BUILDING supercomputers powerful enough
to run complex simulations of the performance of nuclear weapons
is a challenge that the National Nuclear Security Administrations
(NNSAs) Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC, formerly ASCI)
Program has met full on since its beginning in 1995. But even as
the capabilities of the ASCI machinesRed, Blue, White, Q,
and the upcoming Purplehave grown, so have the sophistication
of the applications and the number of users eager to run their simulations.
users, like their counterparts at Los Alamos and Sandia, include
not only weapons scientists who run simulations for NNSAs
Stockpile Stewardship Program, but also researchers whose simulations
of, say, plasma instabilities or the performance of insensitive
high explosives feed vital information into stockpile stewardship
efforts. In addition, other scientists working on research important
to Livermores overall national security missionfor example,
nuclear nonproliferation, detection of underground structures, nondestructive
evaluation, earthquake hazard analysis, or oil explorationwant
to run simulations on ASCI-caliber supercomputers available through
Livermores Multiprogrammatic and Institutional Computing (M&IC)
Initiative. With ASC and ASCI-class machines, there always seems
to be a need for moremore capability to run scientific calculations
at large scale and more capacity to process a varied workload from
many users simultaneously.
McCoy, head of the Integrated Computing and Communications Department
(ICCD), notes, Livermore is in many ways a victim of its own success.
Because three-dimensional code development funded by ASC and
other programs has been so successful at Livermore, he explains,
the demand for supercomputing capability and capacity to explore
complex scientific issues has become enormous. Someday, even the
100-teraflops [trillion floating point operations per second] Purple
machine will not be powerful enough to help us answer these big
science questions. The demands of classified stockpile stewardship
simulations, which have the highest priority, can crowd out the
classified basic science calculations related to stockpile stewardship
that run on ASCI machines. Were also faced with the issue
of how to accommodate unclassified basic science applications that
are, nevertheless, important to the ASC Programs mission.
Add to all of this the science problems from a multitude of Laboratory
programs that cant be solved without help from ASCI-class
supercomputers, and the need for more supercomputing capability
and capacity increases further.
history of supercomputing at Livermore includes jumps between
technology curves to gain cost effectiveness and increased
speed and capability. If supercomputing continues on the
present curve, it will approach a quadrillion floating point
operations per second (petaflops) by 2010 but will not reach
the goal of multiple petaflops.
only way to generate the type of capability required, says McCoy,
is to deliver computing capability faster than the rate described
by Moores Law, which states that processing power doubles
every 18 months. And the rate must be faster not just by a little,
but by a lot. If we continue to follow the existing technology
curve, namely, vendor-integrated multiprocessor platforms, we will
not get to multiple petaflops by 2010.
meet the ever-growing needs of the ASC Program and the rest of
community, Livermores Computation Directorate is implementing
a computing strategy that promotes switching to and straddling new
costperformance computer technology curves, or wavesa
balancing act of timing, prescience, and prediction. To get where
it needs to be and deliver capacity and capability at low cost,
Livermore must jump from the wave of present technology to the next
new technology wave at the right timeand ride not just one
wave, or two, but three of these technology waves simultaneously.
Each wave can provide benefits to some area of scientific research,
even when the technology is new and unproven. As the technology
matures, the new system becomes useful to additional kinds of research.
points out that the tri-laboratory ASC Program and the institutionally
funded M&IC program have cooperated and leveraged expertise
to exploit the various capabilitycapacity technology curves.
In particular, ASC has funded Livermores Computer Center and
its large base of expertise in the field of ASCI computers, and
the Laboratory has leveraged this expertise and funded alternative
high-performance, cost-effective supercomputing technologies for
institutional users. This synergy benefits both parties,
says McCoy. For ASC, it accelerates the rate at which the new technologies
mature. For the institution, it provides cost-effective supercomputer
capacity and capability across the Laboratory.
type of synergy is not new at Livermore. Earlier, the Laboratory
worked with Compaq and Quadrics to develop the TeraCluster2000 (TC2K)
which is part of M&IC. (See S&TR, October
2001, Sharing the Power of Supercomputers.) The partnership
with Compaq on TC2K made possible Compaqs successful bid for
ASCI Q at Los Alamos and the computer funded by the National Science
Foundation at the Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center.
