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Alternating-Polarity Operation for Complete Regeneration of Electrochemical Deionization System
Tri D. Tran, David J. Lenz
U.S. Patent 7,138,042 B2
November 21, 2006
An electrically regenerative battery of electrochemical cells for capacitive deionization (including electrochemical purification) and regeneration of electrodes is operated at alternate polarities during consecutive cycles. In other words, after each regeneration step operated at a given polarity in a deionization–regeneration cycle, the polarity of the deionization step in the next cycle is maintained. In one embodiment, two end electrodes are arranged one at each end of the battery, adjacent to end plates. An insulator layer is interposed between each end plate and the adjacent end electrode. Each end electrode includes a single sheet of conductive material with a high specific surface area and sorption capacity, preferably a sheet formed of carbon aerogel composite. Double-sided intermediate electrodes equidistally separated from each other are placed between the two end electrodes. The electrolyte entering the battery cells flows through a continuous open serpentine channel that is defined by the electrodes and is substantially parallel to their surfaces. Polarizing the cells removes ions from the electrolyte and holds them in the electric double layers formed at the carbon aerogel surfaces of the electrodes. As the electrodes of each battery cell become saturated with the removed ions, the battery is regenerated electrically at a reversed polarity from that during the deionization step of the cycle, thus significantly minimizing secondary wastes.

Silicone Metalization
Mariam N. Maghribi, Peter Krulevitch, Julie Hamilton
U.S. Patent 7,145,229 B2
December 5, 2006
This system provides a silicone layer on a matrix and a metal layer on the silicone layer to produce an electronic apparatus. The apparatus thus has a silicone body with metal features, providing an electronic device.

Composites for Removing Metals and Volatile Organic Compounds and Method Thereof
Paul R. Coronado, Sabre J. Coleman, John G. Reynolds
U.S. Patent 7,148,180 B2
December 12, 2006
Functionalized hydrophobic aerogel–solid support structure composites have been developed to remove metals and organic compounds from aqueous and vapor media. The composite, which can be in molded, granular, or powder form, adsorbs the targeted metals or organics, leaving a purified aqueous or vapor stream. The species-specific adsorption occurs because aerogels are tailored toward specific material. After adsorption, the composites can be disposed of, or the material can be reclaimed or removed and the composites recycled.

Cellular Telephone-Based Radiation Sensor and Wide-Area
Detection Network

William W. Craig, Simon E. Labov
U.S. Patent 7,148,484 B2
December 12, 2006
A network of radiation detection instruments, each having a small solid-state radiation sensor module integrated into a cellular phone, provides radiation detection data and analysis directly to a user. The sensor module includes a solid-state crystal bonded to an application-specific integrated circuit readout. This compact, lightweight instrument can detect and measure radiation energies in the local ambient radiation field. In particular, the photon energy, time of event, and location of the device can be recorded at the time of detection and transmitted to a central data collection and analysis system. Data from the entire network of radiation detection instruments are combined by correlation and analysis algorithms, which then map the background radiation and identify radiation anomalies in the region.

Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Tissue Imaging for Medical Applications
Stavros Demos, Michael C. Staggs
U.S. Patent 7,149,567 B2
December 12, 2006
Near-infrared imaging using elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence are explored for medical applications. In this approach, cross-polarized elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence in the near-infrared region are coupled with image processing and interimage operations to differentiate human tissue components.

Obstacle Penetrating Dynamic Radar Imaging System
Carlos E. Romero, James E. Zumstein, John T. Chang,
Richard R. Leach, Jr.
U.S. Patent 7,148,836 B2
December 12, 2006
An obstacle-penetrating dynamic radar imaging system uses several low-power, ultrawideband radar units to detect, track, and image an individual, animal, or object. A radar video system produces a set of return radar signals from a detected object, which are then processed to image the object and track its location.

Autostereoscopic Projection Viewer
John S. Toeppen
U.S. Patent 7,150,531 B2
December 19, 2006
An autostereoscopic viewer is used to produce aberration-corrected images to simulate a virtual presence by using pairs of projector optical components coupled with an image corrector plate and a field lens. Images are designed with magnifications and optical qualities and positioned at predetermined eye zones having controlled directional properties. The viewer’s eyes are positioned in these zones. The size of the zones is related to the aperture of the projection lenses, the magnification produced by the Fresnel(s), and the optical properties and position of the image corrector plate.

Radiation Phantom with Humanoid Shape and Adjustable Thickness
Joerg Lehmann, Joshua Levy, Robin L. Stern,
Christine Hartmann-Siantar, Zelanna Goldberg
U.S. Patent 7,151,252 B2
December 19, 2006
This radiation phantom has a body with a general humanoid shape, at least a portion of which has an adjustable thickness. In one embodiment, the portion with an adjustable thickness comprises at least one tissue-equivalent slice.

System and Method for Integrating and Accessing Multiple Data Sources within a Data Warehouse Architecture
Charles R. Musick, Terence Critchlow, Madhaven Ganesh, Tom Slezak, Krzysztof Fidelis
U.S. Patent 7,152,070 B1
December 19, 2006
A system and method is disclosed for integrating and accessing multiple data sources within a data warehouse architecture. The metadata formed by this method provide a way to declaratively present domain-specific knowledge, obtained by analyzing data sources, in a consistent and usable way. Four types of information are represented by the metadata: abstract concepts, databases, transformations, and mappings. A mediator generator automatically generates data management computer code based on the metadata. The resulting code defines a translation library and a mediator class. The translation library provides a data representation for domain-specific knowledge represented in a data warehouse, including “get” and “set” methods for attributes that call transformation methods and derive a value of an attribute if it is missing. The mediator class defines methods that take “distinguished” high-level objects as input, traverse their data structures, and enter information into the data warehouse.

Current-Biased Potentiometric NOx Sensor for Vehicle Emissions
Louis Peter Martin, Ai Quoc Pham
U.S. Patent 7,153,401 B2
December 26, 2006
This sensor system measures the amount of nitrogen oxide in a gas. A first electrode is exposed to the gas. An electrolyte is positioned in contact with the first electrode. A second electrode is placed in contact with the electrolyte. A means for applying a fixed current between the first electrode and the second electrode and monitoring the voltage required to maintain the fixed current provides a measurement of the amount of nitrogen oxide in the gas.

Target Molecules Detection by Waveguiding in a Photonic Silicon Membrane
Sonia E. Letant, Anthony van Buuren, Louis Terminello, Bradley R. Hart
U.S. Patent 7,155,076 B2
December 26, 2006
Disclosed herein is a porous silicon filter capable of binding and detecting biological and chemical target molecules in liquid or gas samples. A photonic waveguiding silicon filter with chemical or biological anchors covalently attached to the pore walls binds target molecules. The system uses transmission curve engineering principles to allow measurements to be made in situ and in real time to detect the presence of various target molecules and calculate the concentration of bound target.

Method to Detect the End-Point for PCR DNA Amplification Using an Ionically Labeled Probe and Measuring Impedance Change
Robin R. Miles, Phillip Belgrader, Christopher D. Fuller
U.S. Patent 7,157,232 B2
January 2, 2007
Impedance measurements are used to detect the end-point for polymerase chain reaction DNA amplification. A pair of spaced electrodes are located on a surface of a microfluidic channel, and an alternating or direct current voltage is applied across the electrodes to produce an electric field. An ionically labeled probe will attach to a complementary DNA segment, and a polymerase enzyme will release the ionic label. This phenomenon causes the conductivity of the solution in the area of the electrode to change. This change in conductivity is measured as a change in the impedance between the two electrodes.


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UCRL-52000-07-4 | April 10, 2007