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Low-Cost Method for Producing Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Optics
James A. Folta, Claude Montcalm, John S. Taylor, Eberhard A. Spiller
U.S. Patent 6,634,760 B2
October 21, 2003
Spherical and nonspherical optical elements produced by standard optical figuring and polishing techniques are extremely expensive. Such surfaces can be inexpensively produced by diamond turning; however, the roughness of diamond-turned surfaces prevents the use of these surfaces for extreme ultraviolet lithography. These ripples are smoothed with a coating of polyimide and the application of a 60-period molybdenum–silicon multilayer to reflect a wavelength of 134 angstroms (13.4 nanometers) and have obtained peak reflectivities close to 63 percent. The savings in cost are about a factor of 100.

Detection of Submicron Scale Cracks and Other Surface Anomalies Using Positron Emission Tomography
Thomas E. Cowan, Richard H. Howell, Carlos A. Colmenares
U.S. Patent 6,693,277 B2
February 17, 2004
Detection of submicrometer-scale cracks and other mechanical and chemical surface anomalies using positron emission tomography (PET). This surface technique has sufficient sensitivity to detect single voids or pits of submillimeter size and single cracks or fissures of millimeter size. This technique can also be applied to detect surface regions of differing chemical reactivity. It may be used in a scanning or survey mode to simultaneously detect such mechanical or chemical features over the interior or exterior surface areas of parts as large as about 50 centimeters in diameter. The technique involves exposing a surface to short-lived radioactive gas; removing the excess gas to leave a partial monolayer; determining the location and shape of such features as cracks, voids, and porous regions; and then calculating the width, depth, and length thereof. Detection of 0.01-millimeter-deep cracks using a 3-millimeter detector resolution has been accomplished with this technique.

Phased Laser Array for Generating a Powerful Laser Beam
John F. Holzrichter, Anthony J. Ruggiero
U.S. Patent 6,693,943 B1
February 17, 2004
A first injection laser signal and a first part of a reference laser beam are injected into a first laser element. At least one additional injection laser signal and at least one additional part of a reference laser beam are injected into at least one additional laser element. The first part of a reference laser beam and the additional part or parts are amplified and phase-conjugated to produce a first amplified output laser beam emanating from the first laser element and an additional amplified output laser beam emanating from the additional element (or elements). The first amplified output laser beam and the additional amplified output laser beam are combined into a powerful laser beam.

Thiacrown Polymers for Removal of Mercury from Waste Streams
Theodore F. Baumann, John G. Reynolds, Glenn A. Fox
U.S. Patent 6,696,576 B2
February 24, 2004
Thiacrown polymers immobilized to a polystyrene–divinylbenzene matrix react with mercury2+ under various conditions to efficiently and selectively remove mercury2+ ions from acidic aqueous solutions, even in the presence of a variety of other metal ions. The mercury can be recovered and the polymer regenerated. This mercury removal method can be used to treat industrial wastewater, where a selective and cost-effective removal process is required.

Polymerase Chain Reaction System
William J. Benett, James B. Richards, Paul L. Stratton, Dean R. Hadley, Fred P. Milanovich, Phil Belgrader, Peter L. Meyer
U.S. Patent 6,699,713 B2
March 2, 2004
A portable polymerase chain reaction DNA amplification and detection system includes one or more chamber modules. Each module supports a duplex assay of a biological sample and has two parallel interrogation ports with a linear optical system. The system can be handheld.

High Energy, High Average Power Solid State Green or UV Laser
Lloyd A. Hackel, Mary Norton, C. Brent Dane
U.S. Patent 6,700,906 B2
March 2, 2004
A system for producing a green or ultraviolet (UV) output beam for illuminating a large area with relatively high beam fluence. A neodymium-doped glass laser produces a near-infrared output by means of an oscillator that generates a high-quality but low-power output. The output is then multipassed through and amplified in a zigzag slab amplifier. Wavefront correction occurs in a phase conjugator at the midway point of the multipass amplification. The green or UV output is generated by means of conversion crystals that follow final propagation through the zigzag slab amplifier.

