Following is an index of all the Science and Technology Review magazines and Energy and Technology Review magazines that are online (March 1994 to present) and links to most of them. This list will be updated as each new issue becomes available. To find an article quickly, use your “Find” tool and type in a key word or part of the title.

Science & Technology Review Magazine Index

December 2012


Positively Scintillating Neutral Particles Brighten Scientific Prospects
Adam Bernstein
Key Words: antineutrino detection, coherent neutrino nucleus scattering, Double Chooz, Large Underground Xenon (LUX) detector, neutral particle, neutrino, nonproliferation, nuclear reactor monitoring, nuclear security, particle physics, scintillator, weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP).


Plutonium at 150 Years: Going Strong and Aging Gracefully
Brandon Chung
Key Words: accelerated aging, life-extension program, nuclear weapon, plutonium pit, Rocky Flats Plant, stockpile stewardship.

A New Detector for Analyzing NIF Experiments
Dawn Shaughnessy
Key Words: alpha particle, areal density, ignition, iodine-127, National Ignition Facility (NIF), mix, neutron time-of-flight (nTOF) detector, radiochemical analysis of gaseous samples (RAGS) detector, stable noble gas, xenon-124.

Faster Analysis from Biological Accelerator Mass Spectrometry
Graham Bench
Key Words: biological accelerator mass spectrometry (bioAMS), Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, drug discovery, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), moving-wire interface, pharmaceutical research.

October/November 2012

R&D 100 Awards

A Major Step for Fusion Energy
Dmitri Ryutov
Key Words: fusion energy, R&D 100 Award, snowflake power divertor, tokamak.

High-Performance Metal Coatings Produce Exceptional Bond Strength
Joe Farmer
Key Words: corrosion-resistant coating, high-strength bonded interface, high-velocity laser-accelerated deposition (HVLAD), laser peening, R&D 100 Award.

Improving Laser Beam Performance and Operational Reliability
John Heebner
Key Words: fusion energy, laser energy optimization by precision adjustments to the radiant distribution (LEOPARD), liquid crystal modulator, optically addressable light valve (OALV), R&D 100 Award, shadow blocker.

A Solid Solution for Neutron and Gamma-Ray Differentiation
Natalia Zaitseva
Key Words: diphenylacetylene (DPAC), gamma ray, neutron, organic crystal, plastic scintillator, polyvinyltoluene, pulse-shape discrimination (PSD), R&D 100 Award, radiation, stilbene.

Making Boring Cutting Edge
Frank Wong
Key Words: direct metal deposition, disc cutter, glassy metal, iron-based amorphous alloy, nanocrystalline, NanoSHIELD (super-hard inexpensive laser-deposited) coating, R&D 100 Award, tunnel-boring machine (TBM).

Ten Times More Data for Shock-Physics Experiments
Natalie Kostinski
Key Words: fiber-optic interferometer, hydrodynamics test, multiplexed photonic Doppler velocimetry (MPDV), R&D 100 Award, shock physics.


Simulation and Precision Engineering Lead to Extraordinary Results in Experiment
Don Roberts
Key Words: all-optical probe dome, hydrodynamics experiment, hydrotest, integrated weapons experiment (IWE), multiplexer, photonic Doppler velocimetry (PDV), precision engineering, three-dimensional (3D) computer simulation.

Breaking Down Nerve Agent Behavior
Richard Gee
Key Words: BlueGene/L, computational chemistry, CP2K, energy barrier, first-principles simulation, metadynamics, nerve agent, rare-event sampling, sarin, transition state, VX.

September 2012


Building New Vaccines for the 21st Century
Paul Hoeprich
Key Words: adjuvant, anthrax, antigen, biodefense, biological threat agent, biosecurity, Burkholderia, Francisella tularensis, immune system, lipid, membrane protein, nanolipoprotein particle (NLP), nickel-chelated NLP (NiNLP), scaffold protein, vaccine, West Nile virus.

A Flexible Foundation for High-Energy-Density Science
Warren Hsing
Key Words: backlighter, Dante spectrometer, equation of state, halfraum, hohlraum, National Ignition Facility (NIF), Pleiades campaign, ramp compression, Rayleigh–Taylor instability, Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) diagnostic.


Venturing into the Heart of High-Performance Computing Solutions
Fred Streitz
Key Words: arrhythmia, Cardioid code, congestive heart failure, Gordon Bell Prize, high-performance computing (HPC), High Performance Computing Innovation Center (HPCIC), Livermore Valley Open Campus (LVOC), Sequoia, Vulcan.

Engineered Solutions through Simulation Insights
Bob Ferencz
Key Words: ALE3D code, arbitrary Lagrangian–Eulerian (ALE) technique, computational engineering, embedded grid, ParaDyn code.

July/August 2012


A Home for Energetic Materials and Their Experts
Jon Maienschein
Key Words: ALE3D, CHEETAH, Composition B, Contained Firing Facility (CFF), Energetic Materials Center (EMC), flash x ray, Forensic Receival Facility, high explosive (HE), High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF), improvised explosive device (IED), insensitive high explosive (IHE), National Explosives Engineering Sciences Security Center, photonic Doppler velocimeter (PDV), Site 300, Stockpile Stewardship Program, tetranitro tetraazacyclooctane (HMX), 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB), 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (RDX), trinitrotoluene (TNT).


A Spectra-Tacular Sight
Bruce Macintosh
Key Words: core accretion, exoplanet, giant gas planet, HR 8799, Keck telescope, OSIRIS integral field spectrograph.

Seismic Data Pinpoint Fractures for Geothermal Energy
Dennise Templeton
Key Words: earthquake, enhanced geothermal system (EGS), matched field processing, microquake, renewable energy, seismicity.

Employees Keep Up with the Times
Kathy Zobel
Key Words: Education Assistance Program, continuing education, distance learning.

June 2012


Seeking Clues to Climate Change
Karl Taylor
Key Words: boreal, climate change, CFMIP Observation Simulator Package (COSP), Cloud Feedback Model Intercomparison Project (CFMIP), cloud simulation, fingerprinting, global warming, permafrost, Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison (PCMDI), regional climate modeling.


Finding and Fixing a Supercomputer’s Faults
Bronis de Supinski
Key Words: algebraic multigrid (AMG) algorithm, checkpoint, Clustering Algorithm with Parallel Extended K-Medoids (CAPEK), compute node, exascale computing, hard fault, performance fault, petascale computing, Scalable Checkpoint/Restart (SCR), soft fault, supercomputing.

Targeting Ignition
Evan Mapoles and Jim Fair
Key Words: cryogenic target, crystal growth, deuterium–tritium fuel, electron-beam deposition, hohlraum, ignition, laser entrance hole, LASNEX, National Ignition Facility (NIF), shock timing, warm window, x-ray characterization.

Neural Implants Come of Age
Satinderpall Pannu
Key Words: artificial retina, Center for Micro- and Nanotechnologies, cochlear implant, microelectrode array, neural implant, Parkinson’s disease, retinitis pigmentosa.

Incubator Busy Growing Energy Technologies
Clara Smith
Key Words: clean energy technologies, high-performance computing (HPC), hpc4energy incubator.

April/May 2012


Launching Traffic Cameras into Space
Vincent Riot
Key Words: nanosatellite, optical payload, satellite, Space-Based Telescopes for Actionable Refinement of Ephemeris (STARE), space debris, telescope, three-unit cube satellite (3U CubeSat), track-detection algorithm.


An Improved Tool for Nuclear Forensics
Kim Knight
Key Words: Chicago-Argonne Resonance Ionization Spectrometer for MicroAnalysis (CHARISMA), fallout debris, nuclear forensics, plutonium isotope, resonance ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS), uranium isotope.

A Simple Way to Better Project Soldiers against Head Trauma
Michael King and Willy Moss
Key Words: Advanced Combat Helmet (ACH), head injury criterion, Joint Improvised Explosive Device Defeat Organization, PARADYN, traumatic brain injury (TBI), U.S. Army.

Shocking Aluminum for Greater Understanding
Jonathan Crowhurst
Key Words: aluminum, diamond anvil cell, Joint Munitions Command, shock compression, strain rate.

March 2012

Honoring a Legacy of Service to the Nation
Kinnon Ernst


Extending the Life of an Aging Weapon
Hank O'Brien
Key Words: B61, intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM), life-extension program (LEP), mechanical safe arming detonator (MSAD), quantification of margins and uncertainties (QMU), stockpile stewardship, triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB), W78, W87.

Materials by Design
Chris Spadaccini
Key Words: additive manufacturing, designer material, direct ink writing, electrophoretic deposition, microstructure, projection microstereolithography.


Friendly Microbes Power Energy-Producing Devices
Fang Qian
Key Words: bioanode, electrogenic bacteria, microbial fuel cell (MFC), Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, solar-driven microbial photoelectrochemical cell, transmembrane protein.

Chemical Sensors Is All Wires, No Batteries
Yinmin (Morris) Wang
Key Words: battery, batteryless, Center for Micro- and Nanotechnology, chemical detector, chemical sensor, homeland security, medicine, nanoscience, nanowire, power source, semiconductor.

January/February 2012


At the Frontiers of Fundamental Science Research
Chris Keane
Key Words: antimatter, beta decay, high energy density, hohlraum, hydrodynamic instability, materials science, National Ignition Campaign (NIC), National Ignition Facility (NIF), neutron capture, nucleosynthesis, phase transition, positron, ramp-wave compression, Rayleigh–Taylor effect, s-process, stellar plasma, stockpile stewardship, supernova, x-ray diffraction.

Livermore Responds to Crisis in Post-Earthquake Japan
Gayle Sugiyama
Key Words: actinide analysis, alpha spectroscopy, atmospheric dispersion model, Consequence Management Home Team (CMHT), gamma spectroscopy, National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC), nuclear accident, Nuclear Counting Facility, Radiological Measurements Laboratory.


A Comprehensive Resource for Modeling, Simulation, and Experiments
Meijie Tang
Key Words: Advanced Simulation and Computing, MIDAS (Material Implementation, Database, and Analysis Source), stockpile stewardship, stress–strain curve.

Finding Data Needles in Gigabit Haystacks
Maya Gokhale
Key Words: bioinformatics, computer algorithm, computer architecture, database, data-intensive computing, flash memory, Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), persistent memory.

December 2011


Simulating the Next Generation of Energy Technologies
Julio Friedmann
Key Words: carbon capture and sequestration, clean energy, energy sector, high-performance computing (HPC) simulation, High-Performance Computing Innovation Center (HPCIC), smart electric grid, wind energy.


ARC Comes into Focus
Constantin Haefner
Key Words: Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC), frequency-resolved optical gating, laser beam centering and pointing system, multilayer dielectric grating, petawatt laser, x-ray radiography.

A New Method to Track Viral Evolution
Monica Borucki
Key Words: bovine coronavirus, genetic variation, genome, host jumping, mutation, sequencing, rabies, ribonucleic acid (RNA) virus.

Data for Defense: New Software Finds It Fast
David H. Brown
Key Words: Counterproliferation Analysis and Planning System (CAPS), Element Centric (EleCent) component, Google Earth, Grails application, Hadoop software, Trinidad component, weapons of mass destruction (WMD).

October/November 2011


Weapons Diagnostics Technology Revolutionizes Cancer Treatment
George Caporaso
Key Words: Accuray, Inc.; cancer treatment; Compact Particle Acceleration Corporation (CPAC); Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA); dielectric wall accelerator (DWA); high-gradient insulator (HGI); proton therapy; x-radiation therapy; technology transfer; TomoTherapy, Inc.


Glimpsing Fusion with the World’s Fastest Light Deflector
John Heebner
Key Words: fusion, laser, National Ignition Facility (NIF), optics, R&D 100 Award, radiation-to-optical encoder, serrated light illumination for deflection-encoded recording (SLIDER).

Lightweight, Scalable Tool Identifies Supercomputers’ Code Errors
Greg Lee
Key Words: bug, computer core, debugging, extreme-scale computing system, high-performance computing, R&D 100 Award, stack trace analysis tool (STAT).

Plutonium Hitches a Ride on Subsurface Particles
Annie Kersting
Key Words: actinide, Glenn T. Seaborg Institute, Hanford Site, Mayak nuclear complex, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada Test Site, nuclear forensics, plutonium, Rocky Flats Plant.

September 2011


A Beamline to National Security
Graham Bench
Key Words: accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (CAMS), heavy-element chemistry, Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE), National Ignition Facility (NIF), national security, nonproliferation, nuclear forensics.


Breaking the Pattern of Antibiotic Resistance
Paul Jackson
Key Words: antibiotic resistance, gene, lytic protein, pathogen.

Bringing the Big Bang into View
Ron Soltz
Key Words: A Large Ion Collider Experiment (ALICE), big bang, European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Green Linux Compute Cluster, Large Hadron Collider (LHC), quark–gluon plasma, Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC).

Enhanced Damage Resistance for NIF Optics
Jeff Bude
Key Words: advanced mitigation process (AMP), final optics assembly, focusing lens, fused silica optics, hydrofluoric acid, National Ignition Facility (NIF), 3-omega light.

July/August 2011


Igniting Our Energy Future
Mike Dunne
Key Words: deuterium, Electric Power Research Institute, electricity, flashlamp, inertial fusion, laser diode, Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE), lithium, National Ignition Facility (NIF), National Research Council, nuclear energy, power plant, tritium.

A "Grand" Way to Visualize Science
Fred Streitz
Key Words: Grand Challenge Program, high-energy-density (HED) physics, high-performance computing (HPC), Institute for Scientific Computing Research, Multiprogrammatic and Institutional Computing (M&IC), supercomputing.


Going Smaller, Raising Sensitivity
Tiziana Bond
Key Words: Center for Micro- and Nanotechnologies, enhanced surveillance program, nanoscale engineering, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), ultraviolet laser interference lithography.

New Insight into the Unseen World
Jennifer Pett-Ridge
Key Words: biofuel, bioremediation, Chip-SIP, Livermore Microarray Center (LMAC), microarray, microorganism, nanometer-scale secondary-ion mass spectrometer (NanoSIMS), nucleic acids, stable isotope probing (SIP), taxa, taxonomy.

June 2011


Training a New Generation of Research Scientists
Kris Kulp
Key Words: Institutional Postdoc Program Board, Lawrence Postdoctoral Fellowship Program, Postdoc Program, postdoctoral research, University Relations Program.


Life from Outer Space
Nir Goldman
Key Words: amino acid chains, cometary compression, low-angle comet, molecular-dynamics simulation.

A New Shape for Optical Fiber Lasers
Jay Dawson
Key Words: optical fiber, ribbon-fiber laser.

Preventing Terror in the Skies
Harry Martz
Key Words: automated threat-detection algorithm, aviation security, explosives detection, linear attenuation coefficient, Transportation Security Administration, x-ray computed tomography (CT).

April/May 2011


From Video to Knowledge
Sheila Vaidya
Key Words: Angel Fire; Autonomous Real-Time Ground Ubiquitous Surveillance Imaging System (ARGUS-IS); Constant Hawk; graphics processing unit (GPU); intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR); Persistics; pixel; Predator; Reaper; Sonoma.


Kinetic Models Predict Biofuel Efficiency
Charlie Westbrook
Key Words: biodiesel, biofuel, chemical kinetic model, combustion, diesel fuel, gasoline, methyl ester.

Going Deep with MEGa-Rays
Chris Barty
Key Words: Compton backscattering, Dual Isotope Notch Observer (DINO), mono-energetic gamma-ray (MEGa-ray) light source, nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF), VELOCIRAPTOR.

Energy on Demand
Dick Post
Key Words: bulk energy storage, Cooperative Research and Development Agreement, electromechanical battery (EMB), electrostatic generator–motor, flywheel, Industrial Partnerships Office, magnetic bearings, renewable energy.

March 2011


From Respiration to Carbon Capture
Roger Aines
Key Words: carbon capture, carbon dioxide (CO2), carbonic anhydrase, density functional theory (DFT), greenhouse gas.

Lending a Hand to an Oily Problem
Rob Sharpe
Key Words: acoustic imaging, blowout preventer, Deepwater Horizon, fluid dynamics, gamma-ray imaging, Interagency Modeling and Atmospheric Assessment Center (IMAAC), Macondo well, oil reservoir, remotely operated vehicle (ROV).


A Complex Game of Cat and Mouse
Brenda Ng
Key Words: adversarial modeling; artificial intelligence; counterterrorism; interactive, partially observable Markov decision process (I-POMDP); law enforcement; money laundering; reinforcement learning.

New Campus Set to Transform Two National Laboratories
James Koonce
Key Words: Combustion Research Facility (CRF), high-energy-density science, Hyperion, Livermore Valley Open Campus (LVOC), National Ignition Facility (NIF).

January/February 2011


Groundbreaking Science with the World’s Brightest X Rays.
Stefan Hau-Riege
Key Words: FLASH laser, Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), nanoparticles, proteins, self-amplified spontaneous emission, single-particle aerosol mass spectrometry, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL).


From Data to Discovery
Trish Damkroger
Key Words: campaign management tools; CORBA; computer automation; data archive; integrated computer control system (ICCS); National Ignition Facility (NIF); shot analysis, visualization, and infrastructure (SAVI).

The Sun in All Its Splendor
Regina Soufli
Key Words: Advanced Light Source, Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light, magnetic field, magnetron sputtering deposition, multilayer mirror, solar corona, Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), solar physics, Sun.

Drilling Deep into Plant Veins
Michael Thelen
Key Words: atomic force microscopy (AFM), biofuel, cellulose, fluorescence microscopy, Joint BioEnergy Institute, lignin, lignocellulose, mesophyll, synchrotron radiation Fourier-transform infrared (SR-FTIR) spectromicroscopy, xylem.

December 2010


Strengthening Our Understanding of Climate Change
Graham Bench
Key Words: black coral, carbon-12, carbon-14, carbon dioxide (CO2), Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (CAMS), climate change, Geradia sp., gold coral, Leiopathes sp., photosynthesis, Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison, radiocarbon dating.

Precision Diagnostics Tell All
Robert L. Kauffman
Key Words: advanced radiographic capability, Dante spectrometer, diagnostic instrument manipulator, full aperture backscatter station, high-energy-density science, hohlraum, ignition, inertial confinement fusion, laser, magnetic recoil spectrometer, National Ignition Campaign (NIC), National Ignition Facility (NIF), near backscatter imager, neutron, OMEGA laser, target, Velocity Interferometer for Any Reflector (VISAR).


Quick Detection of Pathogens by the Thousands
Crystal Jaing
Key Words: bacteria, bacterial sequences, Lawrence Livermore Microbial Detection Array (LLMDA), microarray, pathogen detection technology, viral sequence, virus.

Carbon Dioxide into the Briny Deep
Roger Aines
Key Words: active carbon dioxide (CO2) reservoir management, carbon capture and sequestration, NUFT-C code.

October/November 2010

R&D 100 Awards

A Scintillating Radiation Detection Material
Nerine Cherepy
Key Words: gamma-ray spectroscopy, R&D 100 Award, radiation detection, radiological attack, strontium iodide scintillator.

Software Solution for Radioactive Contraband Detection
James Candy
Key Words: Bayesian processing techniques, cargo container, gamma detector, R&D 100 Award, radionuclide detection, statistical radiation detection system (SRaDS).

Measuring Extremely Bright Pulses of Light
Stefan Hau-Riege
Key Words: Linac Coherent Light Source, R&D 100 Award, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) energy monitor.

High-Speed Imager for Fast, Transient Events at NIF
Warren Hsing
Key Words: electromagnetic pulse, fusion, grating-actuated transient optical recorder (GATOR), National Ignition Campaign, National Ignition Facility (NIF), R&D 100 Award.

Taking the Salt Out of the Sea
Francesco Fornasiero
Key Words: carbon nanotube (CNT) membrane, desalination, filtration, R&D 100 Award, reclamation, reverse osmosis.

A Look inside the Living Eye
Diana Chen
Key Words: adaptive optics (AO), deformable mirror, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), ocular disease, optical coherence tomography (OCT), R&D 100 Award, retinal imaging.


Collaboration Expands the Periodic Table, One Element at a Time
Dawn Shaughnessy
Key Words: Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), periodic table, superheavy elements.

Students and Researchers Partner for Summer Projects
Barry Goldman
Key Words: Academic Cooperation Program, Institutional Education Committee, Military Academic Research Associate (MARA) Program, Outstanding Mentor Award, Scholar Employment Program, Student Internship Program.

September 2010


Science in Support of International Weapon Treaties
Jay Zucca
Key Words: Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), Forensic Science Center (FSC), GeMini, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), International Monitoring System, Limited Test Ban Treaty, New Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (New START), Next Generation Safeguards Initiative, Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), Threshold Test Ban Treaty.


Crossing Computational Frontiers
Fred Streitz
Key Words: Dawn, Gordon Bell Prize, Institute for Scientific Computing Research (ISCR), National Ignition Facility, plasma simulation, Sequoia, Summer Visitor Program.

Quickly Identifying Viable Pathogens from the Environment
Staci Kane and Sonia Létant
Key Words: anthrax, Bacillus anthracis, biological threat agent, bioterrorism, pathogen, rapid viability polymerase chain reaction (RV-PCR), spore.

A Discriminating Device to Detect Antineutrinos
Adam Bernstein
Key Words: aboveground antineutrino detector, Cerenkov light, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), nonproliferation, nuclear reactor, San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, scintillator.

July/August 2010


Enhancing Confidence in the Nation’s Nuclear Stockpile
Pat Allen and Bob Maxwell
Key Words: Enhanced Surveillance Campaign, high explosive (HE), life-extension program (LEP), Nuclear Posture Review (NPR), Pantex Plant, photonic Doppler velocimetry (PDV), plutonium, solid-phase microextraction (SPME), Stockpile Stewardship Program, uranium hydride.


Narrowing Uncertainties
Richard Klein
Key Words: climate modeling, predictive pipeline, uncertainty quantification (UQ).