Since any given computing technology curve is ultimately limited
by Moore’s Law, Livermore’s Computation Directorate
is embracing a strategy to straddle and, when the time is
right, switch to new technology curves. Vendor-integrated
massively parallel ASCI machines are the current workhorses
of the ASC Program. The Linux cluster machine typified by
Multiprogrammatic Capability Resource (MCR) will lead to the
next-generation production systems. Cell-based technology,
such as that to be used in BlueGene/L, appears to be an affordable
path to petaflops systems. Only time will tell whether other
cost-effective paths will emerge that might lead to the petaflops
Riding the Technology Waves
Livermore has made jumps from one computing technology to another
in the past. First were the mainframes, followed in the 1970s by
vector supercomputers and in the late 1980s by massively parallel
processing supercomputers. With the cessation of underground testing
of nuclear devices in 1992 and the birth of the Stockpile Stewardship
Program the following year came the need for much better computer
simulations to help ensure that the nations nuclear weapons
stockpile remained safe, reliable, and operational.
ASC Program was created to provide the integrating simulation and
modeling capabilities and technologies needed to combine new and
old experimental data, past nuclear test data, and past design and
engineering experience. The result is a powerful tool for future
design assessment and certification of nuclear weapons and their
components. ASC required machines that could cost-effectively run
simulations at trillions of floating point operations per second.
This requirement forced a sea change in the supercomputing industry
and a jump to another technology wavemassively parallel scalable
ASCI machines use many thousands of reduced instruction set computer
(RISC) processorsa class of processors found in workstationsworking
in unison instead of the more expensive, one-of-a-kind specialized
processors characteristic of earlier parallel processing. ASCI machines
delivered more bang for the buck. Code developers benefited
as well. In about six years, adds McCoy, we went
from systems where one-dimensional codes were routine and two-dimensional
codes were possible, but a stretch, to ASCI systems where 2D is
the norm and 3D calculations are done, but are sometimes a stretch.
By all accounts, the ASC Program has been remarkably successful
in meeting its goals. Its machines are the workhorse computers for
running the complex two-dimensional and three-dimensional
codes used to meet the nations most demanding stockpile stewardship
requirements. These machines and their codes are proven,
says Mark Seager, assistant department head for platforms in ICCD.
They are used routinely for stockpile stewardship and for
must-have deliverables. These machines and the codes that run on
them are reliable and trusted, both of which are a necessity for
stockpile stewardship. Theres no room for error when simulating
With each ASCI system, the cost per teraflops fell as technology
advanced. For Livermores ASCI White, the cost was $10 million
per teraflops. For ASCI Q, a Los Alamos machine, the cost is $7
million per teraflops. For ASCI Purple, an upcoming Livermore machine,
the estimate is $2 million per teraflops. But now, this particular
technology curvevendor-integrated systems using high-performance
workstation processors and proprietary vendor softwarehas
matured to the point where the cost per teraflops improves at only
a slow exponential rate as dictated by Moores Law. So people
such as McCoy and Seager are looking at technologies that can be
exploited at better cost performance after the 100-teraflops Purple.
They are also interested in building smaller-capacity machines at
much lower cost.
Two new technologies hold promise. A near-term technology based
cluster architecturethat is, large
groups of interconnected commodity microprocessors (the type found
in desktop personal computers and laptops)combined with open-source,
or nonproprietary, software is epitomized in the Multiprogrammatic
Capability Resource (MCR) system. Farther in the future are cell-based
supercomputers that would use system-on-a-chip technology and low-cost,
low-power embedded microprocessors. This third technology is embodied
in BlueGene/L, a system designed by IBM and slated for delivery
to Livermore in December 2004.
Capability Resource at Livermore combines open-source software
and cluster architecture to provide Advanced Simulation and
Computing–level supercomputing power for unclassified
Next on the ASCI Crest
Purple will the fulfill the goal set in 1996 to achieve 100 teraflops
by mid-decade for stockpile stewardship use. Purple will have a
peak performance (100 teraflops) equivalent to 25,000 high-end personal
computers. It will have 50 trillion bytes of memory and 2 petabytes
of disk storage capacity, the equivalent of a billion books or about
30 times the contents of the Library of Congress. About the size
of two basketball courts, Purple will have more than 12,000 IBM
Power5 microprocessors. It will allow scientists to run a full-physics,
full-system model of a nuclear weapon in three dimensions.
Purple will be eight times more powerful than ASCI White, which
was the first ASCI system powerful enough to investigate crack propagation
in the materials of a nuclear weapon in three dimensions. A major
step forward, Purple will allow designers and code developers to
focus increasingly on improving physics models. For instance, if
weapon designers need to change some element of the weapon, they
can insert this change into the initial conditions of the simulation,
and the recalculation will show them the effect of the changes.