Application of the Phase Shifting Diffraction Interferometer for Measuring Convex Mirrors and Negative Lenses
Gary E. Sommargren, Eugene W. Campbell
U.S. Patent 6,704,112 B1
March 9, 2004
A reference beam and a measurement beam are both provided through a single optical fiber to measure a convex mirror. A positive auxiliary lens is placed in the system to give a converging wavefront onto the convex mirror being tested. The measurement includes the aberrations of the convex mirror and the errors caused by two transmissions through the positive auxiliary lens. A second measurement provides the information to eliminate this error. A negative lens can be measured in a similar way, again with two setups: a reference beam from a first optical fiber and a measurement beam from a second optical fiber. A positive auxiliary lens is placed in the system to provide a converging wavefront from the reference beam onto the negative lens being tested. The measurement beam is combined with the reference wavefront and is analyzed by standard methods. This measurement includes the aberrations of the negative lens and the errors caused by a single transmission through the positive auxiliary lens. A second measurement provides the information to eliminate this error.

Synthetic Guide Star Generation
Stephen A. Payne, Ralph H. Page, Christopher A. Ebbers, Raymond J. Beach
U.S. Patent 6,704,331 B2
March 9, 2004
A system for assisting in observing a celestial object and providing synthetic guide star generation. A lasing system provides radiation at a frequency at or near 938 nanometers and radiation at a frequency at or near 1,583 nanometers. The lasing system includes a fiber laser operating between 880 and 960 nanometers and a fiber laser operating between 1,524 and 1,650 nanometers. A frequency-conversion system mixes the radiation and generates light at a frequency at or near 589 nanometers. A system then directs this light toward the celestial object and generates a synthetic guide star.

Diode-Pumped Laser with Improved Pumping System
Jim J. Chang
U.S. Patent 6,704,341 B1
March 9, 2004
A laser wherein pump radiation from laser diodes is delivered to a pump chamber and into the lasing medium by quasi-three-dimensional compound parabolic concentrator light channels. The light channels have reflective side and end walls with curved surfaces. A flow tube between the lasing medium and the light channel has a roughened surface.

Reduction of Damage Initiation Density in Fused Silica Optics Via UV Laser Conditioning
John E. Peterson, Stephen M. Maricle, Raymond M. Brusasco, Bernardino M. Penetrante
U.S. Patent 6,705,125 B2
March 16, 2004
The invention provides a method for reducing the density of sites on the surface of fused silica optics that are prone to the initiation of laser-induced damage. This reduction results in optics that have far fewer catastrophic defects and can better resist optical deterioration when exposed for long periods to a high-power laser beam having a wavelength of about 360 nanometers or less. The initiation of laser-induced damage is reduced by conditioning the optic at low fluences below levels that normally lead to catastrophic growth of damage. When the optic is then irradiated at its high fluence design limit, the concentration of catastrophic damage sites that form on the surface of the optic is greatly reduced.

Lightweight Cryogenic-Compatible Pressure Vessels for Vehicular Fuel Storage
Salvador Aceves, Gene Berry, Andrew H. Weisberg
U.S. Patent 6,708,502 B1
March 23, 2004
A lightweight, cryogenic-compatible pressure vessel for flexibly storing cryogenic liquid fuels or compressed gas fuels at cryogenic or ambient temperatures. The pressure vessel has an inner pressure container enclosing a fuel storage volume, an outer container surrounding the inner pressure container to form an evacuated space between the two, and a thermal insulator surrounding the inner pressure container in the evacuated space to inhibit heat transfer. Additionally, vacuum loss from fuel permeation is substantially inhibited in the evacuated space by, for example, lining the container liner with a layer of fuel-impermeable material, capturing the permeated fuel in the evacuated space, or purging the permeated fuel from the evacuated space.

Method for Removing Organic Liquids from Aqueous Solutions and Mixtures
Lawrence W. Hrubesh, Paul R. Coronado, Jerome P. Dow
U.S. Patent 6,709,600 B2
March 23, 2004
A method for removing organic liquids from aqueous solutions and mixtures. The method uses any porous material preferably in granular form and having small pores and a large specific surface area. The surface area is hydrophobic so that liquid water does not readily wet its surface. In this method, organics, especially organic solvents that mix with and are more volatile than water, are separated from aqueous solution by preferential evaporation across the liquid–solid boundary formed at the surfaces of the hydrophobic porous materials. Also, organic solvents that are immiscible with water preferentially wet the surfaces of the hydrophobic material and are drawn within the porous materials by capillary action.


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UCRL-52000-04-6 | June 4, 2004