Insight into a Deadly Disease
Amy Rasley
Key Words: Acanthamoeba castellanii, amoeba, bioterrorism, encystment, Francisella tularensis, host cell, pathogen, tularemia, vaccine.

Return to Rongelap
Terry Hamilton
Key Words: Castle Bravo nuclear test, Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (CAMS), cesium-137, Marshall Islands, plutonium urinalysis, potassium fertilizer, radiation dose, radioactive fallout, Rongelap Atoll Local Government, whole-body counting.

June 2010


Diamonds Put the Pressure on Materials
William Evans
Key Words: compression rate, crystal growth, dynamic diamond anvil cell (dDAC), high-pressure experiment, material dynamics, moissanite anvil cell (MAC), phase transformation kinetics, static experiment, superhard material.


Exploring the Unusual Behavior of Granular Materials
Tarabay Antoun
Key Words: compression rate, crystal growth, dynamic diamond anvil cell (dDAC), high-pressure experiment, material dynamics, moissanite anvil cell (MAC), phase transformation kinetics, static experiment, superhard material.

A 1-Ton Device in a Briefcase
Julie Herberg
Key Words: chemical warfare agent, electrophoresis, LaserLathe, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry.

Targets Designed for Ignition
Trish Damkroger
Key Words: Brillouin scattering, cryogenics, energetics, fuel capsule, hohlraum, inertial confinement fusion, laser–plasma interaction, National Ignition Campaign (NIC), National Ignition Facility (NIF), Raman scattering, target design.

April/May 2010


A Stellar Performance
Trish Damkroger
Key Words: energy gain, hohlraum, ignition, inertial confinement fusion (ICF), laser performance, pulse shape, National Ignition Campaign, National Ignition Facility (NIF), wavelength tuning.


Extracting More Power from the Wind
Jeff Mirocha
Key Words: cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA), energy efficiency, renewable energy, weather forecasting, wind power, wind turbine.

Date for a Heart Cell
Bruce Buchholz
Key Words: carbon-14 dating, cardiomyocyte, Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (CAMS), heart-cell regeneration.

Unique Marriage of Biology and Semiconductors
Ann Stark
Key Words: bionanoelectronics, lipid, nanotechnology, silicon nanowire.

March 2010


Responding to a Terrorist Attack Involving Chemical Warfare Agents
Carolyn Koester or Ellen Raber
Key Words: chemical warfare, Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), decontamination, Forensic Science Center (FSC), Los Angeles International Airport (LAX), mustard, Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), San Francisco International Airport (SFO), sarin, VX.


Revealing the Secrets of a Deadly Disease
Brett Chromy
Key Words: optoelectronic tweezers (OET), pathogen cells, plague disease, trapping system, Yersinia pestis.

A New Application for a Weapons Code
Willy Moss
Key Words: Afghanistan, blast wave, combat helmet, improvised explosive device (IED), Iraq, traumatic brain injury (TBI).

Testing Valuable National Assets for X-Ray Damage
Kevin Fournier
Key Words: gas-filled target, National Ignition Facility (NIF), OMEGA laser, plasma physics, radiation effects testing, x rays, x-ray source.

An Efficient Way to Harness the Sun’s Power
Charles Bennett
Key Words: electric power, GyroSolé™, heat energy, renewable energy source, solar energy, solar thermal technology, steam-powered engine, technology transfer, thermal-energy storage.

January/February 2010


The Hunt for Better Radiation Detection
Steve Payne
Key Words: crystal growth, gamma radiation, garnet, helium-3, lanthanum bromide (cerium), neutron, radiation detection, scintillation detector, stilbene, strontium iodide, transparent ceramics.


Time-Critical Technology Identifies Deadly Bloodborne Pathogens
John Dzenitis
Key Words: bloodborne-pathogen detection, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), point-of-care testing (POCT), sepsis.

Defending Computer Networks against Attack
Celeste Matarazzo
Key Words: Comprehensive National Cyber Security Initiative, cyber security, hacker, Internet, malware, Supercomputing Enabled Transformational Analytics Capability (SETAC).

Imaging Cargo’s Inner Secrets
Marie-Anne Descalle
Key Words: Cargo Automated Radiography System, cargo screening, fissile material, fission, Monte Carlo modeling, photon, radition detection, scintillator.

December 2009


A Defensive “Coat” for Materials under Attack
Joe Farmer
Key Words: amorphous metal alloy, corrosion resistance, criticality control, metallic glass, neutron absorption, thermal spray coating.


Too Close for Comfort
David S. Dearborn
Key Words: asteroid, deflection, fragmentation, gravity tractor, impactor technology, Spaceguard Near-Earth Object Survey, nuclear explosive, space.

Hyperion: A Titan of High-Performance Computing Systems
Mark Seager
Key Words: high-performance computing (HPC), Hyperion, Linux cluster, petascale system.

Isolating Pathogens for Speedy Identification
Klint Rose
Key Words: acoustic focusing, bacteria, Center for Micro- and Nanotechnology, dielectrophoresis, DNA, isotachophoresis, microfluidics, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), RNA, virus.

October/November 2009

2009 R&D 100 Awards

Light-Speed Spectral Analysis of a Laser Pulse
J. Paul Armstrong
Key Words: bandwidth, interlock, Mercury laser, optics damage, R&D 100 Award, spectral analysis, spectral sentry.

Capturing Waveforms in a Quadrillionth of a Second
Corey V. Bennett
Key Words: dynamic range, FemtoScope, R&D 100 Award, temporal imaging, temporal resolution, time microscope.

Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy in the Palm of Your Hand
Morgan Burks
Key Words: gamma-ray spectrometer, GeMini, germanium, International Atomic Energy Agency, nuclear safeguards, radiation detector, R&D 100 Award.

Building Fusion Targets with Precision Robotics
Richard Montesanti
Key Words: force and torque feedback, fusion ignition targets, National Ignition Facility (NIF), precision robotic assembly machine, R&D 100 Award.

ROSE: Making Compiler Technology More Accessible
Dan Quinlan
Key Words: binary analysis compiler, compiler infrastructure, program analysis, R&D 100 Award, ROSE, source code optimization, source code transformation, source code translation, source-to-source.

Restoring Sight to the Blind with an Artificial Retina
Satinderpall Pannu
Key Words: age-related macular degeneration, artificial retina, blindness, ocular disease, R&D 100 Award, retinal implant, retinal degeneration, retinitis pigmentosa..

Eradicating the Aftermath of War
Christine Paulson and Kique Romero
Key Words: demining, Hystar, iRadar, LANDMARC, land mine locator, R&D 100 Award, ultrawideband radar.

Compact Alignment for Diagnostic Laser Beams
Mike Rushford
Key Words: Advanced Radiography Capability (ARC), bifocal lens, imaging camera, laser beam alignment, laser beam centering and pointing system (LBCAPS), National Ignition Facility (NIF), R&D 100 Award.


Securing Radiological Sources in Africa
Carolyn Mac Kenzie
Key Words: Africa, Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI), orphan source, radiological source, search and secure.

September 2009


Herbert F. York (1921–2009), A Life of Firsts, an Ambassador for Peace
Maxine Trost
Key Words: Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), arms control, Herbert Frank York, Institute for Global Conflict and Cooperation (IGCC), University of California (UC) at San Diego.

Searching for Life in Extreme Environments
John Dzenitis
Key Words: archaea, Astrobiology Science and Technology for Exploring Planets Program, autonomous pathogen detection system (APDS), Environmental Sample Processor (ESP), Europa, Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) module.


Energy Goes with the Flow
A. J. Simon
Key Words: carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption, energy flow charts, energy flow diagrams, energy resources.

The Radiant Side of Sound
Evan Reed
Key Words: acoustic wave, piezoelectric material, ramp compression, shock wave, semiconductor, sound wave, strain, terahertz frequency, ultrafast laser.

July/August 2009


Preventing Close Encounters of the Orbiting Kind
Scot Olivier
Key Words: high-performance computing, Joint Space Operations Center, ParaDyn (parallel DYNA3D), parallel discrete event simulation (PDES), space situational awareness, Space Surveillance Network (SSN), Testbed Environment for Space Situational Awareness (TESSA), ViSUS.

A CAT Scanner for Nuclear Weapon Components
Pat Allen
Key Words: Combined Large Optical Scintillator Screen and Imaging System (CoLOSSIS), computed tomography (CT), nondestructive evaluation, Pantex Plant, radiography, stockpile stewardship, x ray.


Mass-Producing Positrons
Hui Chen
Key Words: antimatter, astrophysics, gamma ray, high-Z material, hot electron, plasma, positron, positronium, Titan, ultraintense laser.

The Next Generation of Medical Diagnostic Devices
John Chang
Key Words: intracranial hematoma detector, medical diagnostic device, micropower impulse radar, noninvasive pneumothorax detector, R&D 100, ultrawideband (UWB), vital signs monitor.

June 2009


Dissolving Molecules to Improve Their Performance
Robert Maxwell
Key Words: high explosive, High Explosives Applications Facility, hydrogen bond, ionic liquid, molecular crystal, 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB), quantum molecular dynamics (QMD), Site 300, Transformational Materials Initiative (TMI).

Exceptional People Producing Great Science
Kris Kulp
Key Words: accelerator mass spectrometer, atomic force microscopy (AFM), climate change, Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE), high-mass star, Institutional Postdoc Program Board, mathematical modeling, nanoparticle, National Ignition Facility (NIF), neutrinoless double-beta decay, particle physics, quantum computing, stockpile stewardship.


Revealing the Identities and Functions of Microbes
Jennifer Pett-Ridge
Key Words: biofuels, elemental fluorescent in situ hybridization (El-FISH), microbe, nanometer-scale secondary-ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS), stable isotope.

A Laser Look inside Planets
Ray Smith
Key Words: equation of state, exoplanet, laser-driven ramp compression, OMEGA laser, National Ignition Facility (NIF), phase transformation, super-Earth planet.

April/May 2009


The Journey into a New Era of Scientific Discoveries

Safe and Sustainable Energy with LIFE
Edward I. Moses or Tomás Díaz de la Rubia
Key Words: diode-pumped solid-state lasers (DPSSLs), fast ignition, fission, fusion, hohlraum, hot-spot ignition, inertial confinement fusion, Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE), National Ignition Facility (NIF), nuclear power, stockpile stewardship.

Simulated Rehearsal for Battle
Lauri Dobbs
Key Words: conflict simulation, Joint Combat and Tactical Simulation (JCATS), JCATS Low Overhead Driver (JLOD), Joint Warfighting Center, North Atlantic Treaty Organization.


Improving Catalysis with a “Noble” Material
Juergen Biener or Ted Baumann
Key Words: atomic layer deposition (ALD), carbon aerogels, catalysis, catalyst, fuel cell, hydrogen storage, nanoporous materials, oxidation, platinum.

A Time Machine for Fast Neutrons
Mike Heffner
Key Words: detector, fissile material, high-energy physics, ionization track, kinematics, neutron time-projection chamber (nTPC), radioactive source.

March 2009


Sleuthing Seismic Signals
Bill Walter
Key Words: Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), Crandall Canyon Mine, explosion monitoring, International Monitoring System, nuclear testing, nuclear treaty verification, seismology.

Wind and the Grid
Dora Yen-Nakafuji
Key Words: climate change, electrical grid, electrical infrastructure, intermittent renewables, National Transmission and Energy Resilience Response Analysis (N-TERRA), renewable energy, wind forecasting, Wind SENSE.


Searching for Tiny Signals from Dark Matter
Darin Kinion
Key Words: Axion Dark Matter Experiment (ADMX), Josephson junction, quantum computing, qubit, superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID).

A Better Method for Decontamination
William J. Smith
Key Words: activated carbon, chemical agents, low-cost personal decontamination system (LPDS), Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL), toxic industrial compounds.

January/February 2009


Sniffing the Air with an Electronic Nose
Brad Hart
Key Words: chemical weapon, detector, Forensic Science Center, microcantilever, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), National Consortium for Measurement and Signatures Intelligence Research, polyolefin, sensor, sulfur mustard, VX.

Simulations Explain High-Energy-Density Experiments
Scott Wilks
Key Words: Atlas computer, Computing Grand Challenge Program, high-energy-density (HED) physics, Jupiter Facility, laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA), National Ignition Facility (NIF), reduced-mass target (RMT).


Seeing Condensed Matter in a New Light
Anton Barty
Key Words: condensed matter, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), FLASH, Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), ultrafast dynamics, x-ray diffraction, x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL).

Environment, Safety, and Health in the Extreme
Allen Macenski
Key Words: environment, safety, and health (ES&H); environmental stewardship; industrial hygiene; integrated safety management (ISM); waste management.

November/December 2008


Taking Ultrafast Snapshots of Material Changes
Nigel Browning
Key Words: dynamic transmission electron microscope (DTEM), materials science, Nano 50 Award, R&D 100 Award.

Automated Technology fo Laser Fusion Systems
Richard Leach or Karl Wilhelmsen
Key Words: autonomous alignment process for laser fusion systems (AAPLF), fusion, image-processing algorithm, laser beam path, National Ignition Facility (NIF), photon science, R&D 100 Award.

Protecting the Nation through Secure Cargo
Kique Romero
Key Words: cargo container, GUARDIAN, R&D 100 Award, SecureBox, security, sensor, transmitted reference modulation, transportation, ultrawideband (UWB) communications.

Atom by Atom, Layer by Layer
Troy Barbee
Key Words: energetic materials, extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL), magnetron sputter deposition, multilayers, nanolaminates, reactive materials.


Predicting the Bizarre Properties of Plutonium
Mike Fluss
Key Words: Atlas supercomputer, Computing Grand Challenge Program, delta phase, density functional theory (DFT), dynamical mean field theory (DMFT), plutonium.

September/October 2008


Testing the Accuracy of the Supernova Yardstick
Rob Hoffman
Key Words: CASTRO code, Computational Astrophysical Consortium (CAC), cosmology, dark energy, Grand Challenge computing, hydrodynamics, MAESTRO code, SEDONA code, SNe code, Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia).

Developing New Drugs and Personalized Medical Treatment
Ken Turteltaub
Key Words: accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion), biosecurity, cancer, Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (CAMS), chemotherapy, microdosing, pharmacokinetics, University of California (UC) Davis Cancer Center.


Triage in a Patch
Erik Mukerjee, Elizabeth Wheeler
Key Words: BioBriefcase, DNA sampling, exposure monitoring, lateral flow assay, microneedle.

Smoothing Out Defects for Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography
Paul Mirkarimi
Key Words: deposition, etching, extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL), integrated circuit, ion-beam thin-film planarization process, mask defect, microchip, reflective multilayer, semiconductor industry, transistor.

July/August 2008


The New Face of Industrial Partnerships
Erik Stenehjem
Key Words: commercialization, Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), industrial partnership, laser peening, proton accelerator, SecureBox, technology transfer.

Monitoring a Nuclear Weapon from the Inside
Jim Trebes, Tony Lavietes
Key Words: embedded sensors, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, hydrogen getter, joint test assemblies, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), Moscow Treaty on Strategic Offensive Reductions, nuclear stockpile, Raman spectroscopy, stockpile stewardship.


Simulating the Biomolecular Structure of Nanometer-Size Particles
Richard Law
Key Words: apolipoprotein E4-22K, Computing Grand Challenge Program, membrane protein, nanolipoprotein particle (NLP), protein structure, simulation, Thunder computer, Zeus computer.

Antineurino Detectors Improve Reactor Safeguards
Adam Bernstein
Key Words: antineutrino detector, Cerenkov light, coherent neutrino nucleus scattering, fissile material, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), inverse beta decay, nuclear reactor safeguards, San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station (SONGS), scintillator.

May/June 2008


Shaping the Future of Aneurysm Treatments
Duncan Maitland, Thomas Wilson
Key Words: aneurysm, embolic coiling, foam, hemorrhagic stroke, laser, shape-memory polymer (SMP).


Ring around a Stellar Shell: A Tale of Scientific Serendipity
Peter Eggleton
Key Words: Djehuty code, helium-3, helium flash, stellar evolution.

On Assignment in Washington, DC
T. R. Koncher
Key Words: change-of-station; Intergovernmental Personnel Agreement; off-site assignment; Washington, DC.

March/April 2008


Extending the Search for Extrasolar Planets
Bruce Macintosh
Key Words: adaptive optics, angular differential imaging (ADI), astrophysics, coronagraph, debris disk, diffraction imaging, extrasolar planet (exoplanet), Gemini Deep Planet Survey, Gemini Observatory, Gemini Planet Imager (GPI).


Standardizing the Art of Electron-Beam Welding
John Elmer
Key Words: computed tomography, electron-beam (EBeam) reproducibility, EBeam Profiler, electron-beam welding, modified Faraday cup, power distribution, quality control diagnostics, sharp focus.

Molecular Building Blocks Made of Diamonds
Trevor Willey
Key Words: adamantane, band gap, conduction band, diamond, diamondoid, monolayer, semiconductor.

Animation Brings Science to Life
Michael Loomis
Key Words: animation, computer simulation, Engineering Visualization Theater.

January/February 2008


Edward Teller’s Century: Celebrating the Man and His Vision
Stephen B. Libby
Key Words: applied science, Ashkin–Teller model, basic science, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller equation of state, Department of Applied Science University of California at Davis, Edward Teller, Gamow–Teller transition, hydrogen bomb, Jahn–Teller effect, Lyddane–Sachs–Teller relation, Metropolis Method, national defense, national security, nuclear power, physics, Presidential Medal of Freedom, Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), thermonuclear weapon, x-ray laser.

Quark Theory and Today’s Supercomputers: It’s a Match
Ron Soltz
Key Words: big bang, BlueGene/L, Gordon Bell Prize, Large Hadron Collider, lattice quantum chromodynamics (QCD), quark–gluon plasma, Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC), strong force.


The Role of Dentin in Tooth Fracture
John Kinney
Key Words: atomic force microscopy (AFM), collagen, dentin, dentinal tubules, fracture toughness, resonant ultrasound spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy.

December 2007


Out of Harm’s Way
Mo Bissani
Key Words: China; Federal Information System (FIS); International Material Protection and Cooperation (IMPC) Program; Material Protection, Control, and Accountability Program; nonproliferation; nuclear materials; Russian Federation.


A Calculated Journey to the Center of the Earth
Jeff Roberts
Key Words: Advanced Light Source, core formation, iron sulfide, magma ocean, mantle, olivine, partial melt, percolation, permeability, volcanic glass, x-ray computed tomography.

Wireless That Works
Faranak Nekoogar
Key Words: radio-frequency identification tag, ultrawideband (UWB) radar, Utag, VisiBuilding project, wireless communication technology.

Power to the People
Stephen B. Libby
Key Words: fission; fusion; nuclear power; nuclear reactor; Project Plowshare; small, sealed, transportable, autonomous reactor (SSTAR); TRIGA(R) reactor.

November 2007


A Code to Model Electromagnetic Phenomena
Dan White
Key Words: ALE3D code, electromagnetic pulse (EMP), electromagnetism, electro-thermal-mechanical (ETM) simulations, EMSolve code, finite-element analysis, Maxwell’s equations, National Ignition Facility (NIF), photonic band-gap (PBG) crystals, radar, railgun, Titan.

Characterizing Virulent Pathogens
Tom Slezak
Key Words: biological agents, BioWatch, foot-and-mouth disease, foreign animal disease, influenza, KPATH, multiplexed assays, pathogen, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), virulence.


Imaging at the Atomic Level
John Bradley
Key Words: electron microscope, electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS), monochromator, nanomaterials, Stardust spacecraft, super scanning transmission electron microscope (SuperSTEM).

Scientists without Borders
Mo Bissani
Key Words: Algeria, Argentina, Egypt, international nonproliferation cooperation, International Nuclear Safeguards and Engagement Program (INSEP), Libya, Morocco, Peru, Romania, Thailand, Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, Vietnam.

Probing Deep into the Nucleus
Stephen B. Libby
Key Words: Edward Teller, nuclear physics, particle physics, standard model.

October 2007


Fast Detection of a Punctured Lung
John Chang
Key Words: chest trauma, chest x ray, collapsed lung, noninvasive pneumothorax detector, R&D 100 Award, ultrawideband (UWB) technology.

Retinal Camera Captures Early Stages of Eye Disease
Scot Olivier
Key Words: deformable mirror, microelectromechanical systems– (MEMS-) based adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (MAOSLO), optical aberrations, R&D 100 Award, retinal imaging, wavefront corrector.

Mobile Mapping of Radioactive Materials
Lorenzo Fabris
Key Words: coded aperture, gamma rays, large-area imager (LAI), radiation detection, R&D 100 Award.

Linear Solutions at Hypre Speed
Rob Falgout
Key Words: hypre linear solver, open-source software, parallel computing, R&D 100 Award, supercomputing.

Bringing Fusion Research into Focus
Joe Menapace
Key Words: continuous-phase-plate (CPP) optics system, inertial confinement fusion (ICF), laser optics, magnetorheological finishing (MRF), National Ignition Facility (NIF), R&D 100 Award.

Back to Basics
Stephen B. Libby
Key Words: atomic physics, Edward Teller, hydrogen molecular ion, Jahn–Teller theorem, molecular physics, polymolecules, Thomas–Fermi approximation, quantum mechanics.

September 2007


Ramrods Shepherd Hydrodynamic Tests
Steve Bosson
Key Words: Contained Firing Facility (CFF), core-punch test, Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility, Flash X Ray (FXR), high explosive, hydrodynamic experiments, integrated weapon experiment (IWE), nuclear weapon, pin test, primary, ramrod, Site 300.

Three Dimensional on the Nanoscale
Vince Malba and Chris Spadaccini
Key Words: grayscale lithography, LaserLathe(TM), laser pantography (LP), magnetic resonance imaging, National Ignition Facility (NIF), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), projection microstereolithography.