One three-dimensional simulation representing the operation of the
weapon system for a fraction of a second will still take about eight
weeks of computing time.
between October and December 2003, the Early Delivery Technology
Vehicle (EDTV) will be available at Livermore as part of the Purple
contract. EDTV will consist of at least 32 nodes and feature the
new IBM Federation switch, the node interconnect that is being used
on Purple. Having EDTV here first will help us avoid some
issues we faced with White, when switch, node, and file systems
were all brand new to us at one time, says McCoy. Delivery
of all of Purples 197 refrigerator-size processing units is
scheduled to be completed by December 2004. Once up and running,
Purple will be the primary supercomputer for the tri-laboratory
ASC Program and a production resource to stockpile stewardship.
Using the Laboratorys
recently installed Multiprogrammatic Capability Resource
(MCR) system, physicists Steven Langer and Bert Still
spent the early part of 2003 simulating an experiment
scheduled to occur this summer on the National Ignition
Facilitys (NIFs) Early Light (NEL) system.
NEL consists of the first four beams of NIF and was
first fired at high power in December 2002.
experiment simulated by Langer and Still will study
laserplasma interactions under conditions similar
to those that will be found in hohlraum targets in future
NIF ignition experiments. (A hohlraum is a small, cylindrical
chamber used to enclose the target in experiments on
high-power lasers.) A NIF laser beam has to cross roughly
5 millimeters of plasma between the laser entrance hole
and the gold wall of the hohlraum. The laser heats the
wall so much that the wall emits x rays in a configuration
designed to uniformly bombard a spherical capsule at
the center of the hohlraum, squeezing it down until
it reaches fusion temperatures and pressures.
experiment will use a 4.5- by 4.5- by 5.5-millimeter
plastic bag filled with neopentane gas. The gas inside
the bag will be quickly ionized, creating a plasma that
will be a reasonable surrogate of that in the actual
NIF target, and the NEL beams will pass through it.
It is this interaction of light and plasma that Still
and Langer sought to simulate with the code PF3D, which
Still and others began developing in the mid-1990s.
the simulation, the laser beam passes through the central
portion of a 1- by 1- by 5-millimeter plasma. Our
physics algorithms constrain a computational cell, or
zone, to be only slightly larger than the wavelength
of the laser light, which is 0.35 micrometers,
explained Langer. We ended up using 6.8 billion
cells in the calculation, which is an enormous number
simulation ran for 10 days on 1,920 of MCRs processors
to simulate 35 picoseconds, the time it will take for
the laser light to travel 5 millimeters twice. Results
from the simulation
occupy about 14 terabytes of archival storage, which,
Langer notes, was roughly 25 percent of all the information
written to storage at the Laboratory in February 2003.
None of Livermores existing volume visualization
programs could handle a 6.8-billion-zone simulation
with a lot of fine-scale structure. Mark Duchaineau,
supported by the Advanced Simulation and Computing Programs
Visual Interactive Environment for Weapons Simulation
project, wrote a software volume visualization program
that would handle the data.
notes Langer, were a real eye-opener. We found
that the laser beam penetrates most of the way through
the 5 millimeters of plasma, then the backscattered
light becomes strong, and the forward beam broadens
as it transverses the plasma. We can see in detail how
the bursts of scattered light grow stronger as they
move through the plasma.
the basis of their simulation, Langer and Still can
make some predictions about the upcoming experiment
that will help designers fine-tune NEL systems. For
example, they can provide information about where to
put detectors on the target chamber walls to pick up
transmitted light and what detector sensitivity settings
are appropriate for measuring backscattered and transmitted
was a great example of how, at Livermore, simulation
and experiment work hand-in-hand, says Langer.
The work of planning and building NIF and developing
ASCI computers and massively parallel computer codes
such as PF3D are now coming to fruition. We have the
results of simulations, showing us what we expect will
occur in the gas bag experiments and providing information
that will help guide design of the first NEL experiments.
