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Claude Montcalm, James Allen Folta, Christopher Charles Walton
Method and System Using Power Modulation and Velocity Modulation Producing Sputtered Thin Films with Sub-Angstrom Thickness Uniformity or Custom Thickness Gradients
U.S. Patent 6,668,207 B1
December 23, 2003
A method and system to determine a source flux modulation recipe for achieving a selected thickness profile of a film to be deposited over a flat or curved substrate (such as concave or convex optics). The substrate is exposed to a vapor deposition source operated with time-varying flux distribution. Preferably, the source is operated with time-varying power applied thereto during each sweep of the substrate to achieve the time-varying flux distribution. Preferably, the method includes the steps of measuring the source flux distribution (using a test piece held stationary while exposed to the source with the source operated at a number of applied power levels), calculating a set of predicted film-thickness profiles (each film-thickness profile assuming the measured flux distribution and a different one of a set of source flux modulation recipes), and determining from the predicted film-thickness profiles a source flux modulation recipe that is adequate to achieve a predetermined thickness profile. Aspects of the invention include a computer-implemented method using a graphical user interface to facilitate convenient selection of an optimal or nearly optimal source flux modulation recipe to achieve a desired thickness profile on a substrate. The method enables precise modulation of the deposition flux to which a substrate is exposed and thus provides a desired coating thickness distribution.

Conrad M. Yu
Glass-Silicon Column
U.S. Patent 6,670,024 B1
December 30, 2003
A glass–silicon column that can operate in temperature variations between room temperature and about 450°C. The glass–silicon column includes large-area glass, such as a thin Corning 7740 boron–silicate glass bonded to a silicon wafer with an electrode embedded in or mounted on column glass and a self-alignment silicon post-glass hole structure. The glass–silicon components are bonded, for example, by anodic bonding. In one embodiment, the column includes two outer layers of silicon each bonded to an inner layer of glass, with an electrode embedded between the layers of glass and with at least one self-alignment hole-and-post arrangement. The electrode functions as a column heater, and one glass–silicon component is provided with a number of flow channels adjacent to the bonded surfaces.

Lloyd A. Hackel, John M. Halpin, Fritz B. Harris
Pre-Loading of Components during Laser Peen-Forming
U.S. Patent 6,670,578 B2
December 30, 2003
A method and apparatus for forming shapes and contours in metal sections by prestressing a workpiece and generating laser-induced compressive stress on the surface of the metal workpiece. The step of prestressing the workpiece is performed with a jig. The laser process can generate deep compressive stresses to shape even thick components without inducing unwanted tensile stress at the metal surface. The precision of the laser-induced stress enables exact prediction and subsequent contouring of parts.

Alan F. Jankowski, Jeffrey D. Morse
Method of Fabrication of Electrodes and Electrolytes
U.S. Patent 6,673,130 B2
January 6, 2004
Fuel-cell stacks contain an electrolyte layer surrounded on top and bottom by an electrode layer. Porous electrodes are prepared, enabling fuel and oxidant to flow to the respective electrode–electrolyte interface without the need for high temperatures or pressures to assist the flow. Porous anodes, cathodes, and electrolytes are fabricated using rigid, inert microspheres and thin-film metal deposition techniques. Microspheres contained in a liquid are randomly dispersed on a host and dried so that the microspheres remain in position. A thin-film deposition technique is subsequently used to deposit a metal layer on the microspheres. After the metal layer is deposited, the microspheres are removed. Voids (that is, pores) are left in the metal layer, forming a porous electrode. Successive repetitions of the fabrication process result in the formation of a continuous fuel-cell stack. Stacks may produce power outputs ranging from about 0.1 to 50 watts.


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Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
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UCRL-52000-04-4 | April 6, 2004