Assessing the Threat of Biological Terrorism
Tom Bates
Key Words: Biodefense Knowledge Center (BKC), bioterrorism, foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), Multiscale Epidemiological/Economic Simulation and Analysis (MESA), systems studies, threat assessment, Threat Awareness Program.

Shedding Light on Dark Matter
Bill Craig
Key Words: antideuteron, antimatter, antiparticle, antiproton, cosmology, dark matter, general antiparticle spectrometer (GAPS), Milky Way Galaxy, neutralino, particle physics, weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP), x-ray detector.

From Fission to Fusion and Beyond
Stephen B. Libby
Key Words: Edward Teller, hydrogen bomb, multiple independently targeted reentry vehicles, Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI).

July/August 2007


Preparing for the X Games of Science
Bruce Remington
Key Words: backlighter, black hole, Cepheid variable, equation of state, high-energy-density (HED) physics, hohlraum, hydrodynamic instability, ignition, Institute for Laser Science and Applications (ILSA), Jupiter Laser Facility, National Ignition Facility (NIF) Early Light campaign, OMEGA laser, photoionized plasma, Rayleigh|Taylor instability, supernova, Z?achine.

Meeting the Target Challenge
Jeff Atherton and Alex Hamza
Key Words: beryllium capsule, Center for Nondestructive Characterization, cryogenics, high-density carbon, ignition target, inertial confinement fusion (ICF), metallic foam, nanoporous material, Nanoscale Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory (NSCL), National Ignition Facility (NIF).


A Laboratory to Probe a Planet’s Deep Interior
Peter Celliers
Key Words: astrophysics, diamond anvil cell (DAC), equation of state, National Ignition Facility (NIF), phase transition, plasma piston, ramp-wave-compression (RWC) experiment.

A Closer Look at Nucleosynthesis
Lee Bernstein
Key Words: Coulomb repulsion, elements, fusion, hydrogen burning, National Ignition Facility (NIF), nucleosynthesis, periodic table, rapid (r) process, slow (s) process, stellar evolution, waiting-point nuclei.

Taking on the Stars
Stephen B. Libby
Key Words: astrophysics, controlled fusion, Edward Teller, thermonuclear weapons.

June 2007


Doing a Stretch of Time
Corey V. Bennett
Key Words: Bragg grating, diagnostic system, dynamic range, fiber optic, free-electron laser, Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), National Ignition Facility (NIF), nonlinear crystal, oscilloscope, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Stockpile Stewardship Program, streak camera, time microscope, underground nuclear testing, x-ray pulse.

Setting a World Driving Record with Hydrogen
Sal Aceves
Key Words: carbon sequestration, compressed hydrogen gas, greenhouse gases, hydrogen-powered vehicle, liquid hydrogen, National Hydrogen Storage Project.


Virtual Dams Subjected to Strong Earthquakes
Chad Noble
Key Words: dam, DYNA3D, earthquake, finite-element analysis, Multiprogrammatic Capability Resource, NIKE3D, PARADYN, TOPAZ3D, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR).

A Second Chance at Sight
Satinderpall (Sat) Pannu
Key Words: artificial retina, electrode array, microfabrication, retinal prosthesis.

A Gifted Teacher of Applied and Fundamental Physics
Stephen B. Libby
Key Words: Department of Applied Science (DAS), Edward Teller Education Center (ETEC), George Gamow, Niels Bohr, Science and Technology Education Program (STEP).

May 2007


A Quantum Contribution to Technology
Andrew Williamson
Key Words: density functional theory, hydrogen storage, optical scatterometry, quantum molecular simulations, quantum Monte Carlo, silicon chip manufacture, silicon nanowires, thermoelectric materials.

U.S. Weapons Plutonium Aging Gracefully
Adam Schwartz
Key Words: actinides, Advanced Photon Source (APS), alpha decay, diamond anvil cell (DAC), Global Nuclear Energy Partnership, helium, Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research (JASPER) Facility, nuclear power, plutonium, Plutonium Futures Conference, stockpile stewardship, uranium.


Imaging Complex Biomolecules in a Flash
Henry Chapman
Key Words: biological macromolecule, diffraction pattern, FLASH, Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), protein, Shrinkwrap algorithm, virus, x?-ray free-electron laser (FEL).

Lipid Rafts Observed in Cell Membranes
Tim Ratto
Key Words: atomic force microscopy (AFM), bilayer, cell membrane, cholesterol, fluorescent recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), lipid raft, phase separation.

Exchanging Insights on Quantum Behavior
Stephen B. Libby
Key Words: condensed-matter physics, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller equation of state, Edward Teller, Lyddane–Sachs–Teller relationship, Metropolis algorithm.

April 2007


Stardust Results Challenge Astronomical Convention
John Bradley
Key Words: Advanced Light Source, aerogel, Bay Area Particle Analysis Consortium (BayPAC), Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Comet Wild 2, Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics (IGPP), nanometer-scale secondary-ion mass spectrometer (NanoSIMS), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, Stardust spacecraft, super scanning transmission electron microscope (SuperSTEM), X-wind.

Fire in the Hole
Julio Friedmann
Key Words: carbon dioxide capture and storage, carbon sequestration, hydrogen production, underground coal gasification (UCG).


Big Physics in Small Spaces
David Trebotich
Key Words: algorithm, biosensor, continuum model, DNA, fluid flow, microchannel, microfluidic device, multiscale computational fluid dynamics, particle model, post array, viscoelastic fluid.

A New Block on the Periodic Table
Dawn Shaughnessy
Key Words: element 118, heavy elements, island of stability, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR).

A Search for Patterns and Connections
Stephen B. Libby
Key Words: anharmonic oscillator, Ashkin–Teller model, computational physics, Edward Teller, mathematical physics, Metropolis algorithm, Schrödinger equation, Thomas–Fermi model.

March 2007


Advancing the Frontiers in Cancer Research
Jim Felton
Key Words: accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), cancer, carboplatin, cisplatin, dielectric wall accelerator, principal component analysis (PCA), proton accelerator, proton beam therapy, time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), University of California (UC) Davis Cancer Center.

On the Leading Edge of Atmospheric Predictions
Gayle Sugiyama
Key Words: airborne toxic release, atmospheric chemistry, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), event reconstruction, fallout model, FEM3MP, Interagency Modeling and Atmospheric Assessment Center (IMAAC), National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC), precipitation scavenging, urban-scale dispersion model, Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model.


Climate and Agriculture: Change Begets Change
David Lobell
Key Words: agriculture, California, climate change, food supply, global warming, land use, perennial crops, Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison (PCMDI).

New Routes to High Temperatures and Pressures
Jeff Nguyen
Key Words: diamond anvil cell, equation of state (EOS), functionally graded material (FGM) impactor, graded density, Hugoniot curve, Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research (JASPER) Facility, quasi-isentropic compression, two-stage light-gas gun.

From Sound Waves to Stars: Teller’s Contributions to Shock Physics
Stephen B. Libby
Key Words: Edward Teller, magnetohydrodynamics, Manhattan Project, shock physics.

January/February 2007


Titan Leads the Way in Laser–Matter Science
Andrew Ng
Key Words: backlighter, electron transport, equation of state (EOS), fast ignition, high-energy-density (HED) science, impedance matching, inertial confinement fusion (ICF), Janus laser, Jupiter Laser Facility, multilayer dielectric grating, Petawatt laser, proton transport, Titan laser.

Identifying the Source of Stolen Nuclear Materials
David Smith
Key Words: cosmochemistry, Forensic Science Center, Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), nuclear attribution, nuclear forensics, Nuclear Forensics Analysis Center, nuclear material, nuclear terrorism..


Tiny Tubes Make the Flow Go
Olgica Bakajin and Aleksandr Noy
Key Words: carbon nanotube membrane, Center for Micro- and Nanotechnology, filtration, microfluidics.

Acidic Microbe Community Fosters the Unique
Michael Thelen
Key Words: acid mine drainage, archaea, bacteria, genomics, iron oxidation, Leptospirillum, proteomics.

December 2006


Diagnosing Flu Fast
Mary McBride
Key Words: Autonomous Pathogen Detection System, FluIDx, influenza, KPATH, multiplex assays, point-of-care diagnosis, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respiratory disease.


An Action Plan to Reopen a Contaminated Airport
Ellen Raber
Key Words: airport, bioterrorism, decontamination, emergency response and recovery, rapid viability polymerase chain reaction (RV-PCR), subway, transportation facilities.

Early Detection of Bone Disease
Darren Hillegonds
Key Words: accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), bone disease, calcium-41, cancer, Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (CAMS).

Taking a Gander with Gamma Rays
Christopher Barty
Key Words: cargo inspection, gamma-ray spectrum, isotope photography, nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) imaging, Thomson-radiated extreme x-ray (T-REX) system, Thomson scattering.

November 2006


Thunder’s Power Delivers Breakthrough Science
Brian Carnes
Key Words: 1BBL protein, Atlas supercomputer, climate change, confined water, dislocation dynamics, Green Data Oasis, Multiprogrammatic and Institutional Computing (M&IC) Program, Parallel Dislocation Simulator (ParaDiS) code, plasticity, protein folding, Qbox code, Replica Exchange Molecular Dynamics, Thunder supercomputer.

Extracting Key Content from Images
David Paglieroni
Key Words: gradient direction matching (GDM) algorithm, Image Content Engine (ICE), Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), National Ignition Facility (NIF), Predictive Knowledge Systems (PKS).


Got Oxygen?
Jason Raymond
Key Words: anaerobic organisms, bioinformatics, evolution, metabolic network expansion, oxygen, oxygenation.

A Shocking New Form of Laserlike Light
Evan Reed
Key Words: coherent light, crystal lattice arrays, ionic crystals, laser, molecular dynamics simulations, shock wave, terahertz frequency, Thunder supercomputer.

October 2006


Surveillance on the Fly
Deanna Pennington
Key Words: electro-optical sensors, graphics processing unit, nonproliferation, R&D 100 Award, Sonoma Persistent Surveillance System, video imagery, visualization.

A Detector Radioactive Particles Can’t Evade
Stephan Friedrich
Key Words: lithium fluoride, mechanical pulse-tube refrigerator, radiation detection, R&D 100 Award, Ultrahigh-Resolution Gamma and Neutron Spectrometer (UltraSpec).

Babel Speeds Communication among Programming Languages
Thomas Epperly
Key Words: Babel, Common Component Architecture Forum, Fortran, language interoperability, R&D 100 Award, Scientific Interface Definition Language (SIDL).

A Gem of a Software Tool
Chandrika Kamath
Key Words: data-mining software, R&D 100 Award, Sapphire.

Interferometer Improves the Search for Planets
David Erskine
Key Words: externally dispersed interferometry (EDI), moireL pattern, R&D 100 Award, spectroscopy.

Efficiently Changing the Color of Laser Light
Christopher Ebbers
Key Words: high-average-power laser, Mercury laser, potassium di-deuterium phosphate (DKDP) crystal, R&D 100 Award, wavelength conversion, yttrium|calcium|oxyborate (YCOB) crystal.

Pocket-Sized Test Detects Trace Explosives
John Reynolds
Key Words: Easy Livermore Inspection Test for Explosives (E.L.I.T.E.TM) card, explosives testing, R&D 100 Award.

Featured Article

Tailor-Made Microdevices Serve Big Needs
Anantha Krishnan
Key Words: Center for Micro- and Nanotechnology (CMNT), deformable mirror, grayscale lithography, microelectrode array, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), microfluidic device, microresonator, Nanobarcodes(R), nanolaminate, photonics, pillar detector, retinal prosthesis, thermal neutron?etector.

September 2006


Re-creating the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake
Arthur J. Rodgers, Jr.
Key Words: ALE3D, CODE3, DYNA3D, E3D, earthquake, Hayward|Rodgers Creek Fault, Lawson report, Loma Prieta earthquake, morphochronology, Sacramento|San Joaquin Delta levees, San Andreas Fault, seismology, ShakeMap, spectral element method (SEM), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Wave Propagation Program (WPP), 1906 San Francisco earthquake.

Decoding the Origin of a Bioagent
Steve Velsko
Key Words: atomic force microscopy (AFM), Bacillus anthracis, biological agent, Clostridium novyi-NT, genetic typing, insertion sequence (IS) elements, microbial forensics, nanometer-scale secondary-ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS), National Bioforensics Analysis Center (NBFAC), polymerase chain reaction (PCR), polymorphism, Scientific Working Group for Forensic Analysis of Microbial Evidence (SWGFAME), Yersinia pestis.


A New Look at How Aging Bones Fracture
John Kinney
Key Words: bone density, bone fracture, bone structure, buckling, NIKE3D, osteoporosis, trabecular bone.

Fusion Targets on the Double
Matthew Bono
Key Words: ablator, aerogel, concentric tolerance, diamond turning, double-shell target, fusion experiment, submicrometer machining.

July/August 2006


A New Realm of Materials Science
Hector Lorenzana
Key Words: crystalline lattice, dynamic x-ray diffraction (DXRD), materials science, phase transformations, shocked solids, ultrafast lattice response, x-ray scattering.

Planets and Stars under the Magnifying Glass
Kem Cook
Key Words: extrasolar planets, gravitational microlensing, Massively Compact Halo Object (MACHO) Project, Microlensing Observations in Astrophysics (MOA), OGLE-2005-BLG-290-Lb, Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE), Probing Lensing Anomalies Network (PLANET), Robotic Telescope Network (RoboNet).


Keeping an Eye on the Prize
Fred Streitz
Key Words: Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI), Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Program, BlueGene/L, domain decomposition molecular-dynamics (ddcMD) code, Gordon Bell Prize, model-generalized pseudo-potential theory (MGPT), solidification.

June 2006


Next-Generation Scientists and Engineers Tap Lab’s Resources
Paul Dickinson
Key Words: bioaerosol mass spectrometry (BAMS) system, Department of Applied Science (DAS), diamond anvil cell (DAC), homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI), matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI), neutron spectrometer, potassium dihydrogen phosphate, Qbox, Student Employee Graduate Research Fellowship (SEGRF) Program, ultrawideband (UWB) communications.

Adaptive Optics Provide a Clearer View
Scot Olivier
Key Words: adaptive optics (AO), Center for Adaptive Optics (CfAO), fiber laser, Gemini Observatory, Keck Observatory, Laboratory for Adaptive Optics, laser guide star, Lick Observatory, MEMS-based adaptive optics phoropter (MAOP), microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), National Science Foundation, optical coherence tomography (OCT), scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO), Science Technology Center, Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT), vision science.


Wired on the Nanoscale
Yu Huang
Key Words: bacteriophage, biological scaffolds, DNA, genetic engineering, Lawrence Fellowship Program, nanosystems, nanotechnology, nanowires, quantum dots, virus.

Too Hot to Handle
Bala Govindasamy
Key Words: carbon cycle, carbon dioxide emissions, carbon sink, climate modeling, deforestation, fossil-fuel depletion, global climate change, global warming, greenhouse gases, land use, oceanic acidity, vegetation?hange.

May 2006


Imagers Provide Eyes to See Gamma Rays
Lorenzo Fabris
Key Words: coded aperture, Compton imager, gamma-ray imager, large-area gamma-ray imager, radiation detector.

Protecting the Nation’s Livestock
Ray Lenhoff
Key Words: agroterrorism, bioassay, foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), foreign animal disease (FAD), homeland security, National Animal Health Laboratory Network (NAHLN), National Veterinary Services Laboratory (NVSL), U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA).


Measures for Measures
Peter Poulsen
Key Words: emissivity, high-precision thermometry, infrared spectrometry, relative reflectivity method, spectrum method.

Looping through the Lamb Shift
Peter Beiersdorfer
Key Words: electron-beam ion trap, ions, polarized vacuum, quantum electrodynamics (QED), quantum fluctuations, quantum mechanics, self-energy, spectroscopy, SuperEBIT, two-loop Lamb shift, uranium, virtual particles, virtual photons.

April 2006


Measuring Contact Stress inside Weapon Systems
Jack Kotovsky
Key Words: Joint Test Assemblies (JTAs), microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), optical sensor, polyimide, stress sensor.

Transparent Ceramics Spark Laser Advances
Thomas Soules
Key Words: hot isostatic press (HIP), laser diodes, neodymium-doped gadolinium-gallium-garnet (Nd:GGG), neodymium-doped yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG), passive Q-switch, samarium-doped yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Sm:YAG), sintering, Solid-State Heat Capacity Laser (SSHCL), transparent ceramics.


Studying the Behavior of Crystal Deformation
David Lassila and Jeff Florando
Key Words: crystal deformation, dislocation dynamics, metallic single crystals, six degrees of freedom (6DOF), slip systems, strain, stress, three-dimensional (3D) image correlation.

An Accelerated Collaboration Meets with Beaming Success
George Caporaso
Key Words: Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamics Test (DARHT) Facility, DARHT-II, Experimental Test Accelerator-II (ETA-II), stockpile stewardship, validation, x rays, x-ray imaging.

March 2006


These People Make Things Happen
Maurice B. Aufderheide III
Key Words: Advanced Simulation and Computing Program, biodefense, BlueGene/L, complementary medicine, High Explosives Application Facility (HEAF), Multiprogrammatic Capability Resource supercomputer, National Ignition Facility, proteomics, University of California Breast Cancer Research Program, Yersinia pestis.

Research Highlights

The Shocking Truth about Detonations and Metals
John Molitoris
Key Words: aluminum, fragmentation, high explosives, High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF), Hydra multichannel x-ray system, metal behavior, shock wave, spall, x-radiography.

Floating into Thin Air
Bill Craig
Key Words: active galactic nuclei (AGN), balloon launch, black holes, hard x rays, High Energy Focusing Telescope (HEFT), Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), soft x rays.

Carbon Goes Full Circle in the Amazon
Tom Brown
Key Words: Amazon River basin, carbon-14, carbon cycle, carbon dioxide, Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (CAMS), radiocarbon dating, sequestration.

January/February 2006


Mimicking Nature’s Crystalline Structures
Jim De Yoreo
Key Words: abalone nacre, Alloy 22, atomic force microscopy (AFM), biomineralization, calcite, calcium carbonate, calcium oxalate dyhydrate (COD), calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM), corrosion, deuterium|tritium (D|T) gas, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals.

Simulating Materials for Nanostructural Designs
Eric Schwegler
Key Words: confined water, hydrophilic, hydrophobic, nanofluidic devices, nanostructures, Qbox code, silicon carbide.

Research Highlights

Zeroing In on New Targets
Matthew Bono
Key Words: copper targets, equations of state (EOS), laser targets, machine tools, National Ignition Facility (NIF), precision machining, shock velocity, target fabrication.

Monitoring Nuclear Reactors with Antineutrinos
Adam Bernstein
Key Words: antineutrino detector, coherent elastic scatter, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), inverse beta decay, nuclear power reactor, plutonium, uranium.

December 2005


Modeling the Future
Cliff Shang
Key Words: Life Extension Program (LEP), Limited Life Component Exchange (LLCE), nuclear enterprise model, Reliable Replacement Warhead (RRW) Program, stockpile stewardship.

A Peculiar Burst of Stars
Wil van Breugel
Key Words: accretion disks, black holes, COSMOS code, early universe, electromagnetic spectrum, gas clouds, Minkowsk fs Object, molecular hydrogen, nearby galaxies, NGC 541, neutral hydrogen, radio astronomy, radio emission, radio interferometry, radio jets, radio telescope, star formation, Very Large Array (VLA).


Exploring the Link between Diet and Cancer
Kristen Kulp
Key Words: 2-amino-1,6-dimethylfuro[3,2-e]imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (IFP), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazol[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), estradiol, estrogen-receptor protein, food mutagen, heterocyclic amine.

When Lightning Strikes at Site 300
Charles G. Brown
Key Words: explosives, Faraday cage, hazard management, lightning, signal processing, Site 300, workplace safety.

November 2005


Materials Scientists Discover the Power of ParaDiS
Vasily Bulatov
Key Words: Advanced Light Source (ALS), Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Program, BlueGene/L, body-centered-cubic (bcc) metals, dislocation dynamics, multijunction, multinode, Parallel Dislocation Simulator (ParaDiS), six degrees of freedom (6DOF), stockpile stewardship, Thunder, transmission electron microscope (TEM).

A Wide New Window on the Universe
James Brase
Key Words: adaptive optics, asteroid, comet, dark energy, dark matter, gravitational lensing, Kuiper Belt, Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), National Ignition Facility (NIF), near-Earth objects, supernovae, wavefront sensing.


Built for Speed: Graphics Processors for General-Purpose Computing
John Johnson and Shiela Vaidya
Key Words: central processing unit (CPU), general-purpose programming, Graphics Architectures for Intelligence Applications (GAIA) project, graphics processing unit (GPU), knowledge discovery, streaming architectures.

Negative Plasma Densities Raise Questions
Joe Nilsen
Key Words: bound electrons, free electrons, fringe shifts, index of refraction, plasma density, x-ray interferometry.

October 2005

R&D 100 Awards Highlights

NanoFoil® Solders with Less
Troy Barbee
Key Words: computer industry, NanoBond process, NanoFoil, nanotechnology, R&D 100 Award.

Detecting Radiation on the Move
Daniel Archer
Key Words: adaptable radiation area monitor (ARAM), homeland security, radiation detection, R&D 100 Award.

Identifying Airborne Pathogens in Time to Respond
Vincent Riot
Key Words: airborne pathogen, anthrax, bioaerosol mass spectrometry (BAMS) system, R&D 100 Award.

Picture Perfect with VisIT
Eric Brugger
Key Words: open-source visualization software, R&D 100 Award, VisIT.

Featured Article

Revealing the Mysteries of Water
Christopher Mundy
Key Words: Car-Parinello molecular dynamics (CPMD) code, classical molecular dynamics, extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), first-principles molecular dynamics, hydrogen bonds, near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS), superionic phase, Thunder, water research.