Were eager to see what the data show when the
experiments run this summer.
visualization of a simulation done on the Multiprogrammatic
Capability Resource shows a National Ignition
Facility laser beam as it passes through a hot
plasma. A cross section of the laser beam has
many small, bright spots. These bright spots
form long, thin filaments as they pass through
the plasma. The lowest intensities are blue,
intermediate intensities are green and yellow,
and the highest intensities are red. (a) This
oblique view shows that the brightest (red)
filaments are concentrated in the core of the
beam. (b) This side-on view shows that after
8 picoseconds, the laser (left) has penetrated
halfway through the plasma. Scattering (right)
is weak. (c) After 17 picoseconds, the laser
beam (left) has almost reached the back of the
simulation volume. Scattered light (right) is
strong, and most of the laser light is absorbed
or scattered (as intended in the experimental
design). (d) After 35 picoseconds, the transmitted
laser light (left) is spread into a wider cone,
and the scattered light (right) is still strong.
(e) Scattered light comes in bursts. The arrow
in the scattered light (right) part of (c) points
at one burst. The view in (e) shows the intensity
of the burst in a plane perpendicular to the
beam direction. Low intensity in (e) is shown
in red, intermediate intensity in blue, and
high intensity in white. The scattered light
starts as a narrow spot and becomes wider as
it passes through the plasma. The largest blob
in (e) becomes nearly as wide as the simulation
volume by the time it leaves the plasma volume.
Catching the Next Wave
time to move to the next technology wave, one that can deliver increasingly
cost-effective capability and capacity for running the next generation
of simulations, is nearing
for the ASC Program.
ASCI machines use vendor-designed and -maintained operating software,
computers, and processors. All that service doesnt come cheap.
We pay for this service and intellect, says McCoy. So
the second technology curve, which Livermore is now exploring at
scale using institutional funding, features open-source, not vendor-proprietary,
software; cluster architecture; and microprocessors of the kind
found in personal computers and laptops (32-bit Pentium-4 Xeon processors,
in particular, although 64-bit processors are also being evaluated).
result is that we wont have to buy the software, and well
be using much less expensive components, but well own all
the problems, notes McCoy. Owning problems is expensive
and psychologically unsettling, of course, so there are pluses and
minuses to this approach. But our experience, as we move forward
cautiously, is that it is better to be in control than to be dependent.
If this fails, we will also know whom to blame.
first step is to build capacity systems and mid-level capability
systems with open-source cluster technology. Livermore is securely
positioned on this second computer technology wave with its new
11.2-teraflops MCR system. It nearly matches the 12.3-teraflops
ASCI White in power, but at $1.2 million per teraflops, its cost
per teraflops is 10 times less than ASCI Whites.
is a 32-bit microprocessor-based cluster built by Linux NetworX
for M&IC. Cluster computers are composed of many identical or
similar types of machines that are tightly coupled by high-speed
networking equipment and message-passing interface software. The
MCR cluster uses an open-source software environment based on Linux
and the Lustre global file system.
may offer a rapid path to the multiple petaflops level, allowing
scientists to finally address a number of complex physics issues
from the atomic scale (on the order of nanometers) to the macroscale
(on the order of meters).
open-source software, says Seager, means we can often
fix or address our own problems rather than hand them over to a
vendor, which we have to do for systems that run proprietary software.
The vendor, however, may not even be able to reproduce our problems
because of a difference in scale between the vendors systems
and ours. So MCR is a much more efficient proposition for us.
Seager adds that the other advantage to running open-source software
is that many open-source developers are creating codes and software
that end up in a big pool of open-source development. Jumping into
that pool means that finding areas of mutual interest and setting
up collaborations may become easier.
arrived at Livermore in the summer of 2002 and started running large-scale
applications in December 2002. MCR is now running select unclassified
science simulations for stockpile stewardship and other Livermore
programs. The system will go into full production mode as soon as
the new file system is stabilized. McCoy points out that MCRs
arrival represented a second example of the synergy between the
Laboratory and the ASC Program. The MCR system incorporates
a new technology ideal for basic science investigations, but it
is not yet ready to approach the scale of problems presented by
ASC weapons codes, he says. Yet, MCR would not have
been possible without ASCs investments in technology and the
expertise developed at Livermore.
goal is to provide scientists throughout Livermore with stable Linux
clusters for a general scientific workload. MCR is a capability
and capacity machine for running large-scale parallel scientific
simulations. The plan is to get it into the hands of scientists
quickly, adds Seager.
