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The Laboratory's Conflict Simulation Laboratory (CSL) has been developing computerized programs to simulate combat and other conflicts since 1974. All branches of the military use these systems for training purposes and to prepare for operations as diverse as the 1989 invasion of Panama and peacekeeping in Somalia. The CSL is presently continuing development of the Joint Tactical Simulation (JTS) and recently began work on the Joint Conflict and Tactical Simulation (JCATS) program for the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The Army is still using the CSL's first model, Janus.
Lawrence Livermore researchers are using the atomic-force microscope (AFM) to elucidate the growth mechanisms and three-dimensional structures of widely different solution-based crystals on the nanometer (billionth-of-a-meter) scale. Much of the AFM work has been in support of the Laser Programs' need to better understand KDP (potassium dihydrogen phosphate) crystal growth because of its direct impact on advanced lasers such as the National Ignition Facility. A second avenue of research has focused on the growth of solution-based crystals of biological macromolecules, specifically the protein canavalin and the satellite tobacco mosaic virus. The AFM images have revealed how solution-based crystals grow and how they are affected by impurities, defects, and solution conditions. The results are likely to affect many disciplines and technologies, from pharmaceuticals to materials synthesis.
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