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In this section, we list recent patents issued to Laboratory employees. You can enter a key word or name in the search box above to search for other issued patents.

Compact X-Ray Source and Panel
Stephen E. Sampayan
U.S. Patent 7,330,533 B2
February 12, 2008
For this compact, self-contained x-ray source and panel, multiple x-ray sources are arranged in a broad-area pixelized array. Each x-ray source includes an electron source for producing an electron beam, an x-ray conversion target, and a multilayer insulator separating the electron source and conversion target. The cylindrical multilayer insulator has alternating insulator and conductor layers surrounding an acceleration channel that leads from the electron source to the x-ray conversion target. A power source connected to each x-ray source produces an accelerating gradient between the electron source and x-ray conversion target in one or more of the x-ray sources to accelerate an electron beam toward the x-ray conversion target. The multilayer insulator enables relatively short separation distances between the electron source and the conversion target so that a thin panel is possible for compactness. The alternating insulator and conductor layers resist surface flashover when the high acceleration energies needed for x-ray generation are supplied to the x-ray sources.

Nonlinear Optical Crystal Optimized for Ytterbium Laser Host Wavelengths
Christopher A. Ebbers, Kathleen I. Schaffers
U.S. Patent 7,378,042 B2
May 27, 2008
A material for harmonic generation has been made by substitutional changes to the crystal LaCa4(BO3)3, also known as LaCOB, in the form Re1xRe2yRe3zCa4(BO3)3O. Re1 and Re2, rare-earth ions 1 and 2, are selected from the group consisting of strontium, yttrium, lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, samarium, europium, gadolinium, thorium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium, ytterbium, and lutetium; Re3 is lanthanum; and x + y + z = 1.

Miniature Modified Faraday Cup for Micro Electron Beams
Alan T. Teruya, John W. Elmer, Todd A. Palmer, Chris C. Walton
U.S. Patent 7,378,830 B2
May 27, 2008
A microbeam Faraday cup assembly includes a refractory metal layer with an odd number of thin, radially positioned traces. Traces are located at the edge and center of the modified Faraday cup body. Each set of traces is connected to a separate data-acquisition channel to form multiple independent diagnostic networks. The data obtained from the networks are combined and input into a computed tomography algorithm to reconstruct the beam shape, size, and power-density distribution.

Digital Intermediate Frequency QAM Modulator Using Parallel Processing
Hsueh-Yuan Pao, Binh-Nien Tran
U.S. Patent 7,379,509 B2
May 27, 2008
This digital intermediate-frequency (IF) modulator applies to various modulation types and offers a simple, low-cost method to implement a high-speed digital IF modulator using field-programmable gate arrays. The architecture eliminates multipliers and sequential processing by storing the precomputed modulated cosine and sine carriers in read-only-memory look-up tables. The high-speed input data stream is parallel processed using the corresponding tables. This approach reduces the main processing speed, allowing the use of low-cost gate arrays.

Position Estimation of Transceivers in Communication Networks
Claudia A. Kent, Farid Dowla
U.S. Patent 7,383,053 B2
June 3, 2008
This system uses wireless communication interfaces and statistical processing of time-of-flight data to locate unknown wireless receivers using position estimation. The system can be applied in sensor network applications, such as monitoring water in the soil or chemicals in the air, where the position of the network nodes is deemed critical. Moreover, it can operate in areas where a global positioning system is unavailable, such as inside buildings, caves, and tunnels.

Solid Materials for Removing Arsenic and Method Thereof
Paul R. Coronado, Sabre J. Coleman, Robert D. Sanner,
Victoria L. Dias, John G. Reynolds
U.S. Patent 7,393,810 B2
July 1, 2008
Solid materials have been developed to remove arsenic compounds from aqueous media. The arsenic is removed by passing the aqueous phase through the solids, which can be in molded, granular, or powder form. The solid materials adsorb the arsenic, leaving a purified aqueous stream. The materials are aerogels, xerogels and aerogels, or xerogels and solid support structures such as granulated activated-carbon mixtures. The species-specific adsorption occurs through specific chemical modifications of the solids tailored toward arsenic.

Energy Harvesting Using a Thermoelectric Material
Nersesse Nersessian, Gregory P. Carman, Harry B. Radousky
U.S. Patent 7,397,169 B2
July 8, 2008
This energy harvesting system uses a thermoelectric made of a material exhibiting a large thermally induced strain from a phase transformation and a material exhibiting a stress-induced electric field. A material with such a phase transformation will have a large increase in the coefficient of thermal expansion over an incremental temperature range (typically several kelvins). When the material is arranged in a geometric configuration—for example, a laminate with a material that exhibits a stress-induced electric field, such as a piezoelectric material—the thermally induced strain is converted to an electric field.

Aerogel and Xerogel Composites for Use as Carbon Anodes
John F. Cooper, Thomas M. Tillotson, Lawrence W. Hrubesh
U.S. Patent 7,410,718 B2
August 12, 2008
These aerogel and xerogel composite materials are suitable as anodes in fuel cells and batteries. Precursors to the aerogel and xerogel compounds are infused with inorganic polymeric materials or carbon particles and then gelled. The gels are then pyrolyzed to form composites with internal structural support.