system was upgraded to its current size in early 2003. Since that
time, a handful of scientific teams have been using it to run codes,
large and small, to help get the system ready for general availability
at 11.2 teraflops this summer. Among the early users were physicists
Bert Still and Steven Langer, who used MCR to simulate one of the
first experiments scheduled to be performed on the National Ignition
Facility this summer. (See the box Simulating
LaserPlasma Interactions above.) Geophysicistcomputer
scientist Shawn Larsen also acquired time on MCR to run his seismic
wave analysis code E3D for exploring issues related to test readiness,
nuclear nonproliferation, and earthquake prediction. (See the box
open-source, cluster curve will almost certainly provide the transition
to the next generation of ASC computers, says McCoy. We
plan to ride this curve now and shake down these new, unproven machines
with our unclassified science codes. Then, in the coming months
when were convinced its ready, we can shift this technology
to stockpile stewardship by introducing moderate-size clusters into
the classified environment for mid-sized problems.
New System Heightens
Reality in Seismic Simulations
scientist Shawn Larsen was a member of one of the science
teams that put the Multiprogrammatic Capability Resource
(MCR) through its paces when it first became available
in December 2002. He used his E3D code, a powerful seismic
code that incorporates three-dimensional information
about the propagation of seismic waves, to get a more
detailed picture of how these waves interact with different
geologies and topographies in their path. His results
contribute to a number of Livermores efforts,
including test readiness, earthquake hazard analysis,
and nuclear nonproliferation.
A 1993 Presidential
Decision Directive requires that the national laboratories
shall be ready within a specified amount of time if
the nation decides to resume underground nuclear testing.
Larsens task was to use a three-dimensional geologic
model developed at the University of Nevada at Reno
to simulate the seismic shaking that would occur in
the Las Vegas area from a nuclear underground test at
the Nevada Test Site. Las Vegas sits in a basin,
says Larsen. Since the last test in 1992, Las
Vegas has grown considerably to the north, into deeper
parts of the basin. We wanted to look at the different
types of seismic waves and see how they all propagated
from the source of an explosion, through the intervening
geology, to the basin.
that include hills, mountains, valleys, and other topography
required a larger supercomputer than previously available.
With the arrival of MCR, this kind of complex three-dimensional
simulation became possible. (See top figure at right.)
For practical purposes, most of these simulations
need over 6 billion zones,
explains Larsen. To complete the 16 simulations needed
required about 300 hours and 1,600 processors. We
could have easily used the entire machine, says
Larsen, but we left some of it free for others.
Each simulation used about 1.5 terabytes of memory.
Using MCR, the
team observed details that had never before been revealed
by modeling. The energy from the point source of the simulated
underground explosion no longer radiated in neat rings,
as in previous calculations. It scattered. Also, the topography
caused some of that radial energy to leak
into the transverse direction, creating ground motion
perpendicular to the radial direction. This is the
first time weve seen this leaking in a model,
says Larsen. We have seen it in the data and measurements,
and now were finally able to simulate it. The topographic
simulations indicated that ground motions can be amplified
at the tops of ridges, hills, and mountains, which is
important to know when looking at earthquake hazards.
(See bottom figure.)
For the nuclear
nonproliferation effort, knowing how seismic energy propagates
is also important. The emphasis is on understanding the
seismic signal: Does it come from a mining blast or underground
nuclear explosion? We need to understand the complexity
of propagation, and how topography affects propagation,
he said. The kind of modeling were doing on
MCR brings us one step closer to being able to fully understand
and discriminate a seismic source.
moving in (a) a simple geologic model and (b) a Multiprogrammatic
Capability Resource model using
complex geology. Note the vastly increased level of
detail in (b).
a Multiprogrammatic Capability Resource simulation
show seismic shaking on the tops of hills and in
valleys, as well as the more intense shaking on ridges
compared with that in valleys.
Growing on the Horizon
third wave, cell-based computer technology, is even farther out
on the technical horizon. It shows great promise of yielding machines
that are even more powerful and less expensive than their predecessors.
However, since the technology is unproven, investing in this technology
today involves high risk. For example, cell-based technology would
feature systems using low-cost, low-power embedded microprocessors.
Embedded microprocessors, Seager notes, are everywhereóin cars,
CD and DVD players, telephones, and other consumer electronics.
Livermore and IBM are working together to use this technology to
produce systems on a chipóthat is, to combine most of the features
of a node (microprocessor, memory controller, network, for instance)
into a single chip, or cell, instead of the many chips that perform
these functions in present-day ASCI computers. Combining node features
in a cell reduces power consumption and cost and permits more nodes
to fit in a given amount of floor space.
third curve will be realized through BlueGene/L, a computational
sciences research and evaluation machine that IBM will build in
parallel with ASCI Purple and deliver in 2005. BlueGene/L will be
used for unclassified research into areas such as first-principles
molecular dynamics for materials science, three-dimensional dislocation
dynamics of materials, high-explosives, and turbulence.
