Absolute Calibration of Optical Flats
Gary E. Sommargren
U.S. Patent 6,876,456 B2
April 5, 2005
The invention uses the phase-shifting diffraction interferometer (PSDI) to provide a true point-by-point measurement of absolute flatness over the surface of optical flats. Beams exiting the fiber optics in a PSDI have perfect spherical wavefronts. The measurement beam is reflected from the optical flat and passed through an auxiliary optic and then combined with the reference beam on a charge-coupled device. The combined beams include phase errors due to both the optic under test and the auxiliary optic. Standard phase extraction algorithms are used to calculate these combined phase errors. The optical flat is then removed from the system, and the measurement fiber is moved to recombine the two beams. The newly combined beams include only the phase errors due to the auxiliary optic. When the second phase measurement is subtracted from the first phase measurement, the absolute phase error of the optical flat is obtained.
Tilted Fuel Cell Apparatus
John F. Cooper, Nerine Cherepy, Roger L. Krueger
U.S. Patent 6,878,479 B2
April 12, 2005
Bipolar, tilted embodiments of high temperature, molten electrolyte electrochemical cells capable of directly converting carbon fuel to electrical energy are disclosed herein. The bipolar, tilted configurations minimize the electrical resistance between one cell and others connected in electrical series. The tilted configuration also allows continuous refueling of carbon fuel.
Electronic Unit Integrated into a Flexible Polymer Body
Peter A. Krulevitch, Mariam N. Maghribi, William J. Benett, Julie K. Hamilton, Klint A. Rose, James Courtney Davidson, Mark S. Strauch
U.S. Patent 6,878,643 B2
April 12, 2005
A peel-and-stick electronic system is composed of a silicone body and at least one electronic unit connected to the silicone body. The electronic system is produced by providing a silicone layer on a substrate, a metal layer on the silicone layer, and at least one electronic unit connected to the metal layer.
Differential Optical Synthetic Aperture Radar
Eddy A. Stappaerts
U.S. Patent 6,879,279 B2
April 12, 2005
A new differential technique for forming optical images using a synthetic aperture is introduced. This differential technique uses a single aperture to obtain unique (N) phases that can be processed to produce a synthetic aperture image at points along a trajectory. The aperture is divided into two equal subapertures, each having a width that is less than the actual aperture, along the direction of flight. As the platform flies along a given trajectory, a source illuminates objects and the two subapertures are configured to collect return signals. The techniques of the invention are designed to cancel common-mode errors, trajectory deviations from a straight line, and laser phase noise to provide the set of resultant (N) phases that can produce an image having a spatial resolution corresponding to a synthetic aperture.
Parallel Object-Oriented, Denoising System Using Wavelet Multiresolution Analysis
Chandrika Kamath, Chuck H. Baldwin, Imola K. Fodor, Nu A. Tang
U.S. Patent 6,879,729 B2
April 12, 2005
The present invention provides a data denoising system using processors and wavelet denoising techniques. Data are read and displayed in different formats. The data are partitioned into regions, and the regions are distributed onto the processors. Communication requirements are determined among the processors according to the wavelet denoising technique and the partitioning of the data. The data are transformed onto different multiresolution levels with the wavelet transform according to the wavelet denoising technique, the communication requirements, and the transformed data containing wavelet coefficients. The denoised data are then transformed into its original read-and-display data format.
Limited-Life Cartridge Primers
Daniel M. Makowiecki, Robert S. Rosen
U.S. Patent 6,881,284 B2
April 19, 2005
This cartridge primer, called a limited-life primer, uses an explosive that can be designed to become inactive in a predetermined period of time. The explosive or combustible material of the primer is an inorganic reactive multilayer (RML). The reaction products of the RML are submicrometer-size grains of noncorrosive inorganic compounds that would have no harmful effects on firearms or cartridge cases. Unlike primers containing lead components, primers using RMLs would not present a hazard to the environment. The sensitivity of an RML is determined by the physical structure and the stored interfacial energy. The sensitivity lowers with time due to a decrease in interfacial energy resulting from interdiffusion of the elemental layers. Time-dependent interdiffusion is predictable, thereby enabling the functional lifetime of an RML primer to be predetermined by the thickness and materials of the reacting layers.
High Resistivity Aluminum Antimonide Radiation Detector
Anthony J. Ruggiero
U.S. Patent 6,887,359 B2
May 3, 2005
An integrated optical capillary electrophoresis system is used for analyzing an analyte. A modulated optical pump beam impinges on an capillary containing the analyte–buffer solution, which is separated by electrophoresis. The thermally induced change in the light’s index of refraction in the electrophoresis capillary is monitored using an integrated microinterferometer. The interferometer includes a first interferometer arm intersecting the electrophoresis capillary proximate the excitation beam and a second, reference interferometer arm. Changes in index of refraction in the analyte are measured by interrogating the interferometer state using white-light interferometry and a phase-generated carrier demodulation technique. Background thermo-optical activity in the buffer solution is cancelled by splitting the pump beam and exciting pure buffer solution in a second section of capillary where it crosses the reference arm of the interferometer.
John W. Sherohman, Arthur W. Coombs, III, Jick H. Yee
U.S. Patent 6,887,441 B2
May 3, 2005
Bulk aluminum antimonide–based, single-crystal materials have been prepared for use as room-temperature x- and gamma-ray radiation detectors.
Sol-Gel Manufactured Energetic Materials
Randall L. Simpson, Ronald S. Lee, Thomas M. Tillotson, Lawrence W. Hrubesh, Rosalind W. Swansiger, Glenn A. Fox
U.S. Patent 6,893,518 B1
May 17, 2005
Solgel chemistry is used to prepare energetic materials, such as explosives, propellants, and pyrotechnics, that have improved homogeneity or that can be cast to near-net shape or made into precision-molding powders. The solgel method is a synthetic chemical process in which reactive monomers are mixed in a solution. Polymerization then leads to a highly cross-linked, three-dimensional solid network, resulting in a gel. The energetic materials can be incorporated when the solution is formed or during the gel stage. The material’s composition, pore and primary particle sizes, gel time, surface areas, and density may be controlled by the solution chemistry. The gel is then dried using supercritical extraction to produce a highly porous, low-density aerogel or by controlled slow evaporation to produce a xerogel. Applying stress during the extraction phase can result in high-density materials. Thus, the solgel method can be used to manufacture precision detonator explosives, propellants, pyrotechnics, and high-power composite energetic materials.
William J. Benett, James B. Richards
U.S. Patent 6,893,863 B2
May 17, 2005
Features etched into this sleeve-type silicon polymerase chain reaction (PCR) chamber or thermocycler improves thermal performance by reducing the sleeve’s thermal mass and increasing its surface area for cooling. These improvements increase the speed and efficiency of the reaction chamber. Grooves etched in the faces of the sleeve are connected with a series of grooves on the chamber’s interior surface. These grooves can be anisotropically etched in the silicon sleeve when the chamber is formed.