Lightweight Target Generates Bright, Energetic X Rays
Kevin Fournier
Key Words: aerogels, doped aerogels, HELEN laser, inertial confinement fusion (ICF), National Ignition Facility (NIF), OMEGA laser, radiation-effects tests, x rays, Z-pinch accelerator.

September 2005


A Dynamo of a Plasma
Dave Hill
Key Words: fusion energy, magnetic reconnection, NIMROD code, Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX).

How One Equation Changed the World
Maurice Aufderheide
Key Words: Albert Einstein, E = mc2, fission, fusion, Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Purchase Agreement, inertial confinement fusion, International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), magnetic fusion energy, Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS), Main Injector Particle Production (MIPP), National Ignition Facility (NIF), neutrinos, SSTAR (small, sealed, transportable, autonomous reactor), Stockpile Stewardship Program.


Recycled Equations Help Verify Livermore Codes
Bill Moran
Key Words: Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Program, analytic solutions, code verification and validation, hydrodynamics, stockpile stewardship, three-dimensional (3D) modeling.

Dust That’s Worth Keeping
Hope Ishii
Key Words: 2,175-angstrom feature, focused ion beam, glass with embedded metals and sulfides (GEMS), interplanetary dust particle (IDP), nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometer (NanoSIMS), presolar grains, transmission electron microscope (TEM).

July/August 2005


Orchestrating the World's Most Powerful Laser
Paul VanArsdall and Larry Lagin
Key Words: front-end processor (FEP), integrated computer control system (ICCS), laser performance operations model (LPOM), National Ignition Facility (NIF), NIF Early Light, stockpile stewardship.

A Random Walk through Time and Space
Maurice Aufderheide
Key Words: Albert Einstein, blackbody radiation, hohlraum, inertial confinement fusion, light quanta, photoelectric effect, photons, quantum mechanics, single-photon detection, x-ray lasers, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.


The Search for Methane in Earth's Mantle
Larry Fried
Key Words: CHEETAH code, diamond anvil cell (DAC), hydrocarbon, methane, Raman spectroscopy, thermodynamics, x-ray diffraction.

Testing the Physics of Nuclear Isomers
John Becker
Key Words: Advanced Photon Source (APS), gamma rays, gamma-ray lasers, hafnium, Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, nuclear battery, nuclear isomers, radioactive decay, stimulated emission.

June 2005


Mining Genomes
Ivan Ovcharenko
Key Words: Comparative Genomics Center, DNA, ECR Browser, eShadow, evolutionary conserved region (ECR), gene desert, Human Genome Project, Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Mulan, multiTF, regulatory element (RE), rVista, SynoR, transcription factor binding site (TFBS), zPicture.

Shedding Light on Quantum Physics
Maurice Aufderheide
Key Words: Albert Einstein, blackbody radiation, hohlraum, inertial confinement fusion, light quanta, photoelectric effect, photons, quantum mechanics, single-photon detection, x-ray lasers, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.


The Sharper Image for Surveillance
Carmen Carrano
Key Words: atmospheric turbulence, enhanced surveillance, speckle imaging, image processing.

Keeping It Cool Close to the Sun
Norman Madden
Key Words: gamma-ray spectrometer (GRS), germanium detector, KEVLAR fiber, Mercury, MESSENGER, thermal shielding, vibration testing.

May 2005


Applying Einstein’s Theories of Relativity
Maurice Aufderheide
Key Words: AfterglowView, Albert Einstein, COMPASS (computer models of the physics of accretion disk structure and spectra) code, COSMOS code, HULLAC (Hebrew University and Lawrence Livermore atomic code), Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC), speed of light, theory of general relativity, theory of special relativity.

Locked in Rock: Sequestering Carbon Dioxide Underground
Larry Friedmann
Key Words: carbon sequestration, Carbon Storage Initiative, climate change, crosswell electromagnetic (EM) imaging, electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), FutureGen Initiative, GEMBOCHS, global warming, hyperspectral cameras, LDEC, NUFT, reactive transport modeling, SLIP (solventless vapor deposition combined with in situ polymerization) process, Teapot Dome.


Modeling the Subsurface Movement of Radionuclides
Gayle Pawloski
Key Words: Cheshire test, environmental restoration, groundwater flow, hydrologic source term, Nevada Test Site, NUFT code, Pahute Mesa, radionuclides, underground nuclear testing, Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project.

Novel Materials from Solgel Chemistry
Joe Satcher
Key Words: aerogel, gelation, polymerization, solgel chemistry, supercritical drying, xerogel.

April 2005


Monitoring Earth’s Subsurface from Space
Paul Vincent
Key Words: Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), digital elevation model (DEM), E3D, finite-element model, interferogram, interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR), International Monitoring System (IMS), nuclear explosion monitoring, remote sensing, synthetic aperture radar (SAR).

Faculty on Sabbatical Find a Good Home at Livermore
Harry Radousky
Key Words: Advanced Light Source (ALS), European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), laser-heated diamond anvil cell (LHDAC), Naval Postgraduate School (NPS), Sabbatical Scholars Program, University Relations Program (URP).


Finding Genes by Leaps and Bounds
Gabriela Loots
Key Words: Biosciences Directorate, comparative sequence analysis, evolutionary gene conservation, frogs, functional genomics, gene sequence, Joint Genome Institute, Xenopus tropicalis.

Into the Wild Blue Yonder with BlueGene/L
Mark Seager
Key Words: Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Program, barrier interconnect, binary-tree interconnect, BlueGene/L, node, scalability, stockpile stewardship, supercomputer, three-dimensional torus interconnect, Top500 list.

March 2005


Building Networks of Trust through Collaborative Science
Richard Knapp
Key Words: Central Asia, Central Asia Seismic Risk Initiative (CASRI), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), earthquakes, Middle East, seismology, South Asia, United Arab Emirates (UAE), uranium processing, U.S. Central Command (CENTCOM), water issues, weapons of mass destruction (WMD).

Tracing the Steps in Nuclear Material Trafficking
Ian Hutcheon
Key Words: Forensic Science Center (FSC), gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), nano-secondary ion mass spectrometer (NanoSIMS), nuclear forensic analysis, Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group (ITWG), scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope.


Looking at Earth in Action
Brian Bonner
Key Words: gas hydrates, geophysics, ice physics, methane hydrate, San Andreas Fault.

Gamma-Ray Bursts Shower the Universe with Metals
Jason Pruet
Key Words: accretion disk, black hole, collapsar model, copper, disk wind, gamma-ray burst (GRB), neutron star, nickel, nuclear reaction network, nucleosynthesis, scandium, supernova, zinc.

January/February 2005


Experiment and Theory Have a New Partner: Simulation
Mark Seager
Key Words: Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Program, atmospheric chemistry modeling, BlueGene/L, climate change, crack propagation, ductile failure, GP code, hydrogen melt curve, IMPACT code, laser–plasma interactions, Linux clusters, liquid–vapor interfaces, molecular dynamics, Multiprogrammatic and Institutional Computer (M&IC) Initiative, Multiprogrammatic Capability Resource (MCR), National Ignition Facility (NIF), Purple, seismic wave analysis, supercomputers, Thunder, White.

Russian Weapons Workers Begin New Commercial Venture
Jay Zucca
Key Words: Federal Atomic Energy Agency, former Soviet Union (FSU), Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (IPP), nonproliferation, Nuclear Cities Initiative (NCI), Proliferation and Terrorism Prevention Program, Russian Ministry of Atomic Energy, Russian Transition Initiatives.


Terascale Simulation Facility: Built for Flexibility
Barbara Atkinson
Key Words: Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Program, BlueGene/L, data visualization, Purple, supercomputer, Terascale Simulation Facility (TSF).

Mining Geothermal Resources
Bill Bourcier
Key Words: cascaded use, geothermal energy, geothermal mining, Mammoth Lakes, silica extraction.

December 2004


Putting the Squeeze on Materials
Sam Weir
Key Words: actinides, designer diamond anvil, diamond anvil cell (DAC), electrical conductivity, ultradense hydrogen, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program, lanthanides, laser pantography, magnetic susceptibility, microcircuits, plutonium, uranium.

The Art of Protein Structure Prediction
Krzysztof Fidelis
Key Words: Critical Assessment of Techniques for Protein Structure Prediction (CASP), global distance test (GDT), Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program, Local–Global Alignment (LGA), Protein Data Bank (PDB), protein folding, Protein Structure Prediction Center.


It’s All in Motion When Simulating Fluids
Jim Rathkopf
Key Words: complex particle kinetics (CPK) code, high-energy-density physics, HYDRA code, hohlraum, hydrodynamics, MIRANDA code, plasma, Rayleigh–Taylor instability, Reynolds number.

X Rays, Detonations, and Dead Zones
John Molitoris
Key Words: aerogel, deflagration, detonation, High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF), high-flux radiography system (HFRS), hydrodynamics, x rays.

November 2004


Probing the Universe with Mirrors That Trick Light
Bill Craig
Key Words: Gamma Ray Arcminute Telescope Imaging System (GRATIS), hard x ray, High Energy Focusing Telescope (HEFT), multilayer-coated mirrors, Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), Small Animal Radionuclide Imaging System, x-ray optics.

From Seeing to Understanding
Steve Louis
Key Words: Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Program, BlueGene/L, Center for Applied Scientific Computing (CASC), Chromium, Distributed Multihead X (DMX), gViz, Linux, Purple, stockpile stewardship, supercomputing, Terascale Browser, Visual Interactive Environment for Weapons Simulation (VIEWS), VisIt, White.


The Right Bang for the Job
Bill Bateson
Key Words: ammunition, collateral damage, deflagration, detonation, hand grenade, high explosives (HE), yield select.

Cell by Cell: Moving toward a More Predictive Future
Allen Christian
Key Words: Biology and Biotechnology Research Program (BBRP), cellular processes, computational biology, Genomes to Life, genomics, GTL:Genomics, Human Genome Project, instrumented cell, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD), microfluidics, quantitative biology, systems biology.

October 2004

2004 R&D Awards

Detecting Bioaerosols When Time Is of the Essence
Richard Langlois
Key Words: anthrax, Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS), biological agents, bioterrorism, multiplex immunoassay, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), R&D 100 Award, ricin.

Getting the Big Picture
Sean Ahern
Key Words: Chromium software, clustered rendering, commodity clusters, OpenGL library, parallel graphics library, parallel visualization, powerwall display, R&D 100 Award.

Laser Burrows into the Earth to Destroy Land Mines
Mark Rotter
Key Words: demining, Diode-Pumped Pulsed Laser for Mine Clearing (DP-PLMC), land mine, R&D 100 Award, solid-state heat capacity laser (SSHCL).

Shutting Down Genes in Cancer, Bacteria, and Viruses
Allen Christian
Key Words: cancer, functional genomics, gene expression, gene silencing, gene therapy, R&D 100 Award, ribonucleic acid (RNA) interference, siHybrids, short interfering RNA (siRNA).

Magnetically Levitated Train Takes Flight
Richard Post
Key Words: Halbach array, Inductrack, magnetically levitated (maglev) train, permanent magnets, R&D 100 Award, urban transportation.

Featured Article

The Power of Partnership
Laura Gilliom
Key Words: accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), adaptive optics, biophotonics, Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (CAMS), Center for Adaptive Optics, Center for Biophotonics Science and Technology (CBST), Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics (IGPP), University of California (UC), UC Office of the President (UCOP), University Relations Program (URP).

September 2004


Radiation Detection on the Front Lines
Simon Labov
Key Words: Compton camera, gamma-ray imaging spectrometer (GRIS), large-area imager, Radiation Detection Center (RDC), RadNet, Seaborg Institute for Transactinium Science, sensor fusion, ultrahigh-resolution neutron spectrometer.

Exploring the Ultrawideband
Steve Azevedo
Key Words: High-Performance Electromagnetic Roadway Mapping and Evaluation System (HERMES) Bridge Inspector, micropower impulse radar (MIR), narrowband, ultrawideband (UWB).


Virtual Problem Solving for Homeland Security
Rob Hills
Key Words: Advanced Combat and Tactical Simulation (ACATS), Department of Homeland Security, entity-based simulations, Joint Conflict and Tactical Simulation (JCATS).

Solid-State Technology Meets Collider Challenge
Jeff Gronberg
Key Words: electron–positron linear collider, Next Linear Collider (NLC), klystron, particle accelerator, solid-state modulator, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), thyratron, vacuum-tube technology.

July/August 2004


Helping Water Managers Ensure Clean and Reliable Supplies
Robin Newmark
Key Words: denitrification, electrodialysis, global climate change, hydrologic cycle, Laboratory Directed Research and Development, nitrate contamination, water purification.

Going to Extremes
Larry Fried
Key Words: CHEETAH code, chemical kinetics, diamond anvil cell, equation of state, extreme chemistry, gas gun, high explosives (HE), planetary physics, shock physics, thermochemical code.


Nuclear Energy to Go: A Self-Contained, Portable Reactor
Craig Smith
Key Words: Central Research Institute for Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI); lead-cooled fast reactor (LFR); Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT); nuclear reactor; small, sealed, transportable, autonomous reactor (SSTAR).

This Instrument Keeps the Beat
Ted Strand
Key Words: CHEETAH code, chemical kinetics, diamond anvil cell, equation of state, extreme chemistry, gas gun, high explosives (HE), planetary physics, shock physics, thermochemical code.

June 2004


Shocking Plutonium to Reveal Its Secrets
Mark Martinez
Key Words: Device Assembly Facility, equation of state, gas gun, Hugoniot curve, Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research (JASPER) Facility, Nevada Test Site (NTS), plutonium, stockpile stewardship, Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR).

Strategic Supercomputing Comes of Age
Randy Christensen
Key Words: Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI), Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Program, ASC Purple, ASC White, BlueGene/L, descriptive models, Life Extension Program, materials modeling, predictive models, quantification of margins and uncertainties (QMU), Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP), Verification and Validation (V & V) Program, weapons certification.


A Bang-Up Job: Keeping Things Clean at the Contained Firing Facility
Gordon Krauter
Key Words: beryllium, Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP), Contained Firing Facility (CFF), Site 300.

Seeing the Universe in a Grain of Dust
John Bradley
Key Words: Comet Wild 2, focused-ion-beam microscopy, interplanetary dust particles, nano secondary-ion mass spectrometry (nanoSIMS), Stardust, SuperSTEM (scanning transmission electron microscope).

May 2004


Life at the Nanoscale
Jim De Yoreo
Key Words: atomic force microscopy (AFM), biodefense, BioSecurity and Nanosciences Laboratory (BSNL), bioterrorism, DNA, Genomics:GTL Program, nanoparticles, nanoscale, nanotube, pathogens, pathomics, prions, proteomics, signatures, smallpox.

Scrubbing Cargo Containers to Remove a Terrorist Threat
Dennis Slaughter
Key Words: cargo containers, gamma rays, highly enriched uranium (HEU), homeland security, liquid scintillator, nuclear materials, neutron generator, plutonium, terrorism, weapons of mass destruction.


Algorithm Improvements Speed It Up for Codes
Eugene Brooks and Jeff Grossman
Key Words: algorithm, difference formulation, implicit Monte Carlo (IMC) method, Monte Carlo, nanoscience, quantum dots, Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) method, thermal radiation transport, Wannier basis.

The Siren Call of the Seas: Sequestering Carbon Dioxide
Ken Calderia
Key Words: carbonate dissolution, carbon dioxide sequestration, Center for Research on Ocean Carbon Sequestration, fossil fuels, iron fertilization, ocean general-circulation model, ocean sequestration.

April 2004


On the Front Lines of Biodefense
Thomas Slezak
Key Words: BASIS, bioinformatics, bioterrorism, BioWatch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), DNA, foot-and-mouth disease, Human Genome Project, KPATH, microbe, pathogen, protein signature, RNA, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), smallpox.

Defending against Corrosion
Dan McCright
Key Words: Alloy 22, engineered barrier system, laser peening, Long-Term Corrosion Test Facility (LTCTF), Nevada Test Site, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, nuclear waste repository, Yucca Mountain.


Engine Shows Diesel Efficiency without the Emissions
Salvador Aceves
Key Words: combustion; homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine; hydrodynamics, chemistry, and transport (HCT) code; KIVA code.

January/February 2004


Small Particle May Answer Large Physics Questions
Leslie Rosenberg
Key Words: axion, charge-parity (CP) violation, dark matter, heterostructure field-effect transistor (HFET), microwave photons, particle physics, superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID).

A First Look at Plutonium’s Phonons
Joe Wong
Key Words: actinides, dynamical mean field theory, gallium, phonon dispersion curve (PDC), plutonium.


A Walk on the Wild Side
Thom Kato
Key Words: birds, Blepharizonia plumosa (big tarplant), endangered species, plants, threatened species, wildlife.

March 2004


Rich Legacy from Atoms for Peace
Eileen Vergino
Key Words: Adaptable Radiation Area Monitor (ARAM), Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASCI) Program, Atoms for Peace, biodosimetry, Center for Global Security Research (CGSR), Joint Verification Experiment (JVE), National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC), Project Plowshare, proton therapy, Radiation Detection Center, Radiation Measurement Facility (RMF).

Tropopause Height Becomes Another Climate-Change “Fingerprint”
Benjamin Santer
Key Words: Department of Energy’s Parallel Climate Model (PCM), global warming, National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison (PCMDI), stratosphere, tropopause, troposphere.


A Better Method for Certifying the Nuclear Stockpile
Charles Verdon
Key Words: quantification of margins and uncertainties (QMU), Stockpile Stewardship Program.

Observing How Proteins Loop the Loop
Olgica Bakajin
Key Words: amino acids, fluorescence detection, microfluidics, protein folding kinetics.

January/February 2004


Small Particle May Answer Large Physics Questions
Leslie Rosenberg
Key Words: axion, charge-parity (CP) violation, dark matter, heterostructure field-effect transistor (HFET), microwave photons, particle physics, superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID).


A First Look at Plutonium’s Phonons
Joe Wong
Key Words: actinides, dynamical mean field theory, gallium, phonon dispersion curve (PDC), plutonium.

A Walk on the Wild Side
Thom Kato
Key Words: birds, Blepharizonia plumosa (big tarplant), endangered species, plants, threatened species, wildlife.

Smart Buoys Help Protect Submarine Base
John Valentine
Key Words: Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA); homeland security; radiation detector; U.S. Navy submarine base at Kings Bay, Georgia.

December 2003


An Extraordinarily Bright Idea
Richard Bionta and Henry Chapman
Key Words: free-electron laser; Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS); linear accelerator (linac); protein structure; Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC); x-ray laser; warm, condensed matter.

Using Proton Beams to Create and Probe Plasmas
Pravesh Patel
Key Words: Janus ultrashort-pulse (JanUSP) laser, National Ignition Facility (NIF), Petawatt laser, plasma, protons.


Multigrid Solvers Do the Math Faster, More Efficiently
Rob Falgout
Key Words: Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Program; algebraic multigrid; ASCI supercomputers; geometric multigrid; hypre; Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program; linear equations; Mathematical, Information, and Computational Sciences Program; scalable linear solvers; simulation codes; Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDac) Program.

Predicting Stability for the High-Energy Buckyball
Riad Manaa
Key Words: Advanced Simulation and Computing Program, ASCI Blue, buckyball, carbon, fullerenes, nitrogen.

November 2003


When Semiconductors Go Nano
Tony van Buuren and Giulia Galli
Key Words: biodetector, buckyball, germanium, nanocluster, nanocrystal, nanodiamond, nanoparticle, nanoscale, nanoscience, nanotechnology, quantum dot, quantum molecular simulations, semiconductor, silicon.


Retinal Prosthesis Provides Hope for Restoring Sight
Courtney Davidson
Key Words: epiretinal, microarray, microfabrication, photoreceptor, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), retinal prosthesis.

Maglev on the Development Track for Urban Transportation
Dick Post
Key Words: Halbach array, high-speed train, Inductrack, magnetic levitation (maglev), permanent magnets, urban transportation.

Power Plant on a Chip Moves Closer to Reality
Ravi Upadhye
Key Words: Center for Microtechnology Engineering, fuel reactor, fuel reforming, hydrogen, methanol, micro fuel cell, micro fuel processor, microscale power source, proton-exchange membrane (PEM).

October 2003

2003 R&D 100 Awards

BASIS Counters Airborne Bioterrorism
Dennis Imbro
Key Words: BASIS (Biological Aerosol Sentry and Information System), BioWatch, bioterrorism, homeland security, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), R&D 100 Award.

In the Chips for the Coming Decade
Regina Soufli
Key Words: Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) full-field step-and-scan system, EUV LLC, R&D 100 Award, semiconductor computer chips.

Smoothing the Way to Print the Next Generation of Computer Chips
Paul Mirkarimi
Key Words: extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL), ion-beam thin-film planarization, R&D 100 Award, reticle.

Eyes Can See Clearly Now
Scot Olivier
Key Words: eyesight correction, microelectromechanical systems– (MEMS-) based adaptive optics phoropter (MAOP), R&D 100 Award, retinal disease.

This Switch Takes the Heat
Chris Ebbers
Key Words: high-average-power lasers, laser peening, Mercury laser, R&D 100 Award, thermally compensated Q-switch.

Laser Process Forms Thick, Curved Metal Parts
Lloyd Hackel
Key Words: aircraft industry, LasershotSM Precision Metal Forming, nuclear waste canisters, R&D 100 Award, shot peening.

Featured Article

Characterizing Tiny Objects without Damaging Them
Harry Martz, Jr.
Key Words: acoustics, aerogel, amplitude contrast, as-built modeling, finite-element model, high-energy-density physics (HEDP) laser targets, inertial confinement fusion, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), mesoscale, National Ignition Facility (NIF), nondestructive characterization (NDC), phase contrast, proton radiography, Wolter optics, x-ray imaging, x-ray microscopy.

