DNA signatures of biowarfare pathogens.
They are the first to apply whole genome analysis to pathogens.
Several DNA-detection technologies
have been licensed to industry, most recently the Handheld Advanced
Nucleic Acid Analyzer (HANAA). Some of these devices depend not
only on accurate DNA signatures but also on microfluidicsthe
miniaturization of piping systems through which fluids flow. In
a collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory, Livermores
DNA analysis capabilities were used to develop the analysis core
of the Biological Aerosol Sentry and Information System, which was
deployed at the 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City, Utah.
Another technique for detecting
biological agents focuses on detecting the proteins that DNA generates.
Protein detection techniques are typically fast and easy to use
but are not as sensitive and specific as DNA detection methods.
Livermore is designing seek-and-destroy, antibodylike molecules,
called high-affinity ligands, that target specific proteins in biological
agents. The development of ligands for detecting tetanus toxin is
almost complete. This detection methodology promises to be fast
and easy to use as well as highly sensitive and specific. (See S&TR,
Attack on Bioterrorism.)
||The Handheld Advanced Nucleic
Acid Analyzer can detect biological pathogens in the field.
It examines the DNA of a sample and compares it with the known
DNA sequence of various pathogens such as anthrax and plague.
Rapid detection of agents of biological warfare could help save
lives because the diseases resulting from many such pathogens
are highly treatable if detected early.
Many threads link physics
advances and bioresearch progress. Ernest O. Lawrence, founder of
the Laboratory, set the precedent for applying tools developed in
the course of physics research to fighting human disease. After
Lawrence built the cyclotron, he put it to use as a medical tool
as quickly as he could. In 1937, Lawrences mother Gunda was
told by many specialists that she had an inoperable tumor. But her
life was saved by radiation treatment with the only megavolt x rays
then available in the world, using a device developed by her son.
She was still living in Berkeley when he died 21 years later.
In this tradition, Livermore
recently developed an innovative tool for analyzing and planning
radiation treatment for tumors. In the early 1990s, researchers
began combining Livermores huge storehouse of data on nuclear
science and radiation transport with Monte Carlo statistical techniques.
The result was PEREGRINE, a radiation planning technology that has
been licensed to a private company and was approved for use by the
U.S. Food and Drug Administration in September 2000. (See S&TR,
Goes to Work.)
|PEREGRINE is an innovative
radiation planning technology developed at Livermore. Taken
by the staff at the University of California at San Francisco,
these images of PEREGRINE measurements demonstrate how effectively
PEREGRINE can handle different materials and shapes, including
(a) heterogeneous materials such as soft tissue and air in the
lung, (b) a steel prosthesis, and (c) a partial transmission
block that protects healthy tissue from radiation treatment.
Mrs. Lawrences treatment
and PEREGRINE bring the results of physics research to bear on a
pressing medical challenge. Weapons materials have also been used
in artificial hip joints designed at Livermore. X-ray tomography
developed to examine the inner components of nuclear weapons has
revealed the bone weakening of osteoporosis. Quantum simulations,
a physics tool that can describe the fundamental interactions of
weapons materials, are exposing the inner workings of biochemical
processes important to human health. X-ray diffraction using synchrotron
light sources, another physics tool, illuminates proteins to help
define their function.
next step in biological research will depend on another tool made
possible by advanced physics researcheven more powerful computers
than are available today. Where were going next,
says Bert Weinstein, acting associate director for BBRP, is
to understand the whole system of genes. Not just genes as individual
parts but as an integrated, intermeshed set of molecular machines,
working together to produce the miracle of life.
Key Words: accelerator
mass spectrometry (AMS), biological warfare agent detectors, chromosome
painting, comparative genomics, computational biology, DNA repair,
dosimetry, flow cytometry, food mutagens, glycophorin-A assay, Human
Genome Project, Joint Genome Institute (JGI), PEREGRINE, proteomics,
For more information about Biology and Biotechnology Research Program
For details about the history of biology research at Livermore:
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