MCR, BlueGene/L will run the open-source Linux operating system
to take advantage of all the pluses in the open-source arena of
code development. The machine will be based on 130,000 advanced
microprocessors and have a theoretical peak computational rate of
367 teraflops, with a cost per teraflops of $170,000. When its
up and running, it promises a major advantage in peak speed over
present-day computers, including Japans Earth Simulator, currently
the fastest supercomputer. BlueGene/L could be the next big
thing. If all goes well, the next-generation system, BlueGene/P,
could be the first petaflops machine performing a quadrillion calculations
Scientists and researchers are looking forward to BlueGene/L and
pondering what it may mean to them and their research. Larsen, who
does seismic wave modeling, says, On MCR, we can create a
limited number of complex simulations, one after the other. BlueGene/L
will allow us to do hundreds or even thousands of simultaneous simulations,
in which we can more easily vary the physical parameters by considering
many types of geologies using a statistical approach.
Physicists Langer and Still are also intrigued with the possibilities
of BlueGene/L. By industry standards, the average life of
like MCR is about 200 weeks, says Langer. So simulations
10-day run on laserplasma interactions for the National Ignition
Facility cant monopolize the machine, much as
wed like to. Others are waiting their turn. But BlueGene/L
has the potential to make runs such as ours routine by the time
NIF comes fully online
characteristics of the computers belonging to Livermore’s
three technology curves compared with each other and with
those same features of the Earth Simulator, currently the
world’s fastest computer.
Balancing on Technology Waves
We see cell-based BlueGene/L delivering an affordable means
to petaflops supercomputing, which is where we need to be in 2010,
says Seager. But we have to stay open to other possibilities
and not commit entirely too early. In the next few years, other
technology curves may become apparentdisruptive technologies
we cant predictthat will lead to a breakthrough regime
by the year 2006 or 2007.
technologies are those that change the game quickly and unexpectedlythe Internet, for example. The trick is to gauge
when the time is rightif it ever isto switch to a disruptive
technology. Some technologies make it, some dont, and
its important not to switch too early to something that may
not be there in the longer term, says Seager. However, says
McCoy, An institution such as the Laboratory needs to pursue
at least one of these new approaches whether or not it works out
in the end, because experimentation is necessary for evolution.
For the ASC Program and for the Laboratory, the goal is to cost-effectively
deploy advanced, high-performance computing architectures. The first
wave of these systems is the current reliable one, with the massively
parallel, scalable ASCI Purple next
second wave, which is based on open-source codes and cluster architecture,
is embodied in Livermores
MCR. In January 2003, MCR was ranked the fifth fastest supercomputer
in the world on the TOP500 supercomputing list, the first time ever
that a computer based on Linux cluster technology broke into
the lists top 10. In addition, it was the only Linux-based
supercomputer to appear in the top 5, leading industry experts
note that MCR is an important step in supercomputing history because
it demonstrates the potentially large effect Linux clusters will
have in the high-performance computing community.
The emergence of Linux clusters is just the latest wave on the horizon,
gaining speed as it roars to prominence. As high-performance technical
users such as Lawrence Livermore and researchers such as Still,
Langer, and Larsen move to clustered solutions, the technology will
be tested and it will mature in reliability and functionality.
third wave, which includes cell-based design using system-on-a-chip
technology and embedded microprocessors, will be explored in BlueGene/L.
With petaflops potential, this machine promises to open a new universe
of scientific simulation. Seager says, Having Blue Gene/L
will be like having an electron microscope when everyone else has
a magnifying glass.
When Purple and BlueGene/L are both fully operational, which is
expected before the end of 2005, they will, combined, have a higher
theoretical peak capacity than the
500 fastest supercomputers in the world today. Then, it will be
time to catch that breaking wave and ride it to shore.
Key Words: Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Program,
ASCI Purple, ASCI supercomputers, BlueGene/L, computation strategy,
E3D, laserplasma interactions, Linux clusters, Multiprogrammatic
Capability Resource (MCR), National Ignition Facility Early Light
(NEL), PF3D code, seismic wave analysis.
For further information contact Michel McCoy (925) 422-4021 (email@example.com).
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