September 2003


The National Ignition Facility Comes to Life
Ed Moses
Key Words: control system, inertial confinement fusion, KDP (potassium dihydrogen phosphate) crystals, line replaceable units (LRUs), National Ignition Facility (NIF), neodymium-doped phosphate laser glass, plasma electrode Pockels cell (PEPC), Stockpile Stewardship Program, systems engineering.

Tracking the Activity of Bacteria Underground
Harry Beller and Staci Kane
Key Words: benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene (BTEX); biodegradation; groundwater; hydrocarbons; intrinsic bioremediation; leaking underground fuel tank (LUFT); liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS); natural attenuation; polymerase chain reaction (PCR).


When Every Second Counts—Pathogen Identification in Less Than a Minute
Eric Gard
Key Words: anthrax, bioaerosol mass spectrometry (BAMS), bioterrorism, airborne pathogens.

Portable Radiation Detector Provides Laboratory-Scale Precision in the Field
John Becker and Norm Madden
Key Words: counterterrorism, CryoFree/25, portable germanium radiation detector.

July/August 2003


An Inside Attack on Cancer
Christine Hartmann-Siantar
Key Words: gamma-ray detection, Modality-Inclusive Environment for Radiotherapeutic Variable Analysis (MINERVA), non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, PEREGRINE, radiation treatment, radiopharmaceuticals, secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), synthetic high-affinity ligand (SHAL).

Cells Respond Uniquely to Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation
Andrew Wyrobek
Key Words: DNA, human lymphoblastoid cells, ionizing radiation, Low-Dose Radiation Research Program, messenger RNA (mRNA), nanoscale dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometer (NanoSIMS), radiation-induced early-onset and sensitive genes (REOS).


A New Generation of Munitions
Michael Murphy
Key Words: ALE3D, CALE, carbon composite, CHEETAH, collateral damage, DYNA2D, HMX, munitions, TATB.

Whatever the Waste, New Facility Takes It On
Stephanie Goodwin
Key Words: Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF); depleted uranium; hazardous, radioactive, and mixed waste; In Situ Stabilization and Filter Encapsulation (IS*SAFE).

June 2003


Riding the Waves of Supercomputing Technology
Michael McCoy
Key Words: Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Program, ASCI Purple, ASCI supercomputers, BlueGene/L, computation strategy, E3D, laser-plasma interactions, Linux clusters, Multiprogrammatic Capability Resource (MCR), National Ignition Facility Early Light (NEL), PF3D code, seismic wave analysis.

Chromosome 19 and Lawrence Livermore Form a Long-Lasting Bond
Lisa Stubbs
Key Words: chromosome 19, comparative genomics, DNA, gene mapping, gene sequencing, Human Genome Project, Joint Genome Institute (JGI), pufferfish, regulatory genomics, sea squirt.


A New Way to Measure the Mass of Stars
Kem Cook
Key Words: gravitational microlensing, massively compact halo objects (MACHOs).

Flexibly Fueled Storage Tank Brings Hydrogen-Powered Cars Closer to Reality
Salavador Aceves
Key Words: compressed hydrogen, cryogenic compressed hydrogen, hydrogen fuel, liquid hydrogen.

May 2003


Chemical Weapons Can’t Evade This Lab
Armando Alcaraz
Key Words: chemical weapons, Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), Forensic Science Center (FSC), Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW).

Bird’s-Eye View Clarifies Research on the Ground
Bill Pickles
Key Words: carbon sequestration, Elkhorn Slough, energy infrastructure, geobotanical remote sensing, geothermal energy, homeland security, Mammoth Mountain, Nonproliferation Experiment.


Age Does Make a Difference
Jean Moran
Key Words: age-dating, groundwater contamination, stable oxygen isotopes, tritium–helium-3 analysis.

Reducing Aerodynamic Drag
Rose McCallen
Key Words: aerodynamics, computational fluid dynamics, heavy trucks, large-eddy simulations (LES), Reynolds-Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) models.

April 2003


Finding the Missing Piece in the Climate Change Puzzle
Catherine Chuang
Key Words: aerosols, biomass, black carbon, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), Community Climate Model (CCM), dimethylsulfide, global warming, GRANTOUR, IMPACT, National Center for Atmospheric Research, soot, sulfate.

An Elusive Transformation—The Mystery of Oscillating Neutrinos
Peter Barnes
Key Words: Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), high-energy physics, Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS), Main Injector Particle Production (MIPP), neutrino oscillation, particle physics, proton radiography.


Toward a Common Data Model for Supercomputing
Linnea Cook
Key Words: Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASCI), Hierarchical Data Format 5 (HDF5), input/output (I/O) libraries, R&D 100 Award, supercomputing.

Into the Vortex—New Insights into the Behavior of Dynamic Fluids
Paul Miller
Key Words: centrifugal baroclinic torque, fluid dynamics, Richtmyer–Meshkov instability, secondary instability.

March 2003


A New Code Simulates the Cosmos
Peter Anninos
Key Words: astrophysics, black hole accretion, COSMOS code, dwarf galaxies, early cosmology, radio jetcloud interactions, star formation.

A Giant Leap for Space Telescopes
Rod Hyde
Key Words: diffractive telescope, Eyeglass, Eyepiece, Fresnel lens, Hubble Space Telescope, Magnifying Glass, National Ignition Facility, photolithography.


Checking Out the Hot Spots
Jack Reaugh
Key Words: ALE3D, Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASCI) Program, chemical kinetics, high explosives, high-pressure activities, hot spots, HMX, hydrodynamics codes, TeraCluster2000 (TC2K), voids.

January/February 2003


A Question of Quarks
Ron Soltz
Key Words: Brookhaven National Laboratory, particle physics, PHENIX detector, quark–gluon plasma, Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC).

Island Paradise Regained
Terry Hamilton
Key Words: accelerator mass spectrometry, Bravo test, cesium-137, Center for Mass Spectrometry (CAMS), dose assessment, Enewetak, Marshall Islands resettlement, Nuclear Test Program, plutonium, Rongelap, whole body counting.


Understanding Cells in a New Way with Three-Dimensional Models
Andrew Quong
Key Words: Advanced Scientific Computing Initiative, ALE3D, biosecurity, calcium ion waves, confocal microscope, cystic fibrosis, Genomes to Life Program, homeland security, Human Genome Project, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), systems biology.

December 2002


Emerging from the Cold War: Stockpile Stewardship and Beyond
Kim Budil
Key Words: Center for Global Security Research (CGSR) Futures Project, nuclear test moratorium, post–Cold War science and technology, stockpile stewardship, underground nuclear testing, Vannevar Bush.


Machines from Interlocking Molecules
Andrew Vance
Key Words: catananes, molecular machines, rotaxanes, surface-attached mechanically interlocking molecules, Stanford Linear Accelerator (SLAC), x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS).

Laser Zaps Communication Bottleneck
Tony Ruggiero
Key Words: Department of Defense, laser communications, Secure Air–Optic Transport and Routing Network (SATRN).

November 2002


This Model Can Take the Heat
Mike Bradley
Key Words: COAMPS (Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction system), FIRETEC, geographical information sciences (GIS), High-Resolution Model for Strong Gradient Applications (HIGRAD), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), TeraCluster2000 supercomputer, wildfires.

The Best and the Brightest Come to Livermore
Harry Radousky
Key Words: Lawrence fellows, Lawrence Fellowship Program, postdoctoral positions.


A View to a Kill
Alex Pertica
Key Words: ballistic missile interceptor, High Altitude Observatory (HALO), high-speed camera, Remote Optical Characterization Sensor Suite (ROCSS), infrared spectrometry.


biological Research Evolves at Livermore
Cindy Thomas
Key Words: biological warfare agent detectors, Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (CAMS), chromosome painting, comparative genomics, computational biology, DNA repair, dosimetry, flow cytometry, food mutagens, glycophorin-A assay, Human Genome Project, Joint Genome Institute (JGI), proteomics, PEREGRINE, sperm mutations.

October 2002

R&D 100 Awards Highlights

Sending Up Signals for Genetic Variation
Allen Christian
Key Words: In Situ Rolling Circle Amplification, R&D 100 Award.

SiMM Is Anything But Simple
Ray Beach
Key Words: silicon monolithic microchannel (SiMM) laser diode array, solid-state laser diodes.

World's Most Powerful Solid-State Laser
Brent Dane
Key Words: neodymium-doped glass (Nd:glass), R&D 100 Award, solid-state heat-capacity laser (SSHCL), tactical laser weapon, U.S. Army Space and Missile Defense Command (USASMD).

Stepping Up to Extreme Lithography
Regina Soufli
Key Words: extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL), magnetron sputtering deposition, production-scale thin-film coating tool, R&D 100 Award, semiconductor computer chips.

Relief for Acute and Chronic Pain
John Marion
Key Words: electronic adhesive bandage, medical device, pain management, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS).


Energy and Environment: Understanding Our World
Norm Burkhard
Key Words: atmospheric transport and dispersion, coal gasification, fossil fuel, fuel cells, global climate modeling, groundwater contamination, inertial confinement fusion, magnetic fusion, Marshall Islands, nuclear fuel cycle, nuclear waste repository, Project Plowshare, rock mechanics, Yucca Mountain.

September 2002


A Hitchiker’s Guide to Early Earth
Jennifer Blank
Key Words: amino acids, astrobiology, liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy, origins of life, shock physics, solid-phase microextraction.

A New World of Maps
Charles H. Hall
Key Words: BIOBASE, BIOURBAN, Elkhorn Slough, geobotanical remote sensing, geographic information sciences (GIS), Mammoth Mountain, national Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC), Nuclear Test Site, Salton Sea, Site 300, Tallgrass Prairie Preserve.


Solid-Oxide Fuel Cells Stack Up to Efficient, Clean Power
Quoc Pham
Key Words: colloidal spray deposition, energy conversion, fuel cell, fuel cell stack, high power density, multiplayer fuel cell, power generation, solid oxide, Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA), thin film deposition.


Empowering Light—Historic Accomplishments in Laser Research
Lamar Coleman
Key Words: 4 pi laser, atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS), Beamlet, Cyclops, Continuous Laser Glass Melting Process, direct-drive target, extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL), hohlraum, indirect-drive target, inertial confinement fusion (ICF), Janus, laser guide star, laser peening, LASNEX code, Long path, National Ignition Facility (NIF), neodymium-doped glass (Nd:glass), Nova, Novette, Petawatt, potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals, Shiva, solid-state heat-capacity laser, spatial filters, x-ray laser.

July/August 2002


The Outlook Is for Warming, with Measurable Local Effects
Philip Duffy, Benjamin Santer
Key Words: Climate modeling, Community Climate Model 3 (CCM3), global warming.

How Metals Fail
Richard Becker
Key Words:3D x-ray tomography, Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASCI), Fabry–Perot interferometry, gas gun, high explosives, High Explosives Applications Facility, Janus laser, Office of Munitions of the Department of Defense, Omega laser, proton radiography, Site 300, spall, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, stockpile stewardship.


Converting Data to Decisions
Roger Aines
Key Words: tochastic engine, Bayesian statistics, Monte Carlo method, electrical resistance tomography, Visalia, Savannah River site, Superfund.


Knowing the Enemy, Anticipating the Threat
Lauren de Vore
Key Words: biological and chemical weapons, conflict simulation, biodetection, Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, forensic analysis, nonproliferation, treaty verification, seismic monitoring, weapons of mass destruction (WMD).

June 2002


A Two-Pronged Attack on Bioterrorism
Rod Balhorn
Key Words: antibodies, bioterrorism, botulinum toxin, cancer treatment, Clostridium neurotoxins, high-affinity ligands, mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance, protein structure, synthetic chemistry, tetanus.

Adaptive Optics Sharpen the View from Earth
Deanna Pennington
Key Words:active galactic nuclei, adaptive optics, atomic vapor laser isotope separation, binary star, black hole, California Extremely Large Telescope (CELT), deformable mirror, dye laser, Hubble Space Telescope, laser guide star, Lick Observatory, W. M. Keck Observatory.


Experiments Re-create X Rays from Comets
Peter Beiersdorfer
Key Words: charge exchange, comets, electron beam ion trap (EBIT), microcalorimeter, solar wind, x rays x-ray spectrometer (CRS).


Chemistry—50 Years of Exploring the Material World
Trish Baisden, Chris Gatrousis
Key Words: actinides, aerogels, atmospheric tests, chemistry, computer simulation, crystal growth, high explosives, isotopes, materials aging, material science, metallurgy, multilayers, multiscale modeling, plutonium, polymers, radiochemistry, radiochemical sampling, welding.

May 2002


Building a Virtual Telescope
David Dearborn
Key Words: Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASCI), ASCI Frost, ASCI White, binary stars, brown dwarfs, Cepheids, convective core, Djehuty, helium flash, Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram, California’s Institute for Geophysics and Planetary Physics, Mesh TV, stellar evolution, supernovas, TeraCluster2000 (TC2K), white dwarfs.

A New Understanding of Soft Materials
Mehdi Balooch
Key Words: atomic force microscope (AFM), dentin, mechanical properties, nanoindenter, plaque, seismic response, vascular disease.


At Livermore, Audacious Physics Has Thrived for 50 Years
Karl Van Bibber, Ralph Jacobs
Key Words: astrophysics, dark matter, fusion energy, nuclear cross section, opacity, quantum mechanics, sensors, stockpile stewardship, tabletop laser, thermonuclear processes, weapons research, x-ray laser.

April 2002


Quantum Simulations Tell the Atomic-Level Story
Guilia Galli
Key Words: hydrogen, JEEP, nanostructures, quantum dots, quantum molecular dynamics, quantum Monte Carlo calculations, quantum simulations, water.

Forensic Science Center Maximizes the Tiniest Clue
Brian Andresen
Key Words: anthrax, Chemical and Biological National Security Program, Forensic Science Center (FSC), gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS), laser-ablation mass spectroscopy, Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), solid-phase microextraction (SPME), stockpile stewardship, thin-layer chromatography (TLC).


Bright Future for Compact Tactical Laser Weapons
C. Brent Dane
Key Words: laser diode array, neodymium-doped glass (Nd:glass), neodymium-doped gadolinium-gallium-garnet (Nd:GGG), solid-state heat-capacity laser (SSHCL), tactical laser weapon, U.S. Army Space and Missile Defense Command (SMDC).


Engineering's Traditions Turns Ideas into Reality
Monya Lane
Key Words: computational engineering, DYNA, DYNA3D, EIGER, Engineering Directorate, Flash X-Ray (FXR) Facility , Large Optics Diamond Turning Machine (LODTM), Laser program, magnetic fusion energy (MFE), microfluidic devices, microtechnology, nanotechnology, National Ignition Facility (NIF), nondestructive evaluation (NDE), nuclear weapons development, ParaDyn, precision engineering, stockpile stewardship, Nuclear Test program.

March 2002


Tracking Sown Virulence in Plague
Pat Fitch
Key Words: bioterrorism agents, Chemical and Biological National Security Program, plague, SELDI-MS, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH), virulence, Yersinia pestis, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.

L-Gel Decontaminates Better Than Bleach
Ellen Raber
Key Words: anthrax, biological warfare, Chemical and Biological Agent Decision Process, chemical warfare, decontamination, L-Gel, peroxymonosulfate.


Faster Inspection of Laser Glass Coatings
Diane Chinn
Key Words: laser glass, multilayer hafnia-silica coatings, National Ignition Facility (NIF), photothermal microscopy.


From Kilobytes to Petabytes in 50 Years
Bing Young
Key Words: Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASCI), ASCI BlueGene/L, ASCI Purple, ASCI White, computation history, Cray, IBM, Livermore Advanced Research Computer (LARC), supercomputer, Univac.

January/February 2002


Fifty Years of Innovation through Nuclear Weapon Design
Paul Chrzanowski, Bill Locke
Key Words: 50th anniversary, nuclear weapon design, nuclear stockpile. Polaris missile, Project Plowshare, Test Program.


Simulating Turbulence in Magnetic Fusion Plasmas
Bill Nevins
Key Words: fusion, macroturbulence, magnetic fusion, Microturbulence, National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC), plasma, Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC), tokamak, turbulence.

Present at the Creation
Ken Moody, John Wild
Key Words: element 114, element 116, heavy elements, island of stability, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia.


Rapid Field Detection of Biological Agents
Rich Langlois
Key Words: anthrax, Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS), biodetectors, biological warfare agents, bioterrorism, DNA analysis, flow cytometry, Handheld Advanced Nucleic Acid Analyzer (HANAA), pathogens, polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

Technology to Help Diabetics
Steve Lane
Key Words: diabetes, glucose sensor.

December 2001


Simulation-Aided Design of Microfluidic Devices
David Clague
Key Words: BioFluidic Chips (BioFlips), Center for Microtechnology, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), Dielectrophoresis (DEP), lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE), microfluidic devices, Reynolds number, Simulation of Biomolecular Microsystems (Simbiosys).

Small Science Gets to the Heart of Matter
Christine Orme
Key Words: atomic force microscope, biological sensors, biomineralization, carbon nanotubes, chemical sensors, confocal microscope, genomics, nanolaminates, proteomics, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.


When Lethal Agents Rain from the Sky
Glen Nakafuji
Key Words: ALE3D, ALPHA, biological agent, chemical agent, lethality, liquid breakup, nerve agent, rarefied atmosphere.

Technology to Help Diabetics
Steve Lane
Key Words: diabetes, glucose sensor.

November 2001


Welding Science: A New Look at a Fundamental Technology
John Elmer, Joe Wong
Key Words: fusion welding, phase transformation, solidification kinetics, spatially resolved x-ray diffraction (SRXRD), stainless steel, synchrotron radiation, time-resolved x-ray diffraction (TRXRD), titanium, x-ray diffraction.

Probing the Subsurface with Electromagnetic Fields
Barry Kirkendall, Jeff Roberts
Key Words: carbon sequestration, crosswell electromagnetic (EM) imaging, enhanced oil recovery (EOR), oil production.


Probing the Liquid Water Surface
James Tobin
Key Words: Advanced Light Source (ALS), extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), hydrogen bonds, liquid surface chemistry, microjet, molecular structure, near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS), water, x-ray spectroscopy.

New Targets for Inertial Fusion
Max Tabak
Key Words: fast ignition, heavy-ion fusion, hohlraum, inertial fusion energy, laser fusion, Omega laser, petawatt laser.

October 2001

Featured Article

Sharing the Power of Supercomputers
Mike McCoy
Key Words: Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI), ASCI Blue Pacific, ASCI Frost, ASCI
White, atmospheric sciences, carbon sequestration, Compass Cluster, elastic simulations, E3D, Institutional Computing Executive Group,
JEEP, microfluidic devices, Multiprogrammatic and Institutional Computing Initiative, parallel computing, Scientific Computing and Communications Department, Sunbert, supercomputers, TeraCluster, TeraCluster2000 (TC2K), Terascale Simulation Facility.


Further Developments in Ultrashort-Pulse Lasers
Mark Hermann
Key Words: diffraction gratings, Falcon laser, femtosecond laser machining and cutting, high-average-power lasers, nanocrystals, optical-parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA), Petawatt, ultrashort-pulse lasers.

Simulating How the Wind Blows
Robert L. Lee
Key Words: Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI), atmospheric dispersion, biological and chemical agents, Chemical and Biological National Security Program, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), National Atmospheric Release and Advisory Capability (NARAC), urban dispersion modeling.

September 2001

R&D 100 Awards

Zeroing In on Genes
Allen Christian
Key Words: gene recovery microdissection, genomic research, R&D 100 Award.

Big Glass for a Big Laser
Jack Campbell
Key Words: continuous laser glass melting process, National Ignition Facility (NIF), neodymium-doped phosphate laser glass, platinum inclusions, R&D 100 Award.

Lasershot Makes Its Mark
Lloyd Hackel
Key Words: Lasershot Marking System, laser peening, R&D 100 Award, safety-critical metal parts and components.


Tracking the Global Spread of Advanced Technologies
Eileen Vergino
Key Words:: asymmetry, biological warfare, Center for Global Security Research (CGSR), globalization, nonproliferation, nuclear weapons, terrorism.

July/August 2001


Annual Certification Takes a Snapshot of Stockpile's Health
James Tyler
Key Words: Annual Certification, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Nuclear Weapons Council, Project Officers Groups (POGs), stockpile stewardship, subcritical experiments, U.S. Strategic Command.

Sensing for Danger
Rob Hills
Key Words: Bayesian statistics, correlated sensor networks, Counterproliferation Analysis and Planning System (CAPS), gamma detector, Joint Biological Remote Early Warning System (JBREWS), neutron detector, nuclear terrorism, seismic detector, sensor or network fabrics, tactical engagement systems, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), Wide-Area Tracking System (WATS).


It's the Pits in the Weapons Stockpile
Tom Shepp
Key Words:: Enhanced Surveillance Campaign, nuclear weapons, pits, plutonium.

Looking into the Shadow World
Harry Martz
Key Words: computed tomography, constrained conjugated gradient (CCG), HADES, radiographic modeling, radiography, Stockpile Stewardship Program.

June 2001


Turning Carbon Directly into Electricity
John Cooper
Key Words: biomass, carbon black, carbon dioxide, coal, direct carbon conversion, fuel cell, global warming, hydrogen fuel cell, hydropyrolysis, natural gas, petroleum coke, pyrolysis, turbostratic carbon.

Environmental Research in California and Beyond
Reed Maxwell, Steve Carle, and Gordon Seitz
Key Words: Bay Areas Paleoseismic Experiment (BAPEX), Center for Mass Accelerator Spectrometry (CAMS), CHIRP, groundwater management, hydrogeology, MTBE, Orange County, paleoearthquakes, ParFlow, San Andreas Fault, SLIM-Fast, South Lake Tahoe, TSIM, University of California at Merced, Virtual Valley.