3D Wavelet-Based Filter and Method
William C. Moss, Sebastian Haase, John W. Sedat
U.S. Patent 7,412,103 B2
August 12, 2008
This three-dimensional (3D), wavelet-based filter visualizes and locates structural features of a user-specified linear size in two- and three-dimensional image data. The only input parameter is the characteristic linear size of the feature, and the filter output contains only those regions that are correlated with the characteristic size, thus reducing noise in the image.

Detection and Quantification System for Monitoring Instruments
John M. Dzenitis, Claudia K. Hertzog, Anthony J. Makarewicz,
Bruce D. Henderer, Vincent J. Riot
U.S. Patent 7,412,356 B1
August 12, 2008
This event detection method obtains a set of recent signal results and calculates the noise or variation and an expected baseline value. Next, it determines sample deviation, calculates an allowable deviation by multiplying the sample deviation by a threshold factor, and sets an alarm threshold from the baseline value plus or minus the allowable deviation. It then determines whether signal results exceed the alarm threshold.

System for Dispensing a Precise Amount of Fluid
William J. Benett, Peter A. Krulevitch, Steven R. Visuri,
John M. Dzenitis, Kevin D. Ness
U.S. Patent 7,413,711 B2
August 19, 2008
This dispensing system delivers a precise amount of fluid for biological or chemical processing and analysis. A dispensing device operated by a pneumatic force moves the liquid, and a connection device delivers the fluid to the desired location. An actuator provides the pneumatic force to the dispensing device. A valving device transmits the pneumatic force from the actuator to the dispensing device.

Synthesis of Peptide α-Thioesters
Julio A. Camarero, Alexander R. Mitchell, James J. De Yoreo
U.S. Patent 7,414,106 B2
August 19, 2008
This method for solid-phase peptide synthesis of C-terminal peptide α-thioesters uses Fmoc/t-Bu chemistry and an aryl hydrazine linker that is stable under the required conditions. When peptide synthesis is complete, mild oxidation activates the linker. The oxidation step converts the acyl-hydrazine group into a highly reactive acyl-diazene intermediate that reacts with an α-amino acid alkylthioester (H-AA-SR) to produce the corresponding peptide α-thioester in good yield. Various peptide thioesters and cyclic peptides and a fully functional Src homology 3 (SH3) protein domain were prepared using this method.

Imaging Spectrometer Wide Field Catadioptric Design
Michael P. Chrisp

U.S. Patent 7,414,719 B2
August 19, 2008
This wide-field catadioptric imaging spectrometer with an immersive diffraction grating compensates optical distortions. The catadioptric design has zero Petzval field curvature. The imaging spectrometer comprises an entrance slit for transmitting light, a system with a catadioptric lens and a dioptric lens for receiving and directing the light, an immersion grating, and a detector array. The entrance slit transmits light to a light-receiving system that directs the light to the immersion grating. The immersion grating receives the light and directs it back through the light-receiving system to the detector array.

Method of Fabrication of High Power Density Solid Oxide Fuel Cells
Ai Quoc Pham, Robert S. Glass
U.S. Patent 7,422,766 B2
September 9, 2008
This method produces ultrahigh-power-density solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). A colloidal spray-deposition technique is used to form multilayer structure cells wherein a buffer layer of doped ceria is deposited between a zirconia electrolyte and a cobalt iron–based electrode. For example, a cobalt iron–based cathode composed of (lanthanum, strontium)(cobalt, iron)oxygen may be deposited on a zirconia electrolyte via a buffer layer of doped ceria. The thus-formed SOFCs have a power density of 1,400 milliwatts per square centimeter at 6,000°C and 900 milliwatts per square centimeter at 7,000°C, which is a power density two to three times greater than that in conventionally produced SOFCs.

Acoustic System for Communication in Pipelines
Louis Peter Martin II, John F. Cooper
U.S. Patent 7,423,931 B2
September 9, 2008
In this system for communicating in a pipe, pipeline, or network of pipes containing a fluid, an encoding and transmitting subsystem transmits a signal in the frequency range of 3 to 100 kilohertz. A receiver and processor subsystem receives the signal and uses it for a desired application.

Spectroscopic Feedback for High Density Data Storage and Micromachining
Christopher W. Carr, Stavros Demos, Michael D. Feit,
Alexander M. Rubenchik
U.S. Patent 7,426,028 B2
September 16, 2008
Optical breakdown by laser pulses in transparent dielectrics produces an ionized region of dense plasma confined within the bulk of the material. Such an ionized region is responsible for broadband radiation that accompanies a desired breakdown process. Spectroscopic monitoring of the accompanying light is used to determine the morphology of the radiated interaction volume. This method provides a commercial approach for rapid prototyping of optoelectronic devices, optical three-dimensional data storage devices, and waveguide writing.

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