This Nitrogen Molecule Really Packs Heat
Riad Manaa
Key Words:: Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI), fullerenes, high-energy-density materials, nitrogen.

PEREGRINE Goes to Work
Rosemary Walling
Key Words: cancer treatment, Monte Carlo mathematics, PEREGRINE, U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

May 2001


Uncovering Hidden Defects with Neutrons
James Hall
Key Words: Brookhaven National Laboratory, COG Monte Carlo radiation transport code, deuterium, Enhanced Surveillance Campaign, lithium deuteride, Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE), neutron imaging, neutron radiography and tomography, Nevada Test Site, Ohio University Accelerator Laboratory (OUAL), Pantex Plant, scintillator, stockpile stewardship, x-ray imaging, x-ray radiography, Y-12 Plant.

The Human in the Mouse Mirror
Lisa Stubbs
Key Words: chromosome 19, comparative genetics, DNA, Human Genome Project (HGP), gene expression, Joint Genome Institute (JGI), mouse genome, PEG3, sequencing, section in situ hybridization.


The NIF Target Chamber—Ready for the Challenge
Richard Sawicki
Key Words:: chamber pedestal, design engineering, final optics assembly (FOA), laser amplification, Laser and Target Area Building, National Ignition Facility, precision survey, Stockpile Stewardship Program, target chamber, target positioner, vibration control.

Indoor Testing to Begin Soon at Site 300
Rick Visoria
Key Words: Contained Firing Facility, hydrodynamic testing, Site 300, Stockpile Stewardship Program, W-80 Stockpile Life Extension Project.

April 2001

Featured Article

A New Kind of Biological Research
Michael Colvin
Key Words: abasic lesions, Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI), Ape1, bioflavanoids, botulinum, Center for Applied Scientific Computing, computational biochemistry, cyclophosphamide, DNA, first principles molecular dynamics, food mutagens, molecular dynamics, quantum mechanics, tetanus.


The World's Most Accurate Lathe
Jeff Klingmann
Key Words:: Keck telescope, Large Optics Diamond Turning Machine (LODTM), National Aeronautical and Space Agency (NASA), precision engineering, Strategic Defense Initiative.

Leading the Attack on Cancer
Jim Felton, Dennis Matthews, Ken Turtletaub
Key Words: cancer research, National Cancer Institute (NCI), PEREGRINE, University of California at Davis.

Electronic Memory Goes High Rise
Charles Cerjan
Key Words: magnetic random access memory (MRAM), magnetic tunnel junctions, Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI).

March 2001


Inside the Superblock
Joe Sefcik
Key Words: fissile materials, material disposition, Plutonium Facility, plutonium immobilization, radiography, Stockpile Stewardship Program, subcritical tests, Tritium Facility.

Exploring the Fundamental Limits of Simulation
Giulia Galli Gygi
Key Words:Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI), blind prediction experiments, computing speed, Dirac observation, model validation, multiscale modeling, predictive simulations, software.


Plutonium Up Close …Way Close
Adam Schwartz
Key Words: : plutonium research, stockpile stewardship, transmission electron microscope.

Shocked and Stressed, Metals Get Stronger
Lloyd Hackel
Key Words: Laser peening, Stockpile Stewardship Program, Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Disposal Program.

January/February 2001


A Career of Distinguished Achievement Roger Batzel (1922-2000)
John H. Nuckolls, Philip Coyle
Key Words: Advanced Test Accelerator, Atmospheric Release and Advisory Capability, biodosimetry, biomedical research, Brilliant Pebbles, DOE Distinguished Associate Award, Flash X-Ray Facility, Laboratory Directed Research and Development program, Nova laser, postdoctoral program, Roger Batzel, Spartan antiballistic warhead.


From Dosimetry to Genomics
Mortimer L. Mendelsohn
Key Words: biotechnology, chromosome libraries, chromosome painting, dosimetry, flow cytometry, Human Genome Project, Roger Batzel.

Swords into Plowshares and Beyond
Robert N. Schock
Key Words: battery research, Climax Mine, coal-gasification, energy program, fuel cell research, International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), laser fusion energy, magnetic fusion energy, Mirror Fusion Test Facility-B (MFTF-B), National Ignition Facility (NIF), oil-shale retort, Project Plowshare, Roger Batzel, solar surrey, spheromak, uranium atomic vapor laser isotope separation (U-AVLIS), Yucca Mountain.

Adapting to a Changing Weapons Program
George H. Miller
Key Words: arms control, Brilliant Pebbles, inertial confinement fusion (ICF), Roger Batzel, Strategic Defense Initiative, tactical nuclear weapons, treaty verification.

December 2000


Following Materials over Time and Space
Tomas Diaz de la Rubia
Key Words: ASCI Blue, ASCI White, Center for Applied Scientific Computing (ASCI), dislocation dynamics, Laboratory Directed Research and Development, multiscale modeling, National Ignition Facility (NIF), plutonium, radiation damage, stockpile stewardship, Yucca Mountain.

The Art of Systems Science
Cynthia Annese, Annette MacIntyre
Key Words:decision analysis; discrete-event simulation; National Ignition Facility (NIF); nonproliferation; operations research; reliability, availability, maintainability (RAM); plutonium disposition; risk analysis; statistics, Stockpile Stewardship Program; systems engineering.


A Solution for Carbon Dioxide Overload
James W. Johnson
Key Words: carbon dioxide sequestration, reactive transport modeling.

Preparing for Strong Earthquakes
François Heuze
Key Words: Campus Earthquake Program (CEP), Campus-Laboratory Collaboration Program, ground-motion analysis, Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA).

November 2000


Cutting-Edge Environmental Modeling
Bill Dannevik
Key Words: atmospheric modeling, Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC), global climate modeling, groundwater modeling, hydrology, Nevada Test Site, seismic modeling, Underground Test Area, Virtual Valley, Yucca Mountain.

Protons Reveal the Inside Story
Ed Hartouni
Key Words:Advanced Hydrotest Facility (AHF), Big Explosive Experiment Facility, Brookhaven National Laboratory's Alternating Gradient Synchrotron, Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility (DAHRT), Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory's Main Ring, Flash X Ray (FXR), hydrotests, Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE), multiple coulomb scattering, Nevada Test Site (NTS), proton radiography, quadrupole magnets, stockpile stewardship, x-radiography.


Matter That Matters
Dieter Schneider
Key Words: Coulomb coupling parameter, cryogenic Penning ion trap (RETRAP), electron-beam ion trap (EBIT), highly ionized plasmas, microplasmas, white dwarf stars.

New Imaging Technique Gets Under the Skin...Deep
Harry Radousky
Key Words: cancer detection, Center for Laser Imaging and Cancer Diagnostics, Materials Research Institute, spectral polarization difference imaging (SPDI).

October 2000

Featured Article

A New World of Seeing
Terri Quinn
Key Words: Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI), Assessment Theater, MeshTV, metadata, SimTracker, Terascale Browser, Visual Interactive Environment for Weapon Simulation (VIEWS), Visualization Work Center.


The Many Faces of Carbon Dioxide
Choong-Shik Yoo
Key Words: carbon dioxide, diamond anvil cell.

Award-Winning System Assays Radioactive Waste with Radiation
Pat Roberson
Key Words: active and passive computed tomography, nondestructive evaluation, waste inspection tomography, nondestructive assay (NDA), waste disposal, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), R&D 100 Awards.

Nanoscale Chemistry Yields Better Explosives
Randy Simpson, Tom Tillotson
Key Words: aerogel, energetic materials, explosives, nanocomposites, PETN, propellants, pyrotechnics, RDX, sol-gel, xerogel.

September 2000


Preventing Nuclear Nonprolifereation: The Post-Cold War Challenge
William Dunlop
Key Words: All-Russian Research Institute of Technical Physics, Advangard Foundation, Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), highly enriched urnaium; Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (IPP); Mayak, Minatom; mixed oxide (MOX) fuel; Nuclear Cities Initiative (NCI); Material Protection, Control, and Accounting program; Proliferation Prevention and Arms Control program; plutonium; Sarov; Snezhinsk; Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty START; warhead dismantlement.

"Shocking Gas-Gun Experiments
Neil Holmes
Key Words: : equations of state, Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research (JASPER) facility, planetary physics, shock physics, stockpile stewardship, two-stage light-gas gun.


Mining Data for Gems of Information
Chandrika Kamath
Key Words: Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI), data mining, Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty Centimeters (FIRST), patatern recognition, Sapphire.

Low Emittance, High Brightness: A New X-Ray Light Source
Art Toor
Key Words: free-electron laser, Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), linear accelerator, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center.

July/August 2000


Underground Explosions Are Music to Their Ears
Dave Conrad
Key Words: Big Explosives Engineering Facility, Device Assembly Facility, ejecta, High Explosives Applications Facility, Integrated Safety Management, Nevada Test site, plutonium, Site 300, spall, stockpile stewardship, subcritical tests, U1A complex.

Biomedical Research Benefits from Counting Small
John Knezovich
Key Words: biomedical research, carbon-14, Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (CAMS), Marshall Islands, MeIQx, National Institutes of Health (NIH), nutrition, pesticides, PhIP, plutonium, radioisotope tracing, tritium.


Mighty Small Dots
Howard Lee
Key Words: all-optical switch, demultiplexing, light-emitting diode (LED), logic gate, quantum dot, quantum effects, semiconductor.

June 2000


New Day Dawns in Supercomputing
Mark Seager
Key Words: Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI), Pacific Blue, ASCI White, Academic Strategic Alliance Program, Terascale Simulation Facility (TSF), Stockpile Stewardship Program.

Uncovering the Secrets of Actinides
Lou Terminello
Key Words: actinides, colloids, Forensic Science Center, Glenn T. Seaborg Institute for Transactinium Science, Nevada Test Site, plutonium, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, stockpile stewardship, uranium.


A Predictable Structure for Aerogels
Glenn Fox
Key Words: aerogels, dendrimers, polymers.

Tibet: Where Continents Collide
Rick Ryerson
Key Words: accelerator mass spectrometry, cosmogenic isotopes, dating techniques, faults, plate tectonics, Tibet.

May 2000


Uncovering Bioterrorism
Bert Weinstein
Key Words: anthrax, bacteriophage, biological signatures, biological weapons, Centers for Disease Control (CDC), DNA, Gene Chip, plague, plasmids, virulence.

Laser Technology Follows in Lawrence's Footsteps
Steve Hargrove
Key Words: Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS), Calutron, diode lasers, erbium, E.O. Lawrence, Gadolinium, gas centrifuge, gaseous diffsion, laser guide star, laser isotope separation (LIS), Manhattan Project, Uranium enrichment, United States Enrichment Corp. (USEC).


Imaging Catheter Gives Surgeons the Inside Picture
Luis Da Silva
Key Words: advanced imaging catheter, LATIS, medical technology, optical coherence tomography (OCT), radiation transport modeling.

JanUSP Opens New World of Physics Research
Paul Springer
Key Words: ion lens, Janus, JanUSP, Nova, Petawatt, stockpile stewardship.

April 2000


The Joint Genome Institute: Decoding the Human Genome
Elbert Branscomb
Key Words: bioinformatics, DNA, functional genomics, Human Genome Project, Joint Genome Institute (JGI), microbial genetics, mouse genome, sequencing.

The Next Accelerator for Revolutionizing Physics
Karl van Bibber
Key Words: accelerator structure, electron-positron linear collider, high-energy particle accelerator, Next Linear Collider (NLC), positron target, proton collider, solid-state modulator, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), Tevatron.


A Speckled Look at Saturn's Moon, Titan
Bruce Macintosh
Key Words: adaptive optics, Saturn, speckle imaging, Titan.

Remote Sensor Test Range--Proving Ground for Tomorrow's Sensing Technologies
Hal Goldwire
Key Words: chemical release testing, Frenchman Flat, HAZMAT Spill Center, Mountain Lion test series, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Remote Sensor Test Range (RSTR), remote sensing.

March 2000


The Amazing Power of the Petawatt
Michael Perry
Key Words: chirped-pulse amplification, diffractive optics, fast ignition, laser cutting, Nova, Petawatt, proton beam.

Building a Virtual Time Machine
Bill Glassley
Key Words: Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI), Blue Pacific, computer simulation, Engineered Barrier System, Nevada Test Site, nuclear waste repository, NUFT (non-isothermal unsaturated flow and transport), Performance Confirmation Period, power wall, Yucca Mountain.


Dead Sea Explosions Trigger International Cooperation
Keith Nakanishi
Key Words: Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), Dead Sea, Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Gulf of Aqaba, knowledge base, Middle East and North Africa (MENA), Seismic monitoring, United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).

January/February 2000


Simulating Warfare Is No Video Game
Faith Shimamoto
Key Words: combat simulation, Conflict Simulation Laboratory, Fleet Battle Experiment-Echo, Janus, JCATS (Joint Conflict and Tactical Simulation), Joint Conflict Model, Joint Tactical Simulation, Joint Warfighting Center, U.S. Marine Corps, Multiple Integrated Laser Engagement System, Special Response Team, U.S. Navy, Urban Warrior Advanced Warfighting Experiment.

Supernova Hydrodynamics Up Close
Bruce Remington
Key Words: hydrodynamics, modeling, Nova laser, Omega laser, Supernova 1987A, supernovas, turbulence.


Agile Manufacturing: Gearing Up to Meet Demand
Bob Burleson
Key Words: agile manufacturing, machine controller, munitions manufacturing, product realization process, U.S. Army.

Bringing Hypersonic Flight Down to Earth
Preson Carter
Key Words: HyperSoar, hypersonic aircraft, "skip."

December 1999


The Internal Combustion Engine at Work-Modeling Considers All Factors
Charlie Westbrook
Key Words: Center for Fuels Assessment, combustion modeling, diesel fuels, HCT code, Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), internal combustion engine, Plasma-Assisted Catalytic Reduction (PACR).


Multilayers Illuminate the Sun's Secrets
Troy Barbee
Key Words: chromosphere, corona, extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL), multilayers, photosphere, sun, Transition Region and Corona Explorer (TRACE).

Of Mice and Men
Lisa Stubbs
Key Words: adenocarcinoma, chromosome, comparative genetics, DNA, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), gene, Human Genome Center, Joint Genome Institute, translocation.

Experiment Mimics Nature's Way with Plasmas
David N. Hill
Key Words: CORSICA, deuterium, dynamo, magnetic fusion energy, plasma, spheromak, tokamak.

November 1999


Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography: Imaging the Future
Don Sweeney
Key Words: Extreme Ultraviolet Limited Liability Company, extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL), masks, phase-shifting diffraction interferometer (PSDI), precision deposition system, reflective multilayers, submicrometer metrology, thin films, Ultra Clean Ion Beam Sputter Deposition System, Virtual National Laboratory (VNL).

Handling Fluids in Microsensors
Robin Miles and Peter Krulevitch
Key Words: Center for Microtechnology, dielectrophoresis, impedance sensor, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) pump, microdevices, microfluidics.


A Crowning Achievement for Removing Toxic Mercury
Glenn Fox
Key Words: activated carbon, crown polymers, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Mercaptoplex, mercury, precipitation.

Flat-Panel Displays Slim Down with Plastic
Tom Sigmon
Key Words: active-matrix liquid-crystal display, amorphous silicon, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, enhanced chemical-vapor deposition, excimer laser, flat-panel display, liquid-crystal display, polysilicon, sputtering, thin-film transistor (TFT).

October 1999

R&D 100 Awards

The Optical Modulator and Switch: Light on the Move
Ted Weiskamp
Key Words: amplitude modulation, fiber-optic communications, optical modulator/switch (OMS), signal amplification.

From Dinosaur Bones to Software, Gamma Rays Protect Property
Muriel Ishikawa
Key Words: DNA fingerprinting, digital watermark, gamma rays, Gamma Watermark.

Higher-Power Green Lasers Open up Precision Machining
Jim Chang
Key Words: compound parabolic concentrator (CPC), diode-pumped solid-state green laser (DPSSGL), industrial lasers, precision laser machining.

Breakthrough Design for Accelerators
Hugh C. Kirbie
Key Words: Advanced Radiograp;hic Machine (ARM), Bechtel Nevada Corporation, Integrated Gate Bipolar Transistors, MOSFETs (metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor), Next Linear Collider, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center.

New Deposition System for the Microchip Revolution
James A. Folta
Key Words: extreme-ultraviolet lithography (EUVL), multilayer coatings, sputter deposition.

PEREGRINE Takes Aim at Cancer Tumors
Ralph Patterson
Key Words: cancer treatment, Monte Carlo calculations, PEREGRINE, radiation dose, radiation treatment planning.

September 1999

Featured Article

A Better Picture of Aging Materials
James Lemay
Key Words: ALE3D, core surveillance, enhanced surveillance, materials science, modeling, modulated molecular-beam spectroscopy, positron-annihilation lifetime spectroscopy, scanning probe microscopy, solid-phase microextraction (SPME), surface chemistry, x-ray tomography.


Researchers Determine Chernobyl Liquidator's Exposure
Dennis Atkinson and Dick Wavrik
Key Words: final optics assemblies (FOAs), hohlraum, National Ignition Facility (NIF) target chamber, Nevada Test Site, Stockpile Stewardship Program.

Target Chamber's Dedication Marks a Giant Milestone
Irene Jones and Joe Lucas
Key Words: biodosimeter, Chernobyl, FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization), glycophorin A (GPA), hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT), liquidators.

July/August 1999


On Target: Designing for Ignition
Steve Haan
Key Words: ablator, Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, deuterium-tritium (D-T), F3D, Hohlraum, HYDRA, Rayleigh-Taylor hydrodynamic instability, ignition, implosion, laser-plasma instability, LASNEX, Los Alamos National Laboratory, National Ignition Facility (NIF), polyimide, stockpile stewardship.

A New View of the Universe
Scot Olivier
Key Words: adaptive optics, astronomy, Keck Observatory, laser guide star, Lick Observatory.


Quantum Molecular Calculations
Guilia Galli Gygi and Francois Gygi
Key Words: Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI), computational biology, DNA, high explosives, JEEP, material behavior, quantum molecular dynamics (QMD), semiconductor.

AAA in the Sky for Satellites
Arno Ledebuhr
Key Words: agile satellite, hydrogen peroxide propulsion, microsatellite (MicroSat).

June 1999


Forewarnings of Coming Hazards
Ron Baskett
Key Words: ADAPT (Atmospheric Data Assimilation and Parameterization Tool), Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC), ARAC Emergency Response Modeling System, atmospheric dispersion modeling, Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System, emergency incident response, GRIDGEN (Grid Generator), LODI (Lagrangian Operational Dispersion Integrator).

Unraveling the Mystery of Detonation
Randy Simpson
Key Words: Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI), CHEETAH, CHEQ, detonation, equation of state, high explosives, hydrodynamic codes, initiation, insensitive high explosives, thermochemical codes.


Collaboration Ignites Laser Advances
Ted Perry, Bob McCrory, John Soares, Charles Verdon
Key Words: diode-pumped solid-state laser, direct drive, flashlamp cooling, indirect drive, inertial confinement fusion (ICF), KDP (potassium dihydrogen phosphate) crystals, Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, National Ignition Facility (NIF), Nova laser, Omega laser, smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD), spatial filters.

Predicting Material Behavior from the Atomic Level Up
John Moriarty
Key Words: atomic scale modeling, body-centered-cubic (bcc) crystal structure, dislocation dynamics (DD), edge dislocation, mesoscale modeling, microscale modeling, multiscale modeling, polycrystals, screw dislocation, stockpile stewardship, transmission electron microscopy.

May 1999


Leveraging Science and Technology in the National Interest
Cory Coll
Key Words: ALE3D, CALE, Cheetah, explosives, Department of Defense, fiber-composite sabot, fuse, GLO (global local optimizer), Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), Penetration Augmented Munition (PAM), PERMS (propellant energy response to mechanical stimuli), safety assessment, warhead.

The Revelations of Acoustic Waves
Gregory K. Clark
Key Words: accelerometers, acoustic signals, algorithms, artificial neural networks, Bixby Creek Bridge, Caltrans, Department of Energy/National Gas and Oil Technology Partnership, heart valves, National Ignition Facility, Nevada Test Site, numerical models, oil exploration, San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, signal processing, structure analysis.


Pulses of Light Make Faster Computers
Mark Lowry
Key Words: embedded system, lambda-connect, Moore's law, multimode glass fiber (MMF), optoelectronics, photonics, vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSL) diode, ultrascale computing, wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM).

April 1999


Structural Biology Looks at the Ties That Bind
Rodney Balhorn
Key Words: clostridium toxins, computational biochemistry, DNA repair, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, protein structure prediction, structural biology, tetanus, x-ray crystallography.

Duplicating the Plasmas of Distant Stars
Paul Springer
Key Words: accretion, Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI), Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), Astro-E, astrophysics, binary star, cepheids, hohlraum, Hubble constant, iron, Livermore X-ray Spectral Synthesizer (LXSS), National Ignition Facility (NIF), Nova, OPAL, opacity, plasmas, Saturn facility, Stockpile Stewardship, supernovae, white dwarf, x-ray astronomy, X-ray Multi-Mirror Mission (XMM), x-ray spectroscopy, Z-Machine.


Seismic Monitoring Techniques Put to a Test
Bill Walter
Key Words: Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), discriminants, National Data Center, nuclear test.

Sleuthing MTBE with Statistical Data
Anne Happel
Key Words: gasoline releases, groundwater, leaking underground fuel tanks (LUFTs), methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE), MTBE regulation, statistical analysis, transport mechanisms, water quality.

March 1999


Site 300 Keeps High Explosives Science on Target
Milt Grissom
Key Words: enhanced surveillance, environmental restoration, Fabry-Perot interferometer, Flash X-Ray (FXR) machine, high explosives, High Explosives Application Facility (HEAF), hydrodynamic tests, MOLE, shaped charges, Site 300, stockpile stewardship.

Putting More Pressure on Hydrogen
Robert C. Cauble
Key Words: equation of state (EOS), gas gun, high-energy density, Hugoniot, metallized hydrogen, Nova laser.


Methane Hydrate: A Surprising Compound
William B. Durham
Key Words: clathrate, energy sources, gas hydrates, methane hydrate, global climate, superheating.

LATIS: Modeling Laser Effects on Tissue
Rich London
Key Words: arthritis, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), enlarged prostate, laser surgery, laser-tissue interaction modeling, LATIS code, LATIS3D code, stroke, tissue welding.

January/February 1999


Leading the Best and the Brightest
Lyle Cox
Key Words: Argus laser, atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS), copper vapor lasers, Cyclops laser, diode-pumped solid-state laser, inertial confinement fusion (ICF), Janus laser, loop road system, Materials Testing Accelerator (MTA), Military Research Associates, Nd:glass (neodymium-doped glass) laser, Nevada Test Site, Nova laser, O Program, Operation Hardtack, Operation Matterhorn, Polaris, Royston Plan, S-1 supercomputer, SCALD (Structured Computer Aided Logic Design), Shiva laser, site planning, solid-state lasers, Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), Woods Hole.


Imaging the Elephant: The BaBar Detector and the Mystery of Matter
Doug Wright
Key Words: BaBar Detector, B Factory, Big Bang, B mesons and anti-B mesons, charge parity violation, particle physics, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC).

1998 Nobel Prize Winner Laughlin Credits Livermore Colleagues
Robert Laughlin
Key Words: fractional quantum Hall effect, Laughlin's Wave Function, Nobel Prize, quarks.

December 1998


Energy to Keep Everything Running
Mark Strauch
Key Words: carbon sequestration, energy, fuel cell, global warming, nuclear waste repository, ocean model, quality assurance (QA), solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC), superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES), thin films, YuccaMountain.

Antimatter Helps to Protect Our Nuclear Stockpile
Richard Howell
Key Words: electrons, linear accelerator, materials science, nondestructive analysis, Pelletron electrostatic accelerator, positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy, positron microprobe, DOE Stockpile Stewardship Program.


A Shaker Exercise for the Bay Area
Shawn Larsen, David McCallen
Key Words: bridge dynamic analysis, campus-laboratory collaboration, E3D, earthquake simulation, earthquake risk assessment, Hayward fault, hazard assessment, San Francisco Bay Bridge, seismic safety, SUSPNDRS.

Forensic Science Sleuthing
Brian Andreson
Key Words: Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Forensic Science Center, gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS), solid-phase microextraction (SPME), thin-layer chromatography (TLC).

November 1998


Controlling the World's Most Powerful Laser
Paul VanArsdall
Key Words: Ada, applications frameworks, Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) networks, CORBA (Common Object Request Broker Architecture), distributed control system, front-end processor (FEP), National Ignition Facility (NIF), NIF Integrated Computer Control System, Nova, object-oriented programming, Unix, VxWorks.

Getting Down to Environmental Cleanup Basics
Kenneth Jackson, Norman Burkhard
Key Words: accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), electromagnetic induction tomography, electrical resistance tomography, environmental geophysics, environmental management, joint inversion, mixed waste, modeling, moisture flux, Nevada Test Site, NUFT flow transport code, rock physics, rock properties, site characterization, thermal treatment, underground imaging, vadose zone.


When Collisions Reveal All
Alex Hamza
Key Words: highly charged ions, SIMS (secondary ion mass spectrometry), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) emission microscope.

Collaboration Opens Door to Understanding Genetic Kidney Disorder
Linda Ashworth, Anne Olsen
Key Words: chromosome 19, congenital nephrotic syndrome, DNA clones, DNA mapping and sequencing, Human Genome Project, kidney disease, Peutz/Jeghers syndrome.

October 1998

R&D 100 Awards

INDUCT95 Helps U.S. Stay #1 in Semiconductors
Peter Vitello
Key Words: computer-aided design, INDUCT95, plasma, plasma simulation, semiconductor.

Zeroing In on Low Temperatures for Surgery
Peter Celliers
Key Words: infrared sensor, laser surgery, optical fiber, semiconductors, Two-Color Fiber-Optic Infrared Sensor.

Blasts of Light to Strengthen Metals
Lloyd Hackel
Key Words: high-energy laser, high-repetition-rate laser, laser peening, LasershotSM Peening System.

A Better Look at dental Tissue
Bill W. Colston, Jr.
Key Words: dental diagnostics, Optical Dental Imaging System, optical imaging.

Bridge Diagnosis at 55 mph
Jose E. Hernandez
Key Words: HERMES Bridge Inspector, infrastructure maintenance, micropower impulse radar (MIR), nondestructive evaluation, roadway inspection, ultrawideband sensors.

Putting Thieves on Notice
Bob Stoddard
Key Words: fiber-optic systems, laser systems, Light Lock Optical Security System, optoelectronic-mechanical locks, security systems.

Automating Fine Grinding of Precision Lenses
Mark Picotty, John S. Taylor, Kenneth Blaedel
Key Words:acoustic-emission detector, grinding, optics manufacturing, OptiPro-AED, proximity sensor, precision engineering.

September 1998


Forensic Seismology Supports the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty
Jay Zucca
Key Words: Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), International Data Center, Knowledge Base, MENA (Middle East and North Africa) region, National Data Center, Nevada Test Site, SOFAR (sound fixing and ranging) channel, Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TTBT).

A Short History of the Laboratory at Livermore
Bart Hacker


The X-Ray Laser: From Underground to Tabletop
Jim Dunn, Al Osterheld
Key Words: chirped-pulse amplification, plasmas, soft x rays, tabletop x-ray laser.

Down-to-Earth Testing of Microsatellites
Arno Ledebuhr
Key Words: AGILE (air-table guided-intercept and line-of-sight experiments), dynamic air-bearing table, dynamic air-bearing rail, ground testing, microsatellite, spacecraft interceptor, space vehicle.

July/August 1998

Celebrating Edward Teller at 90

  • Edward Teller's Awards, Honorary Degrees, and Books
  • Timeline: From Birth to Present

  • June 1998


    Reducing the Threat of Biological Weapons
    Fred Milanovich
    Key Words: biodetectors, bioinformatics, biological warfare agents, decontamination, DNA analysis, flow cytometry, genomics, National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (ARAC), polymerase chain reaction (PCR), weapons of mass destruction.

    At the Crossroads of Technology and Policy
    Ronald F. Lehman, II
    Key Words: Center for Global Security Research (CGSR), Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection, computer security, International Science and Technology Center (ISTC), Joint Verification Experiments (JVE), Lab-to-Lab program, land-mine removal, National Infrastructure Protection Center, nonproliferation, Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TTBT).


    Shaped Charges Pierce the Toughest Targets
    Dennis Baum
    Key Words: ALE3D code, Big Explosives Experimental Facility (BEEF), C-language Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (CALE) code, framing camera, image-converter camera, Nevada Test Site, shaped charge, x-ray radiography.

    A New Approach for Magnetically Levitating Trains--and Rockets
    Richard F. Post, J. Ray Smith
    Key Words: Halbach arrays, Inductrack, magnetically levitated (maglev) trains.

    May 1998

    Featured Article

    They All Like It Hot: Faster Cleanup of Contaminated Soil and Groundwater
    Robin L. Newmark, Roger D. Aines
    Key Words: dynamic underground stripping, electrical resistance tomography, groundwater contamination, hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation, modeling, noble-gas tracers, NUFT code, remediation, soil contamination.

    Computational Mechanics Moves Ahead
    Peter Raboin
    Key Words: computational mechanics, computer modeling and simulation, DYNA3D, finite-element method, nonlinear behavior, NIKE3D, ParaDyn, parallel computing, solid and structural analysis, TOPAZ3D.


    Corsica: Integrated Simulations for Magnetic Fusion Energy
    Ronald H. Cohen

    Device Assembly Facility: New Facilities for Handling Nuclear Explosives
    James Page
    Key Words: Device Assembly Facility (DAF), DOE, high explosives, Nevada Test Site, nuclear-explosive operations, nuclear weapon assembly and disassembly, stockpile stewardship, subcritical experiments.

    April 1998

    Featured Article

    Computer Simulations in Support of National Security
    Randy Christensen
    Key Words: Academic Strategic Alliances Program, Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI), computer infrastructure, computer platform, parallel computing, PathForward, problem-solving environment, Stockpile Stewardship Program, simulation, teraflops, weapons codes.


    Argus Oversees and Protects All
    Gregory Davis
    Key Words: Argus, Argus field processor (AFP), remote access panel (RAP), security technology.

    Of Josephson Junctions, Quasi-particles, and Cooper Pairs
    Simon Labov
    Key Words: Cooper pairs, detectors, Josephson junction, quasi-particles, spectrometry.

    March 1998


    Keeping Laser Development for the National Ignition Facility on Target
    Howard T. Powell, Richard H. Sawicki
    Key Words: Amplab, amplifier, Beamlet, beamline, deformable mirror, flashlamp, fusion, laser, National Ignition Facility (NIF), Nova, Pockels cell, power conditioning, pulsed power.

    Tracing the Role of Carbon Dioxide in Global Warming
    Philip B. Duffy, Ken Caldeira
    Key Words: carbon cycle, carbon dioxide (CO2), climate change, climate model, fossil-fuel burning, global warming, greenhouse gas, marine biology, mass spectrometry, ocean carbon cycle, ocean convection, proxy data, radiocarbon (14C).


    Reliable Software for Protection Systems
    Gary Lynn Johnson
    Key Words: instrumentation and control systems, nuclear power plants, safety-critical systems, software engineering.

    Keeping the "More" in Moore's Law
    Don Sweeney
    Key Words: extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography technology, Advanced Microtechnology Program, Ultra Clean Ion Beam Sputter Deposition System, Absolute Interferometer.

    January/February 1998


    Making Information Safe
    Doug Mansur
    Key Words: AIS (Automated Information System) Alarms, Computer Incident Advisory Capability (CIAC), Computer Security Technology Center (CSTC), computer intrusions, document classification, hacker, incident response, Internet, Morris Worm, Network Intrusion Detector (NID), Secure Software Distribution System (SSDS), Security Profile Inspector (SPI), software patches and upgrades, Text Analysis Project (TAP), virus, White Hat review.

    Engineering Precision into Laboratory Projects
    Ken Blaedel
    Key Words: diamond turning, extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, femtosecond laser cutter, KDP (potassium dihydrogen phosphate), Large Optics Diamond Turning Machine (LODTM), machine design, National Ignition Facility (NIF), optical systems, precision engineering, process development.


    Enhanced Surveillance of Aging Weapons,
    Jeffrey Kass and John Kolb
    Key Words: diagnostics, enhanced stockpile surveillance, high explosives, nondestructive evaluation, nuclear explosive package (NEP), Nuclear Weapons Information Group, stockpile stewardship.

    A National Strategy against Terrorism Using Weapons of Mass Destruction
    Dennis Imbro
    Key Words: counterterrorism, cytometer, Forensic Science Center, Joint Biological Remote Early Warning System (JBREWS), Livermore Study Group, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) instrument, portable radiation detector, weapons of mass destruction (WMD), Wide-Area Tracking System (WATS).

    December 1997


    Advancing Technologies and Applications in Nondestructive Evaluation
    Clint Logan
    Key Words: computed tomography, digital radiography, dual-band thermography, gamma-ray spectroscopy, geothermal reservoir, infrared computed thermography, inspection, laser amplifier slabs, nondestructive evaluation, KDP crystal, optical inspection, piston, soil and contaminant transport, ultrasonics, waste assay, zeolite target.

    Atomic Engineering
    Troy Barbee, Jr.
    Key Words: multilayers, nanostructured materials, sputtering, thermo-electrics, x-ray optics, x-ray lasers.


    Marrying Astrophysics with the Earth
    Duane Liedahl
    Key Words: Astrophysics, astrophysical plasmas, atomic physics.

    Continuing Work in Breast Cancer Detection Technologies
    J. Patrick Fitch
    Key Words: breast cancer, data compression, detection algorithms, digital mammography, linear ultrasonic diffraction tomography, mammogram library, microcalcifications.

    November 1997


    A New World of Biomedical Research: The Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry
    Caroline Holloway
    Key Words: accelerator mass spectroscopy, biomedical research, calcium, Human Genome Project, human subjects, MelQx, osteoporosis, radiocarbon dating, tandem Van de Graff accelerator, toxicology.

    Isotope Tracers Help Manage Water Resources
    Dave Smith
    Key Words: groundwater, groundwater contamination, hydrology, Nevada Test Site, nuclear chemistry, radioisotopes, stable isotopes, water resource management.


    LANDMARC: Making Land-Mine Detection and Removal Practical
    Steve Azevedo
    Key Words: antipersonnel mines, antitank mines, humanitarian land-mine detection, ground-penetrating radar, LANDMARC (Land-Mine Detection Advanced Radar Concept), micropower impulse radar (MIR), subsurface imaging, ultrawide badnwidth.

    Improved Detonation Modeling with CHEETAH
    Laurence Fried
    Key Words: Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI), Chapman-Jouget, CHEETAH, High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF).

    October 1997


    R&D 100 Awards Intro
    Karena McKinley

    New Interferometer Measures to Atomic Dimensions
    Gary Sommargren
    Key Words: extreme ultraviolet lithography, fiber optics, integrated circuit manufacturing, interferometry, optics.

    Compact, More Powerful Chips from Virtually Defect-Free, Thin-Film System
    Stephen Vernon
    Key Words: extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL), photolithography, R&D 100 Award, thin-film deposition, Ultra Clean Ion Beam Sputter Deposition System.

    A New Precision Cutting Tool: The Femtosecond Laser
    Brent Stuart, Michael Perry
    Key Words: Chirped-pulse amplification, demilitarization, femtosecond laser, lasers, laser surgery, R&D 100 Award.

    MELD: A CAD Tool for Photonics Systems
    Richard Ratowsky
    Key Words: computer-aided design, fiber optic communications, flexible manufacturing, photonics.

    The Tiltmeter: Tilting at Great Depths to Find Oil
    Steven Hunter
    Key Words:earthquake faults, geothermal energy, oil-well-drilling, Oil Field Tiltmeter, R&D 100 Award.

    Smaller Insulators Handle Higher Voltage
    Bob Stoddard
    Key Words: capacitor, electron emission, insulator, insulator fabrication, secondary emission avalanche, Ultra High Gradient Insulator (Ultra-HGI), voltage breakdown, voltage divider.

    Computer Storage Management Software: The Next Generation
    Dick Watson
    Key Words: Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI), computer network, hierarchical storage management, large-scale computer storage, parallel computing, supercomputing.

    September 1997


    Nova Laser Experiments and Stockpile Stewardship
    Theodore Perry, Bruce Remington
    Key Words: equation of state, Hugoniot, hydrodynamic instability, opacity, National Ignition Facility (NIF), Nova laser, radiative heat transfer, Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program, weapons physics.

    Sharing the Challenges of Nonproliferation
    Bill Dunlop, Paul Herman, T. R. Koncher, Janet Hauber
    Key Words: arms reduction; Chelyabinsk-70; gamma-ray spectrometer; highly enriched uranium (HEU); Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (IPP) program; International Science and Technology Center (ISTC); laboratory-to-laboratory work; low-enriched uranium; Materials Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC&A) program; newly independent states (NIS); nuclear nonproliferation; NunnLugar Cooperative Threat Reduction bill; safeguards, transparency, and irreversibility; transparency measures; verification; vulnerability analysis; Russia.


    Taming Explosives for Training
    John Kury
    Key Words: nonhazardous explosives for security training and testing (NESTT), simulated explosives, canine training.

    July/August 1997


    Assuring the Safety of Nuclear Power
    Mark Strauch
    Key Words: Argus, FESSP, nuclear fuel cycle, nuclear power, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, nuclear safety, nuclear waste, Nuclear Systems Safety Center, plutonium disposition, United States Enrichment Corp., uranium enrichment, Yucca Mountain.

    The Microtechnology Center: When Smaller is Better
    Ray Mariella
    Key Words: bioanalysis, DNA analysis, DNA sequencing, flow cytometry, gas chromatography, microactuators, microdevices, microstructures, photonics, polymerase chain reaction, semiconductors, shape-memory alloys, thin films.


    Speeding the Gene Hunt: High-Speed DNA Sequencing
    Joe Balch
    Key Words: DNA sequencing, Human Genome Project, microchannel, polyacrylamide gel.

    Microbial Treatment of High Explosives
    John Knezovich, Jeff Daniels
    Key Words: Decontamination, demilitarization, hazardous waste, high explosives, microbial treatment.

    June 1997


    Transforming Explosive Art into Science
    Randall Simpson
    Key words: ALE3D, CHEETAH, Fabry- Perot interferometry, GAUSSIAN, high explosives, High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF), HMX (cyclo-tetramethylene-tetranitramine), MOLPAK, PALM, stockpile stewardship, TATB (triamino-trinitrobenzene), TNT (trinitrotoluene), TOPAZCHEM.

    On the Offensive against Stroke Attack
    J. Patrick Fitch
    Key words: laser "clot-busting," laser-tissue interaction modeling, LATIS code, medical photonics, microsensors, neuroprotectant drugs, shape-memory microgripper, stroke.


    Laser Targets: The Next Phase
    Steve Letts, Evelyn Fearon
    Key words: laser target, National Ignition Facility (NIF), inertial confinement fusion (ICF), fuel capsule, plasma polymer, polymer shell, micro-encapsulation, poly(alpha-methylstyrene) (PAMS), hydrodynamic instability.

    May 1997


    Christine Hartmann Siantar, Ed Moses
    Key words: cancer treatment, Monte Carlo physics, nuclear databases, radiation dose calculations, radiation therapy, tumors.


    The Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell
    Fred Mitlitsky
    Key words: electric cars, fuel cell, Helios, hydrogen, Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles, zero-emission vehicles.

    Better Flash Radiography Using the FXR
    Ray Scarpetti, Joe Baker, Norm Back
    Key words: flash x radiography (FXR), gamma-ray camera, hydrodynamic testing, induction linear accelerator, pulsed electron beam, pulsed x-ray source, stockpile stewardship.

    Nuclear Weapons Information Project
    Bruce Lownsberry
    Key words: archives, Nuclear Weapons Information Project, Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program.

    April 1997


    Dealing with a Dangerous Surplus from the Cold War
    Len Gray
    Key words: ceramics, deep boreholes, fissile materials, immobilization, nuclear waste repository, plutonium disposition, plutonium oxide processes, spent fuel standard, Synroc, vitrification, waste forms, weapon pits.


    Volcanoes: A Peek into Our Planet's Plumbing
    Annie Kersting, Frederick Ryerson
    Key words: crustal growth, global climate, island-arc volcanoes.

    Optical Networks: The Wave of the Future
    Bill Lennon
    Key words: acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF), Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), fiber optics, National Transparent Optical Network (NTON), remote visualization, standards, Synchronous Optical Network (SONET), wavelength division multiplexing (WDM).

    March 1997


    Site 300's New Contained Firing Facility
    Charles F. (Joe) Baker
    Key words: environment, health and safety; flash x-ray (FXR) machine; high-explosives testing; stockpile stewardship.

    Computational Electromagnetics: Codes and Capabilities
    Cliff Shang
    Key words: electromagnetic field, electromagnetic susceptibility, kicker, modeling, opto-electronics, photonics, wakefield.


    Ergonomics Research: Impact on Injuries
    Steve Burastero
    Key words: carpal tunnel syndrome, ergonomics, industrial health, work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs).

    The Linear Electric Motor: Instability at 1,000 g's
    Guy Dimonte
    Key words: acceleration, linear electric motor (LEM), Rayleigh-Taylor instability.

    January/February 1997


    The B-Factory and the Big Bang
    Karl van Bibber, Marshall Mugge, Robert Yamamoto
    Key words: accelerators, Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI), Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT), Advanced Hydrotest Facility (AHF), B-Factory, B meson, BaBar detector, Big Bang, Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (CAMS), charge parity violation, LINAC, Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS), Next Linear Collider (NLC), Photon-Electron New Heavy Ion Experiment (PHENIX), Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program, 100-terawatt laser.

    Assessing Exposure to Radiation
    William Robison, Tore Straume, Joe Lucas, Thomas Sullivan, Lynn Anspaugh, Ivan Proctor, David Hickman
    Key words: accelerator mass spectrometry, Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC), biodosimetry, biokinetic model, BRAVO test, Chernobyl accident, dose reconstruction, dose assessment, FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization), Marshall Islands, prospective dosimetry, worker exposure.


    The Next Generation of Computer Storage
    Dick Watson
    Key words: computer network, hierarchical storage management, large-scale computer storage, parallel computing, supercomputing.

    A Powerful New Tool to Detect Clandestine Nuclear Tests
    Charles Carrigan
    Key words: comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, nuclear proliferation, nuclear treaty verification, NUFT (Non-Isothermal Unsaturated Flow and Transport).

    December 1996


    Crossing the Petawatt Threshold
    Michael Perry
    Key words: chirped-pulse amplification, fast ignition, laser interference lithography, multilayer dielectric gratings, National Ignition Facility, Nova, Petawatt laser, plasma mirror, Ti:sapphire laser, 100-TW laser.

    High Explosives in Stockpile Surveillance Indicate Constancy
    Anders Lundberg, Fran Foltz, James LeMay
    Key words: accelerated aging, high explosive (HE), LX-17, nuclear weapon, PBX, pin-dome test, predictive capability, snowball tests, stockpile evaluation, stockpile surveillance, TATB.


    Visualizing Body Motion
    Shin-Yee Lu, Robert K. Johnson
    Key words: 3-D visualization, biomechanics, image processing, motion study, movement reconstruction.

    Studying the Earth's Formation: The Multi-Anvil Press at Work
    William Minarik, Frederick Ryerson
    Key words: earth core formation, multi-anvil press.

    November 1996


    Simulations to Save Time, Money, and Lives
    Diana Sackett
    Key words: conflict simulation, Janus, Joint Conflict and Tactical Simulation (JCATS), Joint Tactical Simulation (JTS).

    The Secrets of Crystal Growth
    James De Yoreo, Terry Land
    Key words: atomic-force microscope (AFM), protein crystallography, crystals, KDP (potassium dihydrogen phosphate), National Ignition Facility (NIF), scanning tunneling microscope (STM), stockpile stewardship.


    Addressing a Cold War Legacy with a New Way to Produce TATB
    Phil Pagoria, Alex Mitchell, Robert Schmidt
    Key words: insensitive high explosives (IHE), stockpile stewardship, TATB (triamino-trinitrobenzene).

    DNA Sequencing: The Next Step in the Search for Genes
    Linda Ashworth
    Key words: chromosome, DNA sequencing, gene, Human Genome Project

    October 1996


    Assessing Humanity's Impact on Global Climate
    William Dannevik
    Key words: Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Poject (AMIP), carbon cycle, carbon dioxide, climate modeling, global climate, global climate model, greenhouse effect, massively parallel computers, sulfate aerosols.


    Livermore Wins Six R&D 100 "Oscars"
    Karena McKinley

    Electronic Dipstick Signals New Measuring Era
    Tom McEwan
    Key words: electronic dipstick, micropower impulse radar (MIR), R&D 100 Award, transient digitizer.

    Signal Speed Gets Boost from Tiny Optical Amplifier
    Mark Lowry, Sol DiJaili, Frank Patterson
    Key words: fiber-optic communications; semiconductor optical amplifier; photonic integrated circuit; R&D 100 Award; vertical cavity surface emitting laser.

    SixDOF Sensor Improves Manufacturing Flexibility
    Charles Vann
    Key words: manufacturing, robotics, R&D 100 Award, six-degrees-of-freedom (SixDOF) sensors.

    A Simple, Reliable, Ultraviolet Laser: Ce:LiSaf Laser
    Chris Marshall
    Key words: Ce:LiSAF, cerium crystal, R&D 100 Award, tunable ultraviolet laser, solid-state laser.

    Giant Results from Smaller, Ultrahigh-Density Sensor
    Andrew Hawryluk
    Key words: CPP-GMR (surrent perpendicular to the plane-giant magnetoresistive) device, disk drive, R&D 100 Award, ultrahigh-density magnetic sensor.

    Thinner is Better with Laser Interference Lithography
    Mike Perry
    Key words: display, field-emission display (FED), laser, laser lithography, R&D 100 Award.

    September 1996


    Taking Lasers beyond the National Ignition Facility
    Steve Payne
    Key words: diode-pumped solid-state lasers, final optic, gas-cooled slab (GCS), gain medium, inertial confinement fusion (ICF), inertial fusion energy (IFE).

    Jumpin' Jupiter! Metallic Hydrogen
    Bill Nellis
    Key words: gas gun, hydrogen-fluid, liquid, metallic, Jupiter, National Ignition Facility, shock compression tests, stockpile stewardship.


    Modeling Human Joints and Prosthetic Implants
    Karin Hollerbach
    Key words: biomechanical modeling, finite-element modeling, Institute for Scientific Computing Research (ISCR), NIKE3D, prosthetic point implants.

    August 1996


    Keeping the Nuclear Stockpile Safe, Secure, and Reliable
    Carol T. Alonso
    Key words: Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI), Advanced Design and Production Technologies (ADaPT), Advanced Hydrotest Facility (AHF), Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, (CTBT), flash x-ray (FXR), National Ignition Facility (NIF), Nova, Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program (SSMP), stockpile surveillance.


    Molten Salt Takes the Bang out of High Explosives
    Ravi Upadhye
    Key words: dismantlement, high explosives, incineration, molten salt destruction, open burning. open detonation.

    Security Clearances Meet the Electronic Age
    Scott Strait
    Key words: DOE's Integrated Safeguards and Security System (DISS), electronic security clearances.

    Exploring Oil Fields with Crosshole Electromagnetic Induction
    Mike Wilt
    Key words: crosshole electromagnetic (EM) induction, electrical resistivity, oil-field imaging.

    July 1996


    Frontiers of Research in Advanced Computations
    Dennis Hewett
    Key words: advanced computer modeling methods-alternating-direction-implicit (ADI), embedded curved-boundary (ECB), grid and particle hydrodynamics (GaPH), KEN, low-frequency electromagnetic (Darwin); computer vision; Institute for Scientific Computing Research (ISCR); massively parallel processing (MPP).

    The Multibeam Fabry-Perot Velocimeter: Efficient Measurement of High Velocities
    Dave Goosman
    Key words: Fabry-Perot interferometry, optical velocimetry, optics, streak cameras.


    High-Tech Tools for the American Textile Industry
    Jose Hernandez, Chip Hatfield
    Key words: AMTEX, computer-aided fabric evaluation, demand-activated manufacturing architecture, technology transfer, textiles, TEXTNET.

    Rock Mechanics: Can the Tuff Take the Stress?
    Steve Blair, Eileen Vergino
    Key words: geomechanics, nuclear waste repository, tuff, Yucca Mountain Project.

    June 1996


    Theory and Modeling in Materials Science
    Lloyd L. Chase
    Key words: computer modeling, materials science, material structure, microstructures, molecular dynamics.

    LLNL and DOE Collaborate on Successful Fusion-Plant Cleanup
    Mark Mintz, Robert Fischer
    Key words: cleanup, decontamination, decommission, disposal, tritium, low-level waste, waste certification.


    Solving the Mammoth Mountain CO2 Mystery
    Laura Hainsworth
    Key words: accelerator mass spectrometry, carbon-14, magmatic CO2, volcanic activity.

    A Closer Look at Osteoporosis
    John Kinney
    Key words: computed tomography, human parathyroid hormone, osteoporosis, steroidal anti-inflammatories, x-ray tomographic microscopy (XTM).

    May 1996


    Mitigating Lightning Hazards
    Richard Hasbrouck
    Key words: hazard management, lightning, radio-frequency testing.

    Groundwater Modeling: More Cost-Effective Cleanup by Design
    Robert J. Gelinas
    Key words: artificial neural network (ANN), genetic algorithm, groundwater contamination, groundwater remediation, hydrostratigraphic analysis, inverse modeling, volatile organic compound (VOC).

    Dual-Band Infrared Computed Tomography: Searching for Hidden Defects
    Nancy Del Grande
    Key words: dual-band infrared computed tomography, nondestructive inspection and evaluation.

    Plating Shop Moves to Finish Off Waste
    Jack Dini, Chris Steffani
    Key words: metal finishing, chemical and electrochemical processes, electroplating, pollution prevention, waste minimization.

    April 1996


    MACHO: Collaboration Is Key to Success
    Charles Alcock, Claire Max, Tim Axelrod
    Key words: CDD sensor, MACHO, microlensing event, dark matter, extrasolar, light curve.

    The Electromechanical Battery: A New Look at an Old Idea
    Dick Post
    Key words: electromechanical battery (EMB), energy efficiency, storage cells, flywheel.


    Graffiti-Zapping Laser Shows Promise
    Dennis Matthews
    Key words: graffiti removal, high-average-power laser.

    Adding Agility Manufacturing
    Bob Burleson
    Key words: agile manufacturing, intelligent controller, Manufacturing Operating System (MOS).

    March 1996


    The Safe Disposal of Nuclear Waste
    Bill Clarke
    Key words: engineered barrier system (EBS); high-level radioactive waste; spent fuel; Yucca Mountain Project.

    The Diamond Anvil Cell: Probing the Behavior of Metals under Ultrahigh Pressures
    Jagannadham Akella, Bruce Goodwin, Sam Weir
    Key words: actinides, diamond anvil cell, equations of state, lanthanides, science-based stockpile stewardship, shock-wave experiments, x-ray diffraction.


    Getting Along without Gasoline: The Move to Hydrogen Fuel
    Ray Smith
    Key words: alternative vehicles, electrolysis, hybrid-electric car, hydrogen fuel.

    January/February 1996


    Groundwater Cleanup Using Hydrostratigraphic Analysis
    Richard Blake
    Key words: hydrostratigraphic analysis, groundwater, groundwater restoration and remediation, hydrostratigraphic unit (HSU), pump-and-treat.

    Micropower Impulse Radar
    Stephen Azevedo, Tom McEwan
    Key words: electronic dipstick; micropower impulse radar (MIR); radar heart monitor; ultrawide-band radar, radar imaging, microwave sensors.


    Probing with Syncroton-Radiation-Based Spectroscopies
    Louis Terminello
    Key words: synchrotron radiation, spectroscopy, Advanced Light Source, Beamline 8.0, material interfaces.

    Operating a Tokamak from Across the Country
    Tom Casper
    Key words: Magnetic fusion, remote operation, distributed computing.

    November/December 1995


    The Genetic Contribution of Sperm: Healthy Baby or Not?
    Andrew J. Wyrobek
    Key words: aneuploidy; chromosomal abnormality; DNA probes; fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH); Klinefelter syndrome; sperm-human, rodent; sex chromosomes.

    RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS (1995 R&D 100 Award Winners)

    R&D 100 Awards Recognize Five Laboratory Inventions

    A Shared Award in Aerogel Process Technology

    Lawrence Hrubesh, Joseph C. Farmer

    A Light Funnel for Diode-Pumped, Solid-State Lasers
    Raymond Beach

    One of the World's Brightest Lasers
    Brent Dane

    A Miniature Mass Spectrometer
    Daniel Dietrich, Robert Keville

    More Efficient, Less Expensive Electron Beam Processing
    Booth Myers, Hao-Lin Chen

    October 1995


    Powering Future Vehicles with the Refuelable Zinc/Air Battery
    John F. Cooper
    Key words: alternative fuel; electric vehicle; refuelable; zinc/air battery

    Gamma-Ray Imaging Spectrometer
    Klaus-Peter Ziock
    Key words: gamma rays-gamma-ray arc-minute telescope imaging spectrometer (GRATIS), gamma-ray astronomy, gamma-ray bar imaging telescope (GRABIT), gamma-ray camera, gamma-ray imaging spectrometer (GRIS); special nuclear material (SNM); Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START).


    Positioning Health Care Technologies for the 21st Century
    Pat Fitch

    The Short-Pulse Laser: A Safe, Painless Surgical Tool
    Luiz DaSilva, Mike Perry, Mike Feit, Brent Stuart

    September 1995


    Food Mutagens:Mutagenic Activity, DNA Mechanisms, and Cancer Risk
    James S. Felton
    Key words: accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS); adduct dosimetry; amino-imidazoazaarene (AIA); bioactivation; cancer risk assessment; carcinogen; carcinogenicity; DNA adducts; food mutagen; mutagens-2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AaC); 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5- f]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx); 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenyl-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP); 32P-postlabeling.

    Multilayer Dielectric Gratings: Increasing the Power of Light
    Michael Perry, Bruce Shore, Robert Boyd, or Jerry Britten
    Key words: chirped pulse amplification; dielectrics; diffraction gratings-metallic, multilayer dielectric; petawatt laser; short-pulse laser.


    Taking Short-Pulse Laser Energy to New Peaks
    Michael Perry, John L. Miller, Max Tabak, Brent Stuart or Bruce Hammel

    Sonoluminescence and Tabletop "Micro" Thermonuclear Fusion
    William C. Moss

    August 1995


    Scanning Tunneling Microscopy: Opening a New Era of Materials Engineering
    Peter J. Bedrossian
    Key words: atomic ordering, disilicide, interface, molybdenum/silicon, nanoengineer, scanning tunneling microscopy, silicide, surface physics, thin film.

    Risk Assessments: From Reactor Safety to Health Care
    Edwin Jones
    Key words: engineering risk assessment; Fission Energy Systems Safety Program (FESSP), Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC); probabilistic, risk, risk assessment,


    Crucial Steps Taken in Laser Guide Star System
    Scot Olivier

    Forensic Science Center Update
    Brian Andresen

    July 1995


    The Role of Cooked Food in Genetic Changes
    The Challenge of Identification
    The Cooking Makes the Difference
    James S. Felton, Mark G. Knize
    Key words: Ames/Salmonella assay; amino-imidazoazaarenes (AIAs); carcinogen; DNA adducts; heterocyclic amines; high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); mutagens-airborne, in cooked foods, in fried beef; mutagenicity; 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP); 2-amino-3-methyl-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ); 2-amino-3,8-dimethyl-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx).


    Hydrogen Hybrid Vehicle
    J. Ray Smith

    Modeling for More Accurate Weather Forecasting
    Jinwon Kim, Norman Miller, Donald Ermak,William Dannevik

    Energy and Technology Review

    April 1995


    Creating Microsphere Targets for Inertial Confinement Fusion Experiments
    Robert Cook
    Key words: drop-tower technology; inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target capsules; microshell; microsphere; mode growth; National Ignition Facility (NIF); Nova laser; Rayleigh-Taylor hydrodynamic instability; Sphere Mapper.

    E&TR Celebrates 20 Years
    Carl Haussmann, Lyle Cox, Jim Frank


    Laser Fabrication of Beryllium Components
    Jim Hanafee

    The Kinetic Energy Interceptor: Shooting a Bullet with a Bullet
    Glenn Pomykal

    Note: April 1995 was the last issue of Energy and Technology Review. July 1995 was the start of Science and Technology Review.

    March 1995


    The LLNL Portable Tritium Processing System
    Mark Mintz, Thomas Reitz
    Key words: glovebox technology; Tritium Inventory Removal Project; tritium processing.

    X-Ray Lasers and High-Density Plasma
    Luiz B. Da Silva, Robert C. Cauble, Stephen B. Libby
    Key words: interferometry; moiré deflectometry; National Ignition Facility (NIF); plasma imaging; x-ray laser-plasma diagnostics.


    Silicon Carbide Microcomponents
    Alex V. Hamza, Mehdi Balooch

    Modern Technology for Advanced Military Training
    Mike Uzelac, JoAnn Matone

    January/February 1995

    State of the Laboratory

    Nonproliferation, Arms Control, and International Security
    Defense and Nuclear Technologies
    Experimental Science
    Environmental Research and Technology Development
    Environmental Restoration, Protection, and Waste Management
    Biology and Biotechnology
    Physics and Space Technology
    Chemistry and Materials Science
    Economic Competitiveness
    Operations and Administration

    December 1994


    The National Ignition Facility: An Overview
    Jeffrey Paisner/Kenneth Manes
    Key words: environmental safety and health (ES&H); National Ignition Facility (NIF)-radiation dose; tritium inventory; waste stream.

    A Tour of the Proposed National Ignition Facility
    John R. Murray
    Key words: adaptive optics; Beamlet Demonstration Project; deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel; fusion energy; multipass lasers; National Ignition Facility (NIF); neodymium glass lasers; Pockels cell; potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP).

    NIF and Science Security
    Stephen B. Libby
    Key words: inertial confinement fusion; National Ignition Facility; Stockpile Stewardship Program.

    The Role of NIF in Developing Inertial Fusion Energy
    B. Grant Logan, Michael T. Tobin
    Key words: drivers-laser drivers, heavy-ion drivers; energy sources-fission breeder reactors, fossil fuels, inertial fusion energy, magnetic fusion energy, solar energy; fusion chambers; fusion power technology; International Thermonuclear Experiment; National Ignition Facility; targets-direct-drive targets, indirect-drive targets.

    Science on the NIF
    Richard W. Lee
    Key words: astrophysics; high-pressure physics; hydrodynamics; National Ignition Facility-high-energy laser experiments; plasma physics; radiation sources; radiative properties.

    NIF Environmental, Safety, and Health Considerations
    Jon M. Yatabe, Michael T. Tobin
    Key words: environmental safety and health (ES&H); National Ignition Facility (NIF)-radiation dose; tritium inventory; waste stream.

    November 1994


    LLNL's 1994 R&D 100 Awards
    Michael D. Perry, Robert Boyd, James D. Tucker, James De Yoreo, Stephen A. Payne, David Hopkins, Michael Pocha

    Legacy of the X-Ray Laser Program
    Joseph Nilsen
    Key words: Aerogels-SEAgel, silica, organic; biological imaging; digital mammography; laboratory x-ray laser; multilayer mirrors; three-dimensional x-ray computer tomography; x-ray diagnostic techniques-electro-optics devices; x-ray gauging technique; x-ray laser microscopes; x-ray laser physics-electron-beam ion trap (EBIT); Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI).

    Elevated CO2 Exposure and Tree Growth
    James L. Houpis

    Meniscus Coating
    Jerald A. Britten

    October 1994


    The Industrial Computing Initiative
    Michel G. McCoy
    Key words: computer performance; grand challenge problems; High-Performance Parallel Processing Project (H4P); Industrial Computing Initiative (ICI); massively parallel processing

    Artificial Hip Joints: Applying Weapons Expertise to Medical Technology
    Pete J. Davis
    Key words: National Machine Tool Partnership; precision engineering; single-point turning.

    KEN Project: Real-World Face Recognition
    Martin Lades

    Modeling Groundwater Flow and Chemical Migration
    Steven Ashby

    Gas and Oil National Information Infrastructure
    Carol Hunter

    August/September 1994


    Nanotribology: Modeling Atoms When Surfaces Collide
    James Belak
    Key words: crack propagation; materials fabrication-copper, fused silica glass, silicon, silver; molecular dynamics (MD) modeling; single-point diamond turning; tribology research.

    Toward Improved Understanding of Material Surfaces and Interfaces
    David B. Boercher, John E. Klepeis, Christine J. Wu
    Key words: atomic structure; bonding; computational methods-ab initio, model force laws, molecular dynamics; crystal structure; interfaces; materials modeling; semiconductors; surfaces.

    Predicting the Structural and Electronic Properties of Scintillators
    John E. Klepeis, Eric L. Shirley, Michael P. Surh
    Key words: electrons; local-density approximation; pseudopotentials; quasiparticles; radiation detection; scintillators.

    Using Computers to Build Better Computers
    James Belak, James N. Glosli

    Modeling Large Molecular Systems
    James Belak, Roy Pollock

    Massively Parallel Computing CRADA
    Christian Mailhoit, Lin H. Yang

    Designing Better Microelectronics Devices
    Christian Mailhoit, David B. Boercker

    Polymeric Nitrogen: A Potential Compound to Store Energy
    Andy McMahan, Hector E. Lorenzana

    July 1994


    Pathfinder and the Development of Solar Rechargeable Aircraft
    Nicholas J. Colella, Gordon S. Wenneker
    Key words: fuel cells-rechargeable, regenerative, unitized regenerative; HALSOL; high-altitude unmanned flight; Pathfinder; solar aircraft.

    ASTRID Rocket Flight Test
    John C. Whitehead, Lee C. Pittenger, Nicholas J. Colella
    Key words: advanced single-stage technology rapid insertion demonstration (ASTRID); RAPTOR; rocket propulsion.

    June 1994


    The Clementine Satellite
    Michael J. Shanon
    Key words: asteroid-Geographos; imaging-Earth, Moon; missile-Titan IIG; satellite-Clementine; sensors-laser imaging, detection, and ranging (LIDAR) system, long-wave infrared (LWIR) camera, near-infrared (NIR) camera, Star Tracker Stellar Compass, ultraviolet/visible charge-coupled device (CCD) camera; spacecraft-Lunar Scout, Surveyor; space programs-Discovery, MESUR.

    Uncertainty and the Federal Role in Science and Technology
    Ralph E. Gomory, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation
    Key words: science and technology-basic research, federal support, goals, individual investigators, large projects.

    May 1994


    Modified Retorting for Waste Treatment
    Robert J. Cena
    Key words: hot-recycled-solid (HRS) process; high explosive; liquid gun propellant; oil shale retorting; sodium nitrate decomposition; thermal treatment; waste treatment.

    Cleaning Up Underground Contaminants
    Roger Aines, Robin Newmark, John Ziagos, Alan Copeland, Kent Udell
    Key words: dynamic underground; electrical resistance heating; electrical resistance tomography; environmental cleanup; steam injection; underground gasoline contamination-cleanup.

    April 1994


    World's Fastest Solid-State Digitizer
    Thomas E. McEwan, Joseph D. Kilkenny, Gregory Dallum
    Key words: cathode-ray-tube; computer code-LabVIEW; high-speed oscilloscope; impulse radars; National Ignition Facility; Nova laser; R&D 100 award; Schottky diode; single-shot transient digitizer.

    The MACHO Camera System: Searching for Dark Matter
    Charles Alcock
    Key words: Center for Particle Astrophysics; charge-coupled device (CCD) camera; computer code-Sodophot; dark matter; exotic matter theory; gravitational microlensing; Large Magellanic Cloud; massive compact halo objects (MACHOs); Milky Way; Mount Stromlo and Siding Spring Observatories; Optical Gravitational Lens Experiment; R&D 100 award.

    March 1994


    Forensic Science Center
    Brian D. Andresen, Patrick M. Grant
    Key words: Chemical Weapons Convention; cold fusion; fingerprint imaging materials; Forensic Science Center; Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry; fragmentation ions; gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry (GC/MS); high-performance liquid chromatograph; ion cyclotron resonance/mass spectrometry (ICR/MS); ion storage trap/time-of-flight (IT/TOF); Non-Proliferation Greaty; nuclear magnetic resonance; polymerase chain reaction (PCR); Round Robin III.

    Melanoma at LLNL: An Update
    Dan H. Moore, III, Jeffrey S. Schneider, Deborah E. Bennett, H. Wade Patterson
    Key words: melanoma-incidence of, in situ, invasive, malignant; moles; skin cancer.

    Center for Healthcare Technologies
    Anthony V. Carrano
    Key words: accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS); Center for Healthcare Technologies (CHT); digital mammography; genetics research; healthcare; pulsed x-ray